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  • 1. Biological Oceanography 1 Intro into Bio Oce
  • 2. Biological Oceanography Vs. Marine Biology
    • Marine Bio
      • Study of organisms that live in the ocean
    • Bio Oce
      • Interactions of marine organisms
        • Biological
        • Abiotic
  • 3.
    • Biological oceanographers generally study plankton and nekton communities.
  • 4.
    • Basic marine ecology
    • Phytoplankton, Zooplankton
      • Taxonomy
      • Trophic structure
      • Nutrient dynamics
      • Seasonal cycles
      • Population biology
  • 5. Terminology
    • Plankton-
      • free floating
        • Can’t “actively” swim against currents
        • Diatoms, Jellies, copepods ect…
    • Nekton-
      • Free swimming
        • Fish, marine mammals ect…
    • Pelagic-
      • open ocean zone
  • 6. More terms
    • Benthic-
      • associated with the sea floor
        • Lobsters, seastars ect..
    • Epifuanal-
      • lives on sea floor
        • Kelp, coral, sponges ect..
    • Infaunal-
      • lives within the sediment
        • Many worms, clams ect…
  • 7. But first Abiotic environment
    • Ocean zones
      • Habitat (benthic vs pelagic)
    • Effects on organisms
      • Temp
      • Salinity
      • Depth (pressure)
      • Buoyancy (viscosity)
      • Light
      • Nutrients
  • 8. Benthic zonation
    • Divided based on depth:
      • Supralittoral zone
        • Above mean high water
      • Littoral zone (tidal zone)
        • Between mean high water & mean low water
      • Sublittoral (subtidal zone)
        • Low tide line to edge of continental shelf
      • Bathyal/abysall zone
        • Deep sea… 200m +
  • 9. Oceanic Habitats
  • 10. Pelagic
    • Neritic Zone
      • Shallow water marine environment, from low water to edge of continental shelf
    • Oceanic Zone
      • Ocean water seaward of continental shelf
  • 11. Pelagic
    • Photic
      • Receives ample sunlight for photosynthesis
      • Usually <100m
    • Dysphotic Zone
      • Twilight zone
      • 100m – 450m
    • Aphotic
      • Dark zone
      • Light insufficient for photosynthesis
  • 12. Temperature
    • Considered to be the most important factor regulating the distribution of organisms in the ocean
    • Ocean temp range
      • -1.8°-40°C
      • 90% of the ocean is colder than 5°C
  • 13. Temperature
    • Biology Often follows Isotherms
      • coral reef distribution, tropical fish, seasonal plankton blooms, ect….
  • 14. Temperature
    • Temp exerts strong control over chemical reactions
      • In general, biochemical reaction rates double every 10°C
        • Polar seas
          • Slow growth and repo rates, long life spans
        • Tropical
          • Fast growth, high repo, short life spans
  • 15. Temperature
    • Reproductive cycles often temperature timed
      • Generally larval, young are more sensitive to fluctuations than adults
  • 16. Temperature regulation
    • Temp at deep sea relatively constant
    • However surface creatures must adapat
    • Cold blooded vs warm blooded
      • Not really
  • 17.
    • Homotherms- Maintain constant body
    • Poikilotherms-varying body temps
    • Endotherms- produce heat
    • Ectotherms- external heat (don’t produce heat)
    • 4 possible combinations
  • 18.
    • Mammals-”warm blooded”
      • Homotherms, endotherms
    • Most inverts- cold blooded
      • Poikilotherms ectotherms
    • Other examples
      • Tuna, large turtles?-Poikilotherms, endotherms
      • Deep sea organisms?- Ectotherms, homotherms
  • 19. Salinity
    • Defines “marine” environment
    • Effects on biology?
      • Shells (CaCO 3 SiO 2 )
      • Osmoregulation
      • Biochemical reactions
  • 20. Salinity
    • Strong haloclines are often present
      • Surface organisms can tolerate salinity variations
      • Mesoplegaic, deep seas
        • little salinity tolerance
    Depth Salinity
  • 21. Salinity: regulation
    • Most invertebrates are isotonic (same) to the surrounding environment
        • Absolute amount of salts are the same
        • Different concentrations of specific salt
    • Most vertebrates are hypotonic (less) to seawater
        • Must actively balance salt concentrations
  • 22. Salinity: regulation
    • Diffusion
      • Movement from areas of high conc. to areas of low conc.
    • In the marine environment
      • Salts
      • Nutrients
      • Waste products
      • Water*
  • 23. Salinity: Osmosis
      • Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane from a dilute solution (higher water concentration) into a more concentrated solution (lower water concentration).
  • 24. Salinity: Osmosis
      • Membrane allows passage of the water but not the dissolved substances.
