Table of Contents1. El Presente 17. Present Subjunctive2. Irregular yo form 18. Impersonal Expressions3. Irregulars 19. Subjunctive in Noun clauses4. Ser 20. Subjunctive in Adjective clauses5. Estar 21. Commands6. Ser y estar con adjectivos 22. Object Pronouns7. Gustar 23. Prepositional Pronouns8. Verbs like gustar 24. Possessive adjectives +9. Nouns/articles/adjectives pronouns10. Preterite v Imperfect 25. Demonstrative adjectives +11. Preterite y trigger words pronouns12. Preterite Conjugation 26. Reflexive Verbs13. Preterite Irregulars 27. Por y Para14. Imperfect y trigger words 28. To become- hacerse,15. Imperfect conjugation ponerse, volverse, llegar a16. Imperfect Irregulars ser
El Presente• Used to express actions or situations that are happening in the present• Used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future• Regular –ar, -er, -ir• -ar: o, as, a, amos, áis, an• -er: o, es, e, emos, éis, en• -ir: o, es, e, imos, ís, en
Irregular yo form• Irregular yo forms: many –er and –ir verbs have irregualr yo forms in the present tense.• Verbs ending in –ger or –gir change to –jo coger, colegir (e:i), dirigir, escoger, recoger… ex: Coger – changes to cojo in yo form• Verbs ending in –guir change the gu to g in the yo form conseguir,distinguir, extinguir, seguir… ex: Conseguir (e:i) – changes to consigo in yo form• Verbs ending in –cer or –cir change the c to z in yo form coercer, convencer, ejercer, esparicir, mecer, remecer, vencer, zurcir, conducir, producir, concocer, palcer, crecer, aparacer exceptions are hacer and decir• Verbs that end in –uir add y before o, e, and a atribuir, concluir, construir, distruir, exclurir, destruir, incluir ex: atribuir – atribuyo, atribuyes, atribuye, atribuimos, atribuís, atribuyen
Irregulars• Irregular in present tense or combine a stem change with an irregular yo form or spell change• Stem changes: e-ie, o-ue, e-i• e-ie: acertar, advertir, negar, atravesar, entender, comenzar, defendir, pensar… ex: cerrar- cierro, cierras, cierra, cerramos, cerráis, cierran• o-ue:almorzar, rogar , dormir, volver, sonar, soler, poder, morir, encontrar… ex: contar- cuento, cuentas, cuenta, contamos, contáis, cuentan• e-i: competir, concebir, despedir, medir, servir, repetir, vestir… ex: pedir- pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, piden• *Notice that there is no stem change in the Vosotros or Nosotros form*• Ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van• Dar: doy, das, damos, dais, dan• Tener: tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen• Venir: vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
Ser Description, Origin,Characteristics, Time, Occupation, Relationship, Possession, Event, Date
Ser• Means to be• Used to express an essential equality soy somos eres sois es son
Health Estar Emotions LocationPresent Condition Present Participles. Rules: •-ar to –ando •-er and –ir to – iendo or -yendo
Estar estoy estamos estás estáis está están• Means to be• Used to express condition
Ser y estar con adjectivos• Ser is used with adjectives to describe inherent, expected qualities.• Estar is used to describe temporary or variable qualities, or a change in appearance or condition.• Some adjectives change their meaning when used with either "ser" or "estar".• Examples : Listo : means clever when used with ser means ready when used estar Malo: means bad when used with ser means ill when used with estar Rico: means rich when used with ser means tasty when used with estar Vivo: means lively when used with ser means alive when used with estar Bueno: means good when used with ser means well when used with estar Moreno: means dark haired when used with ser means suntanned when used with estar Aburrido: means boring when used with ser means bored when used with estar Seguro: means safe when used with ser means sure, certain when used with estar
Gustar• Means to like or to be pleasing• Me gusta el libro - I like the book• Me gustan los libros – I like the books• When the noun that you like is plural use –an• Pronouns – me, te, le, nos, os, les• A mi me gusta, a ti te gusta, etc.
Verbs Like Gustar• These verbs follow the same conjugation as gustar with doler having an “e” stem changer. Aburrir- to bore Importar- tp be important to Caer bien/mal- to (not) suit Interesar- to be interesting to Digustar- to hate soemthing Parecer- to appear to be Encantar- to love Quedar- to be left over, remain Volver loco- to be crazy about Faltar- to lack Doler- to hurt Fascinar- to fascinate Molestar- to bother Sorprender- to surprise Hacer falta- to miss• The construction a + [prepositional pronoun] or a + [noun] can be used to emphasize who is pleased, bothered, etc.• Faltar and quedar express what someone lacks or has left. Quedar is also used to talk about how clothing fits or looks on someone Examples: Te falta pelo. Nos gustan los libros.
