APA & MLA
What are Citations?
• Citations help you avoid plagiarism.
• Plagiarism is the using of other’s ideas without giving
• Plagiarism = stealing
• Plagiarism will result in severe consequences
according to the Caldwell College Academic Integrity
• Citations help your reader find the sources you
referenced in your paper
Academic Integrity Policy
“VIOLATIONS OF ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
Academic dishonesty includes but is not necessarily limited to the following:
1. Unauthorized use of materials during tests and examinations.
2. Unauthorized possession of test or examination material prior to the administration
3. Altering assigned grades.
4. Submitting, as one’s own work, assignments (for example, papers, data, computer
assignments, or artistic works) obtained in whole or in part from another, unless
specifically authorized to do so by the instructor.
Inventing data or other information to reach a desired conclusion.
The unacknowledged, undocumented presentation of words or ideas which are the
intellectual property of another as one’s own.
1. Direct quotation, that is, even a few of the exact words of a source, must be indicated
by the use of quotation marks or indentation of the text and be properly documented.
2. Passages which parallel the thought or expression of the source, even without using
the same words, must be properly documented.”
“Academic Integrity Policy.” Undergraduate Catalog 2013-2014. Caldwell College. Caldwell College, 2013. Web. 3 Oct. 2013.
Types of Citation Formats
• MLA stands for Modern Language Association.
• Who uses MLA style?
• The humanities use MLA style including: art,
literature, music, philosophy and others.
• APA stands for American Psychological Association.
• Who uses APA style?
• The social sciences use APA style including:
business, communication, education, psychology
2 Part Process
• Part 1- In-text Citations
• Direct quotations or paraphrase of other
people's words in your paper from the sources
• Part 2- Works Cited Page/ References Page
• List of all the sources you cited by in-text
citations in your paper
• After your paper is finished your in-text citations
should match up to your Works Cited page/
In-text Citations - Direct
• Taking someone's words exactly. When you copy
someone's words exactly you must put "quotes "
around the words to show you did not write
• MLA: McBride opens his novel by describing his
lack of knowledge about his mother, "As a boy, I
never knew where my mother was from - where
she was born, who her parents were" (6).
• APA: According to Howard (2007), “…children
who regularly drink soda have an increased
likelihood of overweight and obesity” (p. 74).
In-text Citations - Paraphrase
• Taking someone else’s words and putting
them in your own words.
• MLA- The author did not know much
about his mother growing up (McBride 6).
• APA- Obesity in children is linked to soda
consumption (Howard, 2007, p. 74).
• MLA form- author's last name and page number
• (McBride 6)
• According to McBride, ….(6).
• APA form- author's last name, year, and page
• (Howard, 2007, p. 74)
• In research conducted by Howard (2007)…(p.74).
Two ways to cite
• Whenever you cite something in your paper you
must provide basic information like author name
and page number (MLA and APA requirements
on previous slides).
• There are two ways to accomplish this
• Signal phrase and parentheses
• Parentheses only
• It’s a good idea to alternate these ways
throughout your paper
Works Cited/ References Page
• A list of all the sources you cited
• Works Cited (MLA)
• References (APA)
• Whoever reads your paper can match the
in- text citations to the corresponding
reference in your Works Cited/ References
Examples Works Cited/
• McBride, James. The Color of Water: A Black
Man's Tribute to his White Mother. New York:
Riverhead Books, 1996. Print.
• Howard, K. R. (2007). Childhood overweight:
Parental perceptions and readiness for change.
The Journal of School Nursing, 23, 73-79.
• Easy Bib
• Library guide to citations:
• Includes websites to help you cite various
types of sources and sample MLA and APA
• Library databases and Summon will cite articles
and books you find.
• Always double check what the computer does!