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Kcs overview for detroit 2010

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May 2010 Meeting

May 2010 Meeting

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  • There are two categories of incidents that occur in support environments. The first are those that occur once or periodically, which we will call “infrequent”. The second are those that we call “repeatable” or “frequent”. In most support environments there is a general rule of thumb that 80% of all incidents are generated by 20% of all problems. It is these 80% where knowledge management can have a big impact.When a new change is implemented into the environment, such as a product release, we can predict that the support center will see an increase in incidents for a period of time. This is generally 30 to 60 days. The Support Demand Curve has two axis: demand – the number of incidents received in a given period of time, and time. When the support center receives a repeatable incident for the first time, we start the curve. We then begin to see this incident more frequently for a number of days and then the frequency or demand will begin to reduce. Ultimately if the problem is not removed from the environment, we will continue to see it reported to the support center but on a less frequent period of time. If we map the demand for support for this problem over time we end up with a curve that looks like the bell curve.
  • Let’s look at the impact knowledge management has as incidents are reported to the support center. The When the first incident is reported it is an unknown problem. The analyst must do work to solve the problem. They are then expected to capture the knowledge and report it to the Knowledge Engineering team. The new knowledge is submitted to the knowledge engineering queue. The Knowledge Engineers have the responsibility to validate and verify that the problem has been properly documented and the resolution is correct. Once they have completed their task, they publish the knowledge to the knowledge base for reuse.In most environments the time it takes for new knowledge to be processed and then published is measured in days or even weeks. By the time the knowledge is published, the demand curve will have been missed. Consider this from business view point. The knowledge engineering process is an investment that the company is making. The return is then collected through the reuse of that knowledge after it is published. So what is happening while the knowledge is in the queue? When the next incident is reported to the support center, an analyst will search the knowledge base and not find it because it has not been published yet. While this is a now a known problem to the organization, the analyst assumes that it is an unknown problem and must do work to solve the problem. This is actually rework which as a cost to the organization. Once the analyst solves the problem, he or she submits the knowledge to the knowledge engineering queue. Unknowing to the analyst, this problem was already submitted and they just submitted a redundant solution. This process continues until the knowledge engineers publish the known problem in the knowledge base. During this time, the knowledge queue is getting longer with work that the knowledge engineers should not be doing, only adding to the delay in publishing new knowledge.Because this model has the delay in publishing new knowledge, the organization is working inefficiently and the return on investment for knowledge is low.
  • Now let’s look at the same scenario following the Knowledge-Centered Support methodology.After the first incident is reported the analyst contributes the new knowledge directly to the knowledge base for reuse by other analysts. This makes the known problem visible so that other analysts do not do rework. However, this knowledge has not been validated or verified. So the trust level is low. We will mark this knowledge as “Draft”As additional analysts interact with the Draft knowledge, they are responsible for ensuring that the resolution is correct before providing it to the customer. If they identify any errors or omissions in the knowledge, they are responsible to correct it before giving it to the customer and for correcting it in the knowledge base. In this methodology, we are letting the customer demand drive the need to review the knowledge just-in-time instead of the just-in-case model of knowledge engineering. And most importantly, we have eliminated the rework for resolving the same problem.Once we have evidence of demand, such as 3 or 4 reuses of the same knowledge, we can then elect to submit the knowledge to a compliance process for review. Since we are allowing demand to drive the items that are sent to the compliance process, only those problems that are repeatable are receiving the additional investment. This means that 80% of the problems are not being reviewed because the demand is not there and therefore the return will not be there as well. We have just reduced the workload in the compliance process by 80%. In addition, we have also removed the redundancy from this workload for an additional savings. Furthermore, the validation of the resolution will have already been completed by the 3 or 4 analysts that reused the solution before it was sent to the compliance process. Once the solution or knowledge goes through thru the compliance process, the knowledge will be marked as either Approved or Published. Both imply that the company trusts the knowledge to be correct. The knowledge would be marked Approved if it is for internal use. This lets the analyst know that the customer cannot see the knowledge via a self-service portal and that they can trust it. The knowledge would be marked “Published” if the knowledge is now available for customer self-service as well as analyst use.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Knowledge Management in Service Management:A KCSSM Overview
      KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation
    • 2. Do you successfully leverage knowledge?
      Share the following information:
      What percentage of incidents reported are actually logged in your service management system?
      What percentage of incidents engaged a knowledge base?
      What is the percentage of success when searching knowledge?