Nouns• In Spanish, nouns ending in –o, -or, -I, -s, and –ma are usually masculine.• Nouns ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, and –z are usually feminine.• Most nouns form the plural by adding –s to nouns ending in a vowel and – es to nouns ending in a constant.• Nouns that end in –z change to –c before adding –es el hombre los hombres a mujer las mujeres la novia las novias el lápiz los lápices• If noun is singular and it ends in a vowel that is stressed, the plural form ends in –es. The plural form doesn’t change if the noun form ends in –s which is unstressed. el tabú los tabúes el lunes los lunes el israelí los isrealíes la crisis las crisis
Articles• Spanish definite and indefinite articles agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify.• Definite articles are: Singular Plural Masculine: el los Feminine: la las• Indefinite articles: Singular Plural Masculine: un unos Feminine: una unas• In Spanish, a definite article is always used with an abstract noun : la belleza el amor• An indefinite article is not used before nouns that indicate profession or place of origin unless they are followed by an adjective. Juan es profesor Juan es un profesor excelente
Adjectives• Spanish adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify.• Most adjectives ending in –e or a consonant have the same masculine and feminine forms.• Masculine singular usually end in –o, -e, -l• Masculine plural usually end in –os, -es, -les• Feminine singular usually end in –a, -e, -l• Feminine plural usually end in –as, -es, les• They usually follow the noun they modify• If a single adjective modifies more than one noun, then you use the plural form• If at least one of the nouns is masculine, use the masculine form.• A few adjectives have shortened forms when they precede a masculine singular noun: buenobuen, algunoalgun, primeroprimer, malomal, nungunoningun, tercerotercer• When the adjective follows the noun, the meaning is more literal, but if it precedes the noun, the meaning is more figurative.
Preterite Imperfect•To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the •To conjugate regular -ar verbs in thepreterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar)and add one of the following: and add one of the following:•é •abaaste abasó abaamos ábamosasteis abaisaron aban•The preterite is used for actions in the •The imperfect is used for actions in thepast that are seen as completed. Use of past that are not seen as completed.the preterite tense implies that the past Use of the imperfect tense implies thataction had a definite beginning and the past action did not have a definitedefinite end. beginning or a definite end. The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place.The imperfect tells us in general when an action took place.
El Pretérito y Trigger WordsIt is a definite time in the past, and has abeginning or an ending.Trigger words that you could assume maydeal with this are: Ayer Anoche El año pasado La semana pasada Ante ayer
ER -í -imosEl -iste -isteí sPretérito -ió -ieron IR -í -imos -iste -isteís -ió -ieron
El Pretérito IrregularsThere are 3 main types of IrregularPretérito verbs we have learned about.They are: Car, Gar, y Zar Cucaracha Spock
Snake• In the 3rd person, the stem change occurs.• The stem change is to opposite vowel with the first vowel. Dormi Dormimos Dormiste Dormisteis Durmio Durmierion
SnakeysFollows same concept as SNAKE, but ismore specific.In the 3rd person the stem change is thevowel “I” to the vowel “y”.Leer
Imperfect y Trigger Words• The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.• They have no definite end or beginning• Trigger words: muchas veces a menudo mucho a veces cada día nunca cada año por un rato con frecuencia siempre de vez en cuando tantas veces en aquella época todas las semanas frecuentemente todos los días generalmente todo el tiempo varias veces
Imperfect- ar -er and –iraba ábamos ía íamosabas abais ías íaisaba aban ía ían
Impersonal ExpressionsEs bueno Es malo que… que… Es mejor que… Es urgente que… Esimportante que… Es necesario que…
The Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial.• Irregular yo forms: conocer conozca seguir siga decir diga tener tenga hacer haga traer traiga oír oiga venir venga poner ponga ver vea• Verbs that have stem changes in the present subjunctive. Remember that only –ir verbs undergo stem changes in the nosotros/as and vosotros/as forms. pensar (e:ie) jugar (u:ue) mostrar (o:ue) entender (e:ie) resolver (o:ue) pedir (e:i) sentir (e:ie) dormir (o:ue)• A clause it a group of words that contains both a conjugated verb and a subject. In a subordinate noun clause, a group of words function together as a noun.• There are three types : verbs of will and influence, verbs of emotion, verbs of doubt or denial
Verbs of will and influence• Aconsejar- to advise • Pedir- to ask for; to request• Importar- to be important; to matter • Preferir- to prefer• Insistir (en)- to insist (on) • Prohibir- to prohibit• Mandar- to order • Proponer- to propose• Prohibir- to prohibit • Querer- to want, to wish• Recomendar (e:ie)- to recommend • Es urgente- its urgent• Rogar (o:ue)- to beg, to plead • Exigir- to demand• Sugerir (e:ie)- to suggest • Gustar- to like• Desear- to desire, to wish • Hacer- to make• Es importante- its important • Necisitar- to need• Es necesario- its necessary The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of will and influence if there is no change of subject in the sentence
Verbs of Emotion• Alegrarse (de)- to be happy • Esperar- to hope, to wish• Es bueno que- it’s good • Gustar- to like; to be pleasing• Es extraño- it’s strange • Sentir (e:ie)- to be sorry, to regret• Es malo- it’s bad • Sorprender- to surprise• Es mejor- it’s better • Temer- to be afraid, to fear• Es ridículo- it’s ridiculous • Es triste- it’s sad• Es terrible- it’s terrible • Ojalá (que)- I hope (that), I wish• Es una lastima- it’s a shame (that)• Molestar- to bother • Tener miedo (de)- to be afraid (of)When the main clause expresses emotion like hope, fear, joy, pity, orsurprise, the verbs in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive if itssubject is different from that of the main clause
Expressions of doubt, disbelief, and denial• Dudar- to doubt • Es poco seguro- its uncertain• Negar (e:ie)- to deny • No es possible- it’s not possible• Es imposible- it’s impossible • No es probable- it’s not probable• Es improbable- it’s improbable • Negar- to deny• No es cierto- it’s not true, it’s not certain • No creer- not to believe• No es seguro- it’s not certain • No es evidente- it’s not evident• No es verdad- it’s not true • No estar seguro- not to be sure When the main clause implies doubt, uncertainty, or denial the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive if its subject is different from that of the main clause
The subjunctive in adjective clauses• When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something that is known to exist, the indicative is used.• When the antecendent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used. Antecedent certain indicative Antecedent uncertain subjunctive Necisito el libro que tiene informacion Necesito un libro que tenga informacion sobre los prejuicios sociales sobre los prejuicios sociales. I need the book that has information I need a book that has information about social prejudices. about social prejudices.
