Bio bloodbasics

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Bio bloodbasics

  1. 1. Biological ScienceOctober 20, 2011
  2. 2. Circulatory System• The circulatory system is responsible for – The distribution of oxygen throughout the body – Carrying nutrients – Transporting hormones throughout the body
  3. 3. Heart Animationhttp://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~biology/teaching/transport/animations/HyperHeart.swf
  4. 4. What makes up our blood?• RED BLOOD CELLS (Erythrocytes) – The most abundant cells in our blood; they are produced in the bone marrow and contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells.• WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leukocytes) – They are part of the immune system and destroy infectious agents called pathogens.• PLASMA – This is the yellowish liquid portion of blood that contains electrolytes, nutrients and vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins such as antibodies to fight infection.• PLATELETS (Thrombocytes) – The blood clotting factors that are carried in the plasma; they clot together in a process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood.
  5. 5. Red blood Cells• Carbon dioxide is transported: – Via plasma – Combine with hemoglobin – As bicarbonate ions• Live for about one year
  6. 6. White Blood Cells (WBC)• WBC cells function to defend the body against bacterial infection and invasion by other foreign substances
  7. 7. Plasma• Excess fluids and proteins in the body are returned to the bloodstream by the lymphatic system
  8. 8. Red Blood Cells (RBC)• Mature red blood cells do not have a nucleus• Hemoglobin is the iron containing molecule in the RBC• RBC transport respiratory gases
  9. 9. Red blood Vessels• Capillaries are red blood vessels that are one cell thick• Many veins have valves to limit the downhill flow of blood• Arteries usually carry oxygen-rich blood, Away from heart• Smallest most abundant are the capillaries• Pulmonary circulation flows to and from the lungs
  10. 10. Heart• The amount of blood pumped each minute depends on the heart rate.• The ventricles are the chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body• Blood entering the right atrium is deoxygenated• Oxygenated blood from the lungs is received by the left atrium• The only artery that carries deoxygenated blood is the pulmonary artery• The pacemaker responsible for starting the heartbeat is a small bundle of cells at the entrance to the artrium
  11. 11. The sinoatrial node is the hearts pacemaker. Normally, the heartbeat begins in the rightatrium when the sinoatrial (SA) node, a special group of cells, transmits an electricalsignal across the heart. This signal spreads throughout the atria and to theatrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node connects to a group of fibers in ventricles thatconducts the electrical signal and sends the impulse to all parts of the ventricles. Thisexact route must be followed to ensure that the heart pumps properly.www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMXBR_YFocs
  12. 12. Macrophages• These blood cells scavenge worn-out or dead cells in the body.
  13. 13. Arteries Away!• Some arteries carry oxygenated blood and other arteries carry deoxygenated blood• An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.• The arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs (Pulmonary Artery) carry deoxygenated blood that has returned to the heart from the body.• The arteries that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body carry oxygenated blood that has returned to the heart from the lungs.
  14. 14. What makes up your Blood?
  15. 15. Oxygen Absorption and Transport• Red blood cells are filled with hemoglobin, which is an iron-containing protein that gives blood its red color.• Oxygen binds easily to the hemoglobin iron, making red blood cells efficient oxygen carriers that circulate throughout the body as they flow with the plasma.• http://www.dnatube.com/video/274/Hemoglobin-- Cooperative-Oxygen-Binding
  16. 16. Blood FactsThe average adult has about FIVE liters of blood inside oftheir body, which makes up 7-8% of their body weight.Blood is living tissue that carries oxygen and nutrients toall parts of the body, and carries carbon dioxide and otherwaste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver fordisposal. It also fights against infection and helps healwounds, so we can stay healthy.There are about one billion red blood cells in two to threedrops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there areabout 40 platelets and one white cell.
  17. 17. Genetics of Blood Types• Your blood type is established before you are BORN, by specific GENES inherited from your parents.• These two genes - one gene from your MOTHER and one from your FATHER - determine your blood type by causing proteins called AGGLUTINOGENS to exist on the surface of all of your red blood cells.
  18. 18. What are blood types? Blood TypesThere are 3 alleles or genes for blood AA or AO = Type Atype: A, B, & O. Since we have 2 BB or BO = Type Bgenes, there are 6 possible combinations. OO = Type O AB = Type AB http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/blood/types.cfm
  19. 19. How common is your blood type?
  20. 20. Rh Factors• While studying Rhesus monkeys, a certain blood protein was discovered. This protein is also present in the blood of some people. Other people, however, do not have the protein.• The presence of the protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor.• If your blood does contain the protein, A+ A- your blood is said to be Rh positive B+ B- (Rh+). If your blood does not contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh AB+ AB- negative (Rh-). O+ O-
  21. 21. Blood TransfusionsA blood transfusion is a procedure in which blood is given to a patient through anintravenous (IV) line in one of the blood vessels. Blood transfusions are done toreplace blood lost during surgery or a serious injury. A transfusion also may bedone if a person’s body cant make blood properly because of an illness.Who can give you blood? Universal DonorPeople with TYPE O blood are calledUniversal Donors, because they cangive blood to any blood type.People with TYPE AB blood are calledUniversal Recipients, because they canreceive any blood type.Rh +  Can receive + or -Rh -  Can only receive - Universal Recipient
  22. 22. Respiration• Air moves into and out of the lungs in stages.• When the diaphragm and rib muscles contract, the diaphragm moves downward and the rib cage moves up and outward.• This expands the chest cavity, lowering the air pressure in the lungs and causing air to flow in.• When the diaphragm and rib muscles relax, the diaphragm moves upward and the rib cage moves down and inward.• This reduces the size of the chest cavity, raising the pressure of the air in the lungs and causing air to flow out.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc2MmhkUW_E&feature=related

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