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Research ppnt Research ppnt Presentation Transcript

  • Individual vs. Group Work In The Classroom
    Heather Casey
    Sam Houston State University
  • The Purpose
    The purpose of this research is to discover if students learn best working individually or as a group in the classroom.
    Students can benefit from the research that is done because teachers will be able to implement methods of learning that work best for their students
  • We Have A Significant Problem
    Teachers go back and forth between individual and group work with their students, not always knowing which one is the most effective method for learning.
  • Advantages of Group Work
    Heller (2010)
    Students have the opportunity to learn from one another
    Students learn team skills
    Stronger students can help the weaker students
    Teacher grading time is reduced
  • Disadvantages of Group Work
    Heller (2010)
    Learning can be inconsistent with stronger students doing more and learning more
    Hard to find time to meet outside of class thus wasting too much class time
    Teachers have to “police” the groups
    Evaluations by students towards other students in the group can be judgmental.
  • Advantage & Disadvantages ofIndividual Work
    ADVANTAGES
    Students are able to pace themselves according to their ability
    Allows for a larger diversity in responses
    Allows for a more accurate evaluation of each student
    Encourages more depth and complexity
    Kingore (2004)
    DISADVANTAGES
    Individual work can feel isolating if overused
    Less motivated students may underachieve or show lack of commitment to the group.
    Kingore (2004)
  • So Which Method Is It??
    What researchers tell us:
    “Regardless of the subject matter, students working in small groups tend to learn more of what is taught and retain it longer than when the same content is presented in other instructional formats” (Beckman, 1990).
    “There is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and retain information longer than students who work quietly as individuals. The shared learning gives students an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility for their own learning, and thus become critical thinkers” (Johnson & Johnson, 1986).
    “Students achieve more in cooperative interaction than in an individualistic one. Students are also more positive about school, subject areas, their peers and teachers or professors when they are structured to work cooperatively” (Johnson, 1997).
  • What does Group Work Take?
    For students to work in groups they must learn the different requirements to be a part of them.
  • Teachers Implementing Group Work
    Help the students to succeed
    - Discuss the skills to group work and reinforce them
    Consider written contracts
    - So each student knows their role in the group
    Teacher Strategies:
    Plan for each stage of group work
    - Organize, provide feedback and evaluate group work
    Explain to the students how the groups will operate and be graded
    - Explain objectives and group task
  • Student/Teacher Group Work Guide
  • Conclusion
    What the research found was that students tend to work better in group settings. Mainly that students achieved more, learned and retained more, and had a general more positive attitude towards class work.
    Research also showed that there are simple ways for teachers to implement group work in the classroom.
  • Bibliography
    Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1). Retrieved from  http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/jte-v7n1/gokhale.jte-v7n1.html
    Heller, P. (2010). The unfortunate motivation behind assigning group work. Retrieve from http://paulrheller.com/2010/08/the-unfortunate-motivation-behind-assigning-group-work/
    Johnson, D. W. (1997). Cooperative Learning, Two heads learn better than one. Transforming Education, p.33. Retrieved from http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC18/Johnson.htm
    Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., and Smith, K. A. Cooperative Learning:Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity. ASHE-FRIC Higher Education Report No.4. Washington, D.C.: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University, 1991.
    Kierstead, J. (1986). How Teachers Manage Individual and Small-Group Work in Active Classrooms. Educational Leadership, 44(2), 22. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
    Kingore, B. (2004). Differentiation: simplified, realistic, and effective. Professional Associates Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.bertiekingore.com/sm_group_applications.pdf