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G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
G bspanish4 part one
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G bspanish4 part one

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  • 1. Spanish 4 Grammar Concepts Heli Martin
  • 2. Table of Contents1. El Presente2. Irregular yo form3. Irregulars4. Ser5. Estar6. Ser y estar con adjectivos7. Gustar8. Verbs like gustar9. Preterite v Imperfect10. Preterite y trigger words11. Preterite Conjugation12. Preterite Irregulars13. Imperfect y trigger words14. Imperfect conjugation15. Imperfect Irregulars
  • 3. El Presente• Used to express actions or situations that are happening in the present• Used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future• Regular –ar, -er, -ir• -ar: o, as, a, amos, áis, an• -er: o, es, e, emos, éis, en• -ir: o, es, e, imos, ís, en
  • 4. Irregular yo form• Irregular yo forms: many –er and –ir verbs have irregualr yo forms in the present tense.• Verbs ending in –ger or –gir change to –jo coger, colegir (e:i), dirigir, escoger, recoger… ex: Coger – changes to cojo in yo form• Verbs ending in –guir change the gu to g in the yo form conseguir,distinguir, extinguir, seguir… ex: Conseguir (e:i) – changes to consigo in yo form• Verbs ending in –cer or –cir change the c to z in yo form coercer, convencer, ejercer, esparicir, mecer, remecer, vencer, zurcir, conducir, producir, concocer, palcer, crecer, aparacer exceptions are hacer and decir• Verbs that end in –uir add y before o, e, and a atribuir, concluir, construir, distruir, exclurir, destruir, incluir ex: atribuir – atribuyo, atribuyes, atribuye, atribuimos, atribuís, atribuyen
  • 5. Irregulars• Irregular in present tense or combine a stem change with an irregular yo form or spell change• Stem changes: e-ie, o-ue, e-i• e-ie: acertar, advertir, negar, atravesar, entender, comenzar, defendir, pensar… ex: cerrar- cierro, cierras, cierra, cerramos, cerráis, cierran• o-ue:almorzar, rogar , dormir, volver, sonar, soler, poder, morir, encontrar… ex: contar- cuento, cuentas, cuenta, contamos, contáis, cuentan• e-i: competir, concebir, despedir, medir, servir, repetir, vestir… ex: pedir- pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, piden• *Notice that there is no stem change in the Vosotros or Nosotros form*• Ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van• Dar: doy, das, damos, dais, dan• Tener: tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen• Venir: vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
  • 6. Ser Description, Origin,Characteristics, Time, Occupation, Relationship, Possession, Event, Date
  • 7. Ser• Means to be• Used to express an essential equality soy somos eres sois es son
  • 8. Health Estar Emotions LocationPresent Condition Present Participles. Rules: •-ar to –ando •-er and –ir to – iendo or -yendo
  • 9. Estar estoy estamos estás estáis está están• Means to be• Used to express condition
  • 10. Ser y estar con adjectivos• Some adjectives change their meaning when used with either "ser" or "estar".• Examples : Listo : means clever when used with ser means ready when used estar Malo: means bad when used with ser means ill when used with estar Rico: means rich when used with ser means tasty when used with estar Vivo: means lively when used with ser means alive when used with estar Bueno: means good when used with ser means well when used with estar Moreno: means dark haired when used with ser means suntanned when used with estar Aburrido: means boring when used with ser means bored when used with estar Seguro: means safe when used with ser means sure, certain when used with estar
  • 11. Gustar• Means to like or to be pleasing• Me gusta el libro - I like the book• Me gustan los libros – I like the books• When the noun that you like is plural use –an• Pronouns – me, te, le, nos, os, les• A mi me gusta, a ti te gusta, etc.
  • 12. Verbs Like Gustar• These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer.• Aburrir- to bore• Importar- tp be important to• Caer bien/mal- to (not) suit• Interesar- to be interesting to• Digustar- to hate soemthing• Parecer- to appear to be• Encantar- to love• Quedar- to be left over, remain• Volver loco- to be crazy about• Faltar- to lack• Doler- to hurt• Fascinar- to fascinate• Molestar- to bother Examples: Te falta pelo. Nos gustan los libros.
  • 13. Preterite Imperfect•To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the •To conjugate regular -ar verbs in thepreterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar)and add one of the following: and add one of the following:•é •abaaste abasó abaamos ábamosasteis abaisaron aban•The preterite is used for actions in the •The imperfect is used for actions in thepast that are seen as completed. Use of past that are not seen as completed.the preterite tense implies that the past Use of the imperfect tense implies thataction had a definite beginning and the past action did not have a definitedefinite end. beginning or a definite end. The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place.The imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.
  • 14. El Pretérito y Trigger WordsIt is a definite time in the past, and has abeginning or an ending.Trigger words that you could assume maydeal with this are: Ayer Anoche El año pasado La semana pasada Ante ayer
  • 15. ER -í -imosEl -iste -isteí sPretérito -ió -ieron IR -í -imos -iste -isteís -ió -ieron
  • 16. El Pretérito IrregularsThere are 3 main types of IrregularPretérito verbs we have learned about.They are: Car, Gar, y Zar Cucaracha Spock
  • 17. Car, Gar, y Zar Irregulars-qué -camos -gué -gamos -cé -zamos-caste casteís -gaste -zaste -zasteís -gasteís-có -caron -gó -garon -zo -zaron
  • 18. Spock Irregulars! 3 different groupings. The words in each grouping are conjugated the same way. The groupings are:1. IR y SER2.DAR y VER3.HACER
  • 19. DAR- to give VER- to seeIR- to go SER- to be I ImosFui Fuimos Iste IsteísFuiste Fuisteís Io IeronFue Fueron HACER…. TO MAKE OR DO Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hicisteís Hito Hicieron
  • 20. Cucaracha VerbsEndings for all are the same:
  • 21. Andar- aduvEstar- estuv Conducir-Poder- pud condujPoner- pus Producir- produjQuerer- quis Traducir- tradujSaber- supTener- tuv Decir- dijVenir- vin Traer- traj Cucaracha Verbs
  • 22. Snake• In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs.• The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel. Dormi Dormimos Dormiste Dormisteis Durmio Durmierion
  • 23. SnakeysFollows same concept as SNAKE, but ismore specific.In the 3rd person the stem change is thevowel “I” to the vowel “y”.Leer
  • 24. Imperfect y Trigger Words• The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.• They have no definite end or beginning• Trigger words: muchas veces a menudo mucho a veces cada día nunca cada año por un rato con frecuencia siempre de vez en cuando tantas veces en aquella época todas las semanas frecuentemente todos los días generalmente todo el tiempo varias veces
  • 25. Imperfect- ar -er and –iraba ábamos ía íamosabas abais ías íaisaba aban ía ían
  • 26. Imperfect Irregulars

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