Table of Contents Ser Estar Verbs like Gustar Hacer Expressions El Pretérito and Trigger Words Car, Gar, y Zar Spock Cucaracha Snake Snakeys Affirmative Commands Negetive and Irregular Commands DOPs IOPs Se Impersonal 16. Past Participles as Adjectives 17. El Futuro 18. Imperfect Tense 19. Demonstrative Adjectives 20. Demonstrative Pronouns 21. Los MandatosFormales 22. Mandatosinformales 23. Modal Verbs 24. Reflexives 25. Saber vs. Conocer
1. Ser D.O.C.T.O.R.P.E.D Description Origin Characteristics Time Occupation Relationship Possession Event Date
Health 2. Estar Emotions Location Present Condition Present Participles. Rules:
-ar to –ando
-er and –ir to –iendo or -yendo
3. Verbs Like Gustar These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer. Faltar- to lack Doler- to hurt Fascinar- to fascinate Molestar- to bother Examples: Te faltapelo. Nosgustan los libros.
4. Hacer Time Expressions Preterite Tense is ago. Example: Haceunasemanaquedesapareció. Present Tense is since and for. Example: Hacetresdiasque no tengoproblemas con Pablo.
5. El Pretérito y Trigger Words It is a definite time in the past, and has a beginning or an ending. Trigger words that you could assume may deal with this are:
Pretérito ER / IR AR
El Pretérito Irregulars There are 3 main types of Irregular Pretérito verbs we have learned about. They are:
Car, Gar, y Zar
6. Car, Gar, y Zar Irregulars
7. Spock Irregulars! 3 different groupings. The words in each grouping are conjugated the same way. The groupings are: IR y SER DAR y VER HACER
9. Snake In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs. The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel.
10. Snakeys Follows same concept as SNAKE, but is more specific. In the 3rd person the stem change is the vowel “I” to the vowel “y”. Leer
11. Affirmative Commands Steps: Put verb in ‘yo’ form Change to opposite vowel. Ar to e er/ir to a 3. If plural add a ‘n’ 4. Then, add DOP to end ONLY IF POSITIVE Example: Comalo!
12. Negative Commands
Steps are same as affirmative except you may not add the DOP to the end of the verb. It must go before it.
Example: Lo coma!
12. Irregular Commands TVDISHES= Tenga VERB IS TENER VengaVERB IS VENIR De VERB IS DAR I- VayaVERB IS IR Sea VERB IS SER HagaVERB IS HACER Este VERB IS ESTAR SepaVERB IS SABER
Answers the question of what is receiving the direct action of the verb.
DOPs : lo, la, los, las, me, te, nos, se
You MUST have a DOP in order to have an IOP; however, in a sentence you ALWAYS put the IOP behind the DOP.
14. IOPs Answers the question: to whom? or for whom? IOPs are: me, te, le, nos, os, les. You can’t have two “l” IOP/DOP le and les is changed to “se”. Example: I gave it to her. Se lo di. Gaveverbdi itDOPlo herIOP le but is changed to se
15. Se Impersonal f Se vendefruta. Aqui se hablaespanol. Se hizo mucho. Se hara mucho. Se habia mucho.
16. Past Participles as Adjectives Add –ado for –ar verbs Add –ido for –ir/ –er verbs Has to agree with nouns they modify in gender and number
Irregular Past Participles Abrir abierto Cubrir cubierto Decir dicho Escribir escrito Hacer hecho Morir muerto Poner puesto Resolver resuelto Romper roto Ver visto Volver vuelto Ir ido
Ir + a + infinitive Use this when you are going to do something Ex: Voy a viajar a Nicaragua.
18. Imperfect Tense Used to describe past activities in a different way No stem changes in the imperfect Incomplete or continuing actions Used to describe: Habitual actions or repeated actions Events of actions that were in progress Physical characteristics Mental or emotional states Time-telling Age -ar -er/-ir
Imperfect Irregulars IR SER VER
19. Demonstrative Adjectives Has to agree in number and gender Place in front of the noun it modifies
20. Demonstrative Pronouns Serve basically the same purpose as the demonstrative adjectives, except they stand for nouns rather than modify nouns Singular masculine éste (this) ése (that) aquél (that) Plural masculine éstos (these) ésos (those) aquéllos (those) Singular feminine ésta (this) ésa (that) aquélla (that) Plural feminine éstas (these) ésas (those) aquéllas (those)
21. Los MandatosFormales For –ar verbs : conjugate to yo form drop –o and add –e For –er/ -ir verbs : conjugate to yo form drop the –o and add –a
23. Modal Verbs Used with other verbs to help them change their meaning Pair up with infinitivesmodal verb+infinitive Modal verbs: Poder, querer, deber, tenerque, ir a
24. Reflexives Reflects action of verb back to subject Reflexive pronouns: me, te, se, nos, os, se Put pronoun in front of verb after you conjugate the verb Ex: he sees himself se ve When the verb is not conjugated, place after or before the verb Ex: he is going to see himself va a verse o se va a ver Reflexive verbs: acostarse, afeitarse, bañarse, cepillarse, ducharse, llamarse, ponerse, vestirse
25. Conocer vs. Saber Saber is used to express knowledge of information Ex: we know how to cook sabemoscocinar Conocer is used to express knowledge of a person, place, thing, etc. Ex: we know Ben conocemos Ben