    • 3. Knowledge Management Best Practices
      The old way:
      • Dedicated knowledge management team
      • 4. Content created in preparation of demand
      • 5. Knowledge is verified, validated, and published
      • 6. Knowledge is an optional resource
      • 7. Knowledge is someone else’s responsibility
      Known as Knowledge Engineering
      • Follows a manufacturing process
    • The Support Demand Curve
      Demand
      Time
    • 8. Knowledge Engineering
      Demand
      Knowledge is Published
      Redundancy
      X –Incident Z
      $ Rework
      X –Incident Y
      $ Return
      Time
      X – First Incident
      Knowledge Engineering Queue
      $ Investment
    • 9. Dynamic Knowledge Management
      Demand
      Knowledge is Trusted
      1. Knowledge immediately available for reuse.
      $ Return
      Rework and redundancy eliminated
      3
      2
      1 – First Incident
      2. Validation based on demand
      Time
      3. Compliance review based on demand
      $ Investment
    • 10. Knowledge Management Best Practices
      The new way:
      • Create content as a by-product of solving problems
      • 11. Evolve content based on demand and usage
      • 12. Develop a KB of our collective experience to-date
      • 13. Reward learning, collaboration, sharing and improving
      Known as Knowledge-Centered Support (KCS)
      • Developed by the Consortium for Service Innovation
      • 14. Research began in 1992
      • 15. Promoted by HDI in 2003
      • 16. Compliments and enhances ITIL
      Simple premise: To capture, structure, and re-use support knowledge
      KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation
    • 17. The Concepts of KCS
      KCS is a methodology
      and a set of practices and processes
      that focuses on knowledge as a key asset
      of the support organization.
      KCS is not something we do
      in addition to solving problems…
      KCS becomes the way we solve problems
    • 18. Top Ten Reasons you Need KCS
      10. Need to respond and resolve problems faster
      9. Problems becoming more complex
      8. Giving different answers to the same question
      7. Support analysts suffering from burnout
      6. Little time for training
      5. Answering the same questions over and over
      4. Opportunity to learn from customers’ experience
      3. Need to improve first contact resolution
      2. Enable web based self-help
      1. You must lower your support costs!
    • 19. Tangible Benefits
      Operational efficiency
      • Improved time to resolve 30% - 60%
      • 20. Increased support capacity 22% - >100%
      • 21. Improved time to proficiency months to weeks
      • 22. Efficient creation of content to enable web self-help
      • 23. Identification/elimination of root causes
      Increased job satisfaction
      • Less redundant work
      • 24. More confidence
      • 25. Reduced training time
      Increased customer satisfaction
    • 26. Who Has Invested in KCS?
      Partial list
    • 53. Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      Vitality
      Knowledge
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      KCS Processes
    • 54. The KCS Solution Concept
      Customers
      Integrating the experience of the three stakeholders
      Company
      Analysts
    • 55. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Capture in the customer’s context
      • 56. Capture information about the environment
      • 57. Tacit becomes explicit
      • 58. Search early, search often
    • Solution (reusable)
      An Operational View
      Admin
      Account
      Info.
      Incident History
      Resolution
      Environment
      Problem
      Incident (a snapshot in time)
    • 59. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      StructureFor reuse
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Provides context for content
      • 60. Improves readability of the solutions
      • 61. Promotes consistency
    • KCS Structure – Technical Service
      Incident
      Customer called about a problem installing a NIC. Cannot get the system to recognize the NIC after reboot. Did not order the card from us, it is a 3Com NIC. Reviewed network settings and could not find anything wrong. Customer has meeting and would like a call back tomorrow am.
      Talked to Bob about NIC card problem, he is running Win 98 on a Cpaq-P and he needs the latest driver from 3com for Win 98. Bob asked to leave the call open until he downloads driver.
      Solution
      Problem:
      • Install network card
      • 62. Network card not recognized
      Environment:
      • 3Com network card, model 300X
      • 63. Windows 98
      • 64. Compaq Presario
      Resolution:
      1. Download latest driver for Network Card 300X from 3Com
      www.3com.com/drvrs/NIC
      2. Follow the installation instruction on the 3Com site.
    • 65. Problem
      Question
      Error Message
      Symptoms
      Keywords
      Environment
      Application
      Hardware
      Cause
      Resolution
      Resolution Detail
      Links to Related Info
      ID Number
      Title
      Abstract / Summary
      Meta Data
      Audience
      Categorization
      Create Date/Time
      Modified Date/Time
      Author / Modified By
      Source
      History Information
      Structured Knowledge
    • 66. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      SearchingIs creating
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • If a solution is not found, save the problem
      • 67. The description of a problem is valuable
      • 68. Add resolution when it is found
    • Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Just-in-timeSolution Quality
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Demand driven solution review
      • 69. Modify solutions based on usage
      • 70. Flag It or Fix It
      • 71. Migrate solutions to new audiences based on demand
    • What are all of the names of three-lettered creatures you can think of?
      Record your answers.
      Creatures Exercise
    • 72. Creatures
      ANT
      APE
      AUK (Bird)
      BAT
      BOA
      BOY
      BUG
      CAT
      COD (Fish)
      COW
      DOG
      DOE
      EEL
      ELK
      EWE
      FLY
      HEN
      HOG
      SNAKE
      JAY (Bird)
      KID
    • 81. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Workflow
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Structured Problem Solving (SPS)seeks to understand before seeking to solve
      • 82. Interaction with the knowledgebase and solution creation is integrated into the problem solving process
    • Incident Workflow
      Create Incident
      Solution Found?
      No
      Research or
      Escalate
      Search KB
      Yes
      Solution Correct?
      Yes
      Solve It
      No
      USE IT
      FLAG IT / FIX IT
      ADD IT
      Close Incident
    • 83. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Content
      Vitality
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Content standard – the format
      • 84. Migration of content
      • 85. Random sampling and scoring of solutions in the knowledgebase
    • Solution Life Cycle
      Basic flow
      Draft
      Approved
      Published
      Optional:
      Technical Review
      Rework
      Obsolete
    • 86. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      PerformanceAssessment
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • KCS competency program
      • 87. Feedback system
      • 88. Integration of subjective measure with objective measures
      • 89. Outcomes/results are distinct from leading indicators/activities
      • 90. Team measurements and recognition
    • KCS User Development
      KCS Coaches
      KCS I
      (framers, readers)
      KCS II
      (finishers, developers)
      KCS III
      (publisher)
      Knowledge
      Domain
      Experts
      KCS knowledge, competency
      defines system rights and privileges
      Some in the organization will stay as readers/framers while others evolve
    • 91. Knowledge
      KCS Processes
      Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      vitality
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      • Develop and execute the communications plan
      • 92. Define the organizational purpose and objectives
      • 93. Support and encourage good performance and deal with inadequate performance
      • 94. Engage the people doing the work to figure out how best to get it done
    • KCS Roles
      Sponsor – provides vision, objectives, and resources
      KCS Coordinator / Manager – coordinates and oversees
      KCS Program Team – designs the implementation
      Management – motivates and supports
      KCS Pilot Team – pilots and evangelizes
      KCS I – uses and contributes
      KCS II – uses, contributes, and enhances
      KCS III – uses, contributes, enhances, and publishes
      KCS Coach – monitors & mentors process & people
      Knowledge Domain Expert – monitors & enhances KB
      KCS Council – assumes ongoing management
    • 95. Solve
      Capture in
      The workflow
      Leadership
      Structure
      For reuse
      Performance
      Assessment
      Searching
      Is creating
      Content
      Vitality
      Knowledge
      Just-in-time
      Solution Quality
      Workflow
      Evolve
      KCS Processes
    • 96. How does KCS Align with ITIL?
    • 97. KCS and ITIL
      KCS
      ITIL
      Developed by the Consortium for Service Innovation, a non-profit member based organization in the United States in 1992
      Designed to improve support operations of member companies
      Contributed to by senior support practitioners from global corporations
      Developed by the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OCG) in the 1980’s
      Intended to improve management of IT services in the UK Central Government
      Contributed to by expert IT practitioners around the world
      1-23
    • 98. KCS and ITIL Similarities
      KCS and ITIL are similar in that both:
      Were developed to improve service management effectiveness and efficiencies
      Are based on process and not technology
      Claim that knowledge management is a required process within service management
      Continue to evolve and mature
      Are acknowledged as best practices
      1-23
    • 99. KCS and ITIL Differences
      1-23
    • 100. ITIL Service Knowledge Management System
      Presentation Layer
      Knowledge Processing Layer
      Service Knowledge Management Base
      Information Integration
      Layer
      Data and Information Sources and Tools
      Source: Service Transition, Pg. 151
    • 101. More about ITIL v3.0 and KCS
      • Makes KM a requirement
      • 102. Created an all encompassing Service Knowledge Management System
      • 103. Promotes the benefits of KM
      • 104. Defines knowledge inconsistently and terminology is not aligned
      • 105. Provides some high level requirements
      • 106. Lacks a strategy for integrating KM
      • 107. Requires metrics be defined and monitored
      • 108. Does not define metrics or how to evaluate them
      • 109. Defines the purpose for KM
      • 110. Lacks how to guidance for KM
      • 111. KCS proven to compliment and enhance ITIL
    • KCS Integrates with ITIL Process
      Incident Management
      As well as Request, Access, and Event
      Problem Management
      Change Management
      Release Management
      Service Level Management
      Impact on SLAs and OLAs
    • 112. Forget the business goals and only focus on KM
      Too many states in the workflow
      Converting legacy data
      Selecting versus inviting
      Focusing on laggards
      Communications plan is too short
      Pilot team not broad enough
      Setting goals on activities
      Over engineering
      Recognize the Ditches
      Expanding to fast
      Content standard too complex
      Random scoring too rigid
      Picking the wrong coach
      Lack of coaching support
      Inconsistent coaching practices
      Lack of reports
      Not adjusting Performance Assessment
      Managers telling instead of motivating
    • 113. DISCUSSION
      We don’t have a KM system, how can you get started now?
      We have a KM system, what should we do now?
    • 114. Where to learn more…
      HDI’s Knowledge Management Foundations: KCS Principles workshop
      HDI’s Knowledge-Centered Support Fundamentals
      HDI Webinar Archives
      HDI Focus Book: Knowledge Management Maturity Model
      www.serviceinnovations.org
    • 115. Knowledge Management in IT Service Management:A KCSSM OverviewRick JoslinExecutive Director, Certification & Trainingrjoslin@thinkhdi.com
      KCS is a service mark of the Consortium for Service Innovation