Borneo Studies Network Inaugural Meeting and Workshop

Living on Water in Borneo
Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers
Climate Change 2013
WORKING GROUP I CONTRIBUTION
TO THE IPCC FIFTH ASSESSMENT
REPORT
CLIMATE CHANGE 2013: THE PHYSICAL
SCI...
Climat Change and Sea Level Rise
• Global warming will have dramatic effect
– Warming of ocean temperature
– Melting of gl...
Predicted
Sea Level Rise,
East and Southeast Asia
Effects of Sea Level Rise
Brunei Darussalam
Consequences of Sea Level Rise
Sea levels rises, land disappears:
• increased population density
• rising land prices espe...
Policies to deal with Sea Level Rise
(and rapid Urbanisation)
• (A) Hydraulic waterworks: canals and dykes
• (B) Land recl...
(A) Dykes and Canals
Mekong Delta
(B) Land Reclamation
Singapore
Living on Reclaimed Land:
Straits Quay, Seri Tanjung Pinang
Penang, Malaysia
(C) Living on Water
Living on Water
• Waterfront development – a new idea?
• Living on water – an idea for the future?

Archeological reconstr...
Living on Water 2013

Kp Ayer - Brunei Darussalam
Living on Water
a research agenda for Borneo
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

There are more than 300 water settlements
(kampung ayer) on Bo...
Labuan
Brunei - Bolkiah A
Modern Water Village
Research Agenda
Water Villages (Kp Ayer) on Borneo
• The long history of „living on water“ has
ackumulated local knowledge...
Preliminary Results
• We identified 84 major water villages (Kp
Ayer) on Borneo
• Water villages occupy a total area of 24...
Estimated Areas of Kp Ayer
State

Kp Ayer area in sqkm

Kp Ayer
sqkm

Brunei Darussalam

2,2

Kalimantan Tengah

2,0

Kali...
Distribution of Kp Ayer
Borneo 2013

Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and Khairi
Latif, preliminary GIS data collection
based on ...
Distribution of Kp Ayer
Borneo 2013

Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and
Khairi Latif, preliminary GIS data
collection based on ...
Modern Living on Water
Pontianak? Samarinda? Kuching?

Palm Island Dubai
Terima kaseh atas perhatian auda

Brunei Darussalam
Living on Water. Water Villages on Borneo.
Living on Water. Water Villages on Borneo.
Living on Water. Water Villages on Borneo.
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Living on Water. Water Villages on Borneo.

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Climate Change and sea level rise will increase population pressure, especially in urban areas. Living in water villages (kampung ayer) is a long practice in Borneo, This may provide valuable knowledge for the furture. Results of our explorative study show location and extent of Borneo's water villages.

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Living on Water. Water Villages on Borneo.

  1. 1. Borneo Studies Network Inaugural Meeting and Workshop Living on Water in Borneo Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers
  2. 2. Climate Change 2013 WORKING GROUP I CONTRIBUTION TO THE IPCC FIFTH ASSESSMENT REPORT CLIMATE CHANGE 2013: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE BASIS - Final Draft Underlying ScientificTechnical Assessment “it is virtually certain that the rate of global mean sea level rise has accelerated during the last two centuries” (p. 122) Confidential – This document is being made available in preparation of WGI-12 only and should not be cited, quoted, or distributed
  3. 3. Climat Change and Sea Level Rise • Global warming will have dramatic effect – Warming of ocean temperature – Melting of glaciers and polar cap • Results: Sea level will rise – During 21st century sea level will rise 18 to 59cm (IPPC 2007), recent estimate 56 to 200cm, highest estimate 4 to 6 m! – Increase of „extremes“ is expected
  4. 4. Predicted Sea Level Rise, East and Southeast Asia
  5. 5. Effects of Sea Level Rise Brunei Darussalam
  6. 6. Consequences of Sea Level Rise Sea levels rises, land disappears: • increased population density • rising land prices especially in urban areas Megacity Population Tokyo-Yokohama 37,239,000 Jakarta-Jabotabek 26,746,000 Soel-Incheo 22,868,000 Metro Manila 21,241,000 Density 4400 9600 10600 14800
  7. 7. Policies to deal with Sea Level Rise (and rapid Urbanisation) • (A) Hydraulic waterworks: canals and dykes • (B) Land reclamation • (C) Living on water
  8. 8. (A) Dykes and Canals Mekong Delta
  9. 9. (B) Land Reclamation Singapore
  10. 10. Living on Reclaimed Land: Straits Quay, Seri Tanjung Pinang Penang, Malaysia
  11. 11. (C) Living on Water
  12. 12. Living on Water • Waterfront development – a new idea? • Living on water – an idea for the future? Archeological reconstruction of a Neolitic settlement, 4000 BC to 850 BC Unteruhlingen, Lake Constance, Germany
  13. 13. Living on Water 2013 Kp Ayer - Brunei Darussalam
  14. 14. Living on Water a research agenda for Borneo • • • • • • • There are more than 300 water settlements (kampung ayer) on Borneo They are settlements of historical importance They are architecturally interesting They are examples of Malay hydro-technology They are repositories of local knowledge They are focal points of popular culture They provide local knowledge for future „living on water“ They are local Bornean reaction to climate change and sea level rise
  15. 15. Labuan
  16. 16. Brunei - Bolkiah A Modern Water Village
  17. 17. Research Agenda Water Villages (Kp Ayer) on Borneo • The long history of „living on water“ has ackumulated local knowledge • This knowledge could be a basis for modern seafront/water settlements • Proposal: Comparative study of water villages around Borneo island • Phase 1: identify, classify and measure all water villages around Borneo • Phase 2: develop a template for the study of individual Kampung Ayer and start field research
  18. 18. Preliminary Results • We identified 84 major water villages (Kp Ayer) on Borneo • Water villages occupy a total area of 24.52 sqkm • An estimated number of 43,025 houses and 215,000 people live in water villages around Borneo Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and Khairi Latif, preliminary GIS data collection based on Google Earth, IAS-UBD 2013
  19. 19. Estimated Areas of Kp Ayer State Kp Ayer area in sqkm Kp Ayer sqkm Brunei Darussalam 2,2 Kalimantan Tengah 2,0 Kalimantan Timur 6,4 Kalimantan Selatan Sarawak 2% 6,7 Kalimantan Barat 1,1 Sabah 0,4 24% Kalimantan Selatan 27% Kalimantan Barat 4% 5,8 Sarawak Sabah Total 24,5 Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and Khairi Latif, preliminary GIS data collection based on Google Earth, IAS-UBD 2013 Brunei Darussalam 9% Kalimantan Tengah 8% Kalimantan Timur 26%
  20. 20. Distribution of Kp Ayer Borneo 2013 Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and Khairi Latif, preliminary GIS data collection based on Google Earth, IAS-UBD 2013
  21. 21. Distribution of Kp Ayer Borneo 2013 Source: Hans-Dieter Evers and Khairi Latif, preliminary GIS data collection based on Google Earth, IAS-UBD 2013
  22. 22. Modern Living on Water Pontianak? Samarinda? Kuching? Palm Island Dubai
  23. 23. Terima kaseh atas perhatian auda Brunei Darussalam

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