  • 25. Salinity: Osmosis
    • Fish In Saltwater
      • Hypotonic : internal salinity is less than external environment
      • Tend to lose water by osmosis
    • Drinks lots of seawater
    • Actively secretes excess salts through gills
    • Pees little, but very concentrated
    Salt
  • 26. Maintaining osmotic balance
    • Fish Freshwater
      • Hypertonic : internal salinity higher than external environment
      • Tend to gain water by osmosis
    • Don’t drink
    • Pees lots of dilute urine
    • Specialised cells actively uptake the few salts
    Salt
  • 27. Maintaining an osmotic balance
    • Most marine invertebrates isotonic
      • Can’t regulate
        • Bivalves : close valves in fw or air
        • Lobsters : motile, move with salinity
  • 28. Maintaining an osmotic balance
    • Some polychaetes & crustaceans capable of osmoregulation through gills
      • Actively change internal salinity
  • 29. Hydrostatic pressure
    • Pressure created by the water column
    • Function of density (T&S) and depth
    • 10m (33ft)- 1atm
    • Which is more compressible?
      • Gasses or Liquids?
      • Gasses
  • 30. Pressure
    • Many shallow water spp.
      • Use gas for buoyancy control
        • Can cause problems for marine mammals lungs
        • Mesopelagic fish, air bladders
    • deep sea spp. ??
      • Have “lost” gas spaces,
        • use oils, fats
        • Pressure insensitive.
  • 31. Pressure
    • Marine mammals
      • Streamlines shapes
        • Lower oxygen consumption rate
      • Myoglobin in tissues
        • Binds to oxygen
      • Collapsible lungs
      • Mammalian dive reflex
        • Lowers blood flow to extremities
  • 32. Buoyancy
    • Important in energy expenditure
      • Actively swimming vs. free floating
    • Some plankton have ~body density as sea water
      • Neutral buoyancy
    • Other organisms must adapt
      • Many different strategies
  • 33. Buoyancy adaptations
      • Some ingenious adaptations
        • Gas champers
          • Portuguese man-o-war, Chamber nautilus
  • 34. Buoyancy adaptations
    • Swim bladders
          • Some Fish
    • Oil droplets,
          • Decrease density eg. Copepods, diatoms
    • Ion exchange
          • Giant squid
  • 35. Buoyancy
    • Spines, ruffles feathery appendages
          • Increase surface area eg. radilarians, copepods
    • Denser tissues
          • Must actively swim, some large marine mammals, sharks
    • Lighter tissues
          • Blubber helps marine mammal float
  • 36. Buoyancy
    •  temperature
      •  viscosity
    • Cold water more viscous
      • Smaller organisms float better in polar waters, need less adaptations
    Tropical copepod Polar copepod
  • 37. Light
    • Why is light important?
      • Primary production
      • Light attenuation
        • Color
      • Bioluminescence
      • Predator/prey relationships
      • Seasonality
        • Reproductive cycles
  • 38. Light
    • Different wavelengths not transmitted equally
    • Long wavelengths absorbed first
      • Red absorbed rapidly in top 10m
      • Blue & green transmitted to greater depths
      • Therefore objects appear blue at depth
    ROYGBIV
  • 39. Light
    • In shallow water – all wavelengths present & natural colors seen
    • Deep – objects more blue: illuminated by blue light. Red objects appear grey/black
  • 40. Light
    • Bioluminescence
      • Light produced by organism
      • Caused by Luciferin reacting with the enzyme luciferaqse
      • Creates a chemical reaction
      • Produces light with a 99% efficiency
  • 41. Light
    • Sunlight restricts primary production to the photic zone
      • Adaptations of PP
      • Use of different pigments at depth
      • More about this in later classes
  • 42. Bioluminescence
    • Can be produced by microscopic plankton
        • Entire body glows
    • Predators can incorporate glow
    • Larger sp. have photospheres
      • Light producing organs
  • 43. Bioluminescence
    • Can be used a means of communication
    • Can be used in reproductive cycles
      • Mate attraction
      • Often tied to lunar cycles
    • Camouflage
      • Counter shading
    • Defense
    • Prey attraction
      • Lures
  • 44. Color
    • Can be used for a variety of uses
    • Attract mates
    • Warnings
    • Camouflage
      • Blend into background (corals)
      • Use of red at depths (eg shrimps)
  • 45. Fish Coloration
    • Countershading: open ocean fish
      • Obliterative countershading: Back is dark green/blue/gray, shades graduate on sides to pure white on belly
      • E.g. tuna, marlin, swordfish
  • 46. Nutrients
    • Nutrients often limit production in photic zone - utilization by 1° producers
    • Below photic zone, nutrients occur in high concentrations
  • 47. Nutrients
    • Nutrients regenerated & returned:
      • Upwelling
      • Turbulence & mixing
      • Bacterial decomposition
      • Formation and excretion of waste materials
  • 48. Nutrients
    • Nutrients are non-conservative
      • Change ratio with biological activity
    • Nutrient in lowest concentration will limit 1 o productivity
    • Leibig’s law of minimum
  • 49. Nutrients
    • Don’t worry more to come…
  • 50. Key concepts
    • What is Biological Oceanography
    • Nekton vs. plankton
    • Define phytoplankton
      • Zooplankton
    • What factors effect the plankton communities
  • 51.
    • What are the main ocean zones?
      • Pelagic vs benthic
    • What are some general biological patterns
      • Depth
      • Seasonality
      • latitude