Adjective Clauses When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun (nadie/ninguno) the subjunctive is used:Antecedent certain subjunctive Antecedent uncertain subjunctiveElla tiene tres parientes que viven Ella no tiene ningun pariente que vfiva en Puerto Rico. en Madrid.She has three relatives who live in She doesn’t have any relatives who Puerto Rico. live in Madrid.
Adjective Clauses• The personal a is not used with direct objects that represent hypothetical questions: subjunctive: Busco un abogado que sea honrado indicative: Conozco a un abogado que es honrado• The personal a is maintained before nadie and alguien, even when their existence is uncertain: subjunctive: No conozco a nadie que se queje tanto como mi suegra indicative: Yo conozco a alguien que se queja aun mas• The subjunctive is commonly used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain.• If the person who responds knows the information, the indicative is used.
Commands• Affirmative tú: simply drop the s los irregulares- di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven• Negative tú: put it in yo form and change to opposite vowel and add an ‘s’ los irregulares- TVDISHES• Affirmative Ud./Uds: put in yo form and change to opposite vowel los irregulares- TVDISHES• Negative Ud./Uds: same as above• DOP + IOP + ‘sé’ can attach to an affirmative• DOP + IOP + ‘sé’ must go before the negative command
Indirect Commands• The construction que + [verb] in the third person subjunctive can be used to express indirect commands that correspond to the English let someone do something.• If the subject of the indirect command is expressed, it usually follows the verb• Example: Que pase el siguiente Let the next person pass• Pronouns are never attached to the conjugated verb when using the subjunctive• Example: Que se lo den los otros; Que no se lo den
Object Pronouns• Direct object pronouns directly receive the action of the verb.• Indirect object pronouns identify to whom or for whom an action is done.• Indirect object pronouns: me nos te os le les• Direct object pronouns me nos te os lo/la los/las• They both precede the conjugated verb• Indirect object example: Carla siempre me da boletas para el cine.• Direct object example: Ella los consigue gratis.
Object Pronoun Placement• When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb.• Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender.• When the verb is in the progressive, object pronouns may either be attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb.
Double Object Pronouns• The indirect object prounoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence Me mandaron los boletos por correo Me los mandaron por correo• Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Le damos las revistas a Ricardo Se las damos• When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress: Infinitive: cantármela Present Participle: escribiéndole Command: acompáñeme
Prepositional Pronouns mí me myself ti you, yourself Ud. you, yourself él him, it ella her, it nosotros/as us, ourselves vosotros/as you, yourselves Uds. you, yourselves ellos them ellas them sí themselves
Prepositional Pronouns• Prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except for mí, ti, and sí, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns.• A + [prepositional pronoun] is often used for clarity or emphasis.• The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself, themselves) is the prepositional pronoun used to refer back to the same third person subject.• When mí, ti, and sí are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo.• These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mí and ti: entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según
Possessive Adjectives + Pronouns• Used to express ownership or possession• Spanish has two types of possessive adjectives: the short/unstressed forms and the long/stressed forms.• Both of the forms agree in number and gender with the object owned and not with the owner. Short/Unstressed Long/Stressed Mi(s) My Mío(s)/a(s) My; (of) mine Tu(s) Your Tuyo(s)/a(s) Your; (of) yours Su(s) Your; his; hers; its Suyo(s)/a(s) Your; (of yours); (of) his; (of) hers; (of) its Nuestro(s)/a(s) Our Nuestro(s)/a(s) Our; (of) ours Vuestro(s)/a(s) Your Vuestro(s)/a(s) Your; (of) yours Su(s) Your; their Suyo(s)/a(s) Your; (of) yours; (of) theirs
Possessive Adjectives + Pronouns• Short possessive adjectives precede the nouns they modify: En mi opinión… Nuestras revistas…• Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify and are used for emphasis mi amgio el amigo mío tus amigas las amigas tuyas• Because su(s) and suyo