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    Grambookrecent Grambookrecent Presentation Transcript

    • Spanish 2 Grammar Concepts
      Heli Martin
    • Table of Contents
      Ser
      Estar
      Verbs like Gustar
      Hacer Expressions
      El Pretérito and Trigger Words
      Car, Gar, y Zar
      Spock
      Cucaracha
      Snake
      Snakeys
      Affirmative Commands
      Negetive and Irregular Commands
      DOPs
      IOPs
      Se Impersonal
      16. Past Participles as Adjectives
      17. El Futuro
      18. Imperfect Tense
      19. Demonstrative Adjectives
      20. Demonstrative Pronouns
      21. Los MandatosFormales
      22. Mandatosinformales
      23. Modal Verbs
      24. Reflexives
      25. Saber vs. Conocer
    • 1. Ser
      D.O.C.T.O.R.P.E.D
      Description
      Origin
      Characteristics
      Time
      Occupation
      Relationship
      Possession
      Event
      Date
    • Health
      2. Estar
      Emotions
      Location
      Present Condition
      Present Participles.
      Rules:
      • -ar to –ando
      • -er and –ir to –iendo or -yendo
    • 3. Verbs Like Gustar
      These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer.
      Faltar- to lack
      Doler- to hurt
      Fascinar- to fascinate
      Molestar- to bother
      Examples: Te faltapelo.
      Nosgustan los libros.
    • 4. Hacer Time Expressions
      Preterite Tense is ago. Example: Haceunasemanaquedesapareció.
      Present Tense is since and for. Example: Hacetresdiasque no tengoproblemas con Pablo.
    • 5. El Pretérito y Trigger Words
      It is a definite time in the past, and has a beginning or an ending.
      Trigger words that you could assume may deal with this are:
      • Ayer
      • Anoche
      • El añopasado
      • La semanapasada
      • Ante ayer
    • Pretérito
      ER / IR
      AR
    • El Pretérito Irregulars
      There are 3 main types of Irregular Pretérito verbs we have learned about. They are:
      • Car, Gar, y Zar
      • Cucaracha
      • Spock
    • 6. Car, Gar, y Zar Irregulars
    • 7. Spock Irregulars!
      3 different groupings.
      The words in each grouping are conjugated the same way.
      The groupings are:
      IR y SER
      DAR y VER
      HACER
    • DAR
      SER
      VER
      IR
      HACER
      7. SPOCK
    • 8. Cucaracha
      Endings for all are the same:
    • Andar- aduv
      Estar- estuv
      Poder- pud
      Poner- pus
      Querer- quis
      Saber- sup
      Tener- tuv
      Venir- vin
      Conducir- conduj
      Producir- produj
      Traducir- traduj
      Decir- dij
      Traer- traj
      8. Cucaracha Verbs
    • 9. Snake
      In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs.
      The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel.
    • 10. Snakeys
      Follows same concept as SNAKE, but is more specific.
      In the 3rd person the stem change is the vowel “I” to the vowel “y”.
      Leer
    • 11. Affirmative Commands
      Steps:
      Put verb in ‘yo’ form
      Change to opposite vowel.
      Ar to e er/ir to a
      3. If plural add a ‘n’
      4. Then, add DOP to end ONLY IF POSITIVE
      Example: Comalo!
    • 12. Negative Commands
      • Steps are same as affirmative except you may not add the DOP to the end of the verb. It must go before it.
      • Example: Lo coma!
    • 12. Irregular Commands
      TVDISHES=
      Tenga VERB IS TENER
      VengaVERB IS VENIR
      De VERB IS DAR
      I- VayaVERB IS IR
      Sea VERB IS SER
      HagaVERB IS HACER
      Este VERB IS ESTAR
      SepaVERB IS SABER
    • 13. DOPs
      • Answers the question of what is receiving the direct action of the verb.
      • DOPs : lo, la, los, las, me, te, nos, se
      • You MUST have a DOP in order to have an IOP; however, in a sentence you ALWAYS put the IOP behind the DOP.
    • 14. IOPs
      Answers the question: to whom? or for whom?
      IOPs are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.
      You can’t have two “l” IOP/DOP le and les is changed to “se”.
      Example: I gave it to her. Se lo di.
      Gaveverbdi
      itDOPlo
      herIOP le but is changed to se
    • 15. Se Impersonal
      f
      Se vendefruta.
      Aqui se hablaespanol.
      Se hizo mucho.
      Se hara mucho.
      Se habia mucho.
    • 16. Past Participles as Adjectives
      Add –ado for –ar verbs
      Add –ido for –ir/ –er verbs
      Has to agree with nouns they modify in gender and number
    • Irregular Past Participles
      Abrir  abierto
      Cubrir  cubierto
      Decir  dicho
      Escribir  escrito
      Hacer  hecho
      Morir  muerto
      Poner  puesto
      Resolver  resuelto
      Romper  roto
      Ver  visto
      Volver  vuelto
      Ir  ido
    • 17. Futuro
      I, you, he, she, we, you, they will
    • Irregular Futuros
      Decir  Dir-
      Hacer  Har-
      Poner  Pondr-
      Salir  Saldr-
      Tener  Tendr-
      Valer  Valdr-
      Venir  Vendr-
      Poder  Podr-
      Querer  Querr-
      Sabrir  Sabr-
      Caber  Cabr-
      Salir  Saldr-
      Habrir  Habr-
    • Ir + a + infinitive
      Use this when you are going to do something
      Ex: Voy a viajar a Nicaragua.
    • 18. Imperfect Tense
      Used to describe past activities in a different way
      No stem changes in the imperfect
      Incomplete or continuing actions
      Used to describe:
      Habitual actions or repeated actions
      Events of actions that were in progress
      Physical characteristics
      Mental or emotional states
      Time-telling
      Age
      -ar
      -er/-ir
    • Imperfect Irregulars
      IR
      SER
      VER
    • 19. Demonstrative Adjectives
      Has to agree in number and gender
      Place in front of the noun it modifies
    • 20. Demonstrative Pronouns
      Serve basically the same purpose as the demonstrative adjectives, except they stand for nouns rather than modify nouns
      Singular masculine
      éste (this)
      ése (that)
      aquél (that)
      Plural masculine
      éstos (these)
      ésos (those)
      aquéllos (those)
      Singular feminine
      ésta (this)
      ésa (that)
      aquélla (that)
      Plural feminine
      éstas (these)
      ésas (those)
      aquéllas (those)
    • 21. Los MandatosFormales
      For –ar verbs :
      conjugate to yo form
      drop –o and add –e
      For –er/ -ir verbs :
      conjugate to yo form
      drop the –o and add –a
    • 23. Modal Verbs
      Used with other verbs to help them change their meaning
      Pair up with infinitivesmodal verb+infinitive
      Modal verbs: Poder, querer, deber, tenerque, ir a
    • 24. Reflexives
      Reflects action of verb back to subject
      Reflexive pronouns: me, te, se, nos, os, se
      Put pronoun in front of verb after you conjugate the verb
      Ex: he sees himself  se ve
      When the verb is not conjugated, place after or before the verb
      Ex: he is going to see himself  va a verse o se va a ver
      Reflexive verbs: acostarse, afeitarse, bañarse, cepillarse, ducharse, llamarse, ponerse, vestirse
    • 25. Conocer vs. Saber
      Saber is used to express knowledge of information
      Ex: we know how to cook sabemoscocinar
      Conocer is used to express knowledge of a person, place, thing, etc.
      Ex: we know Ben conocemos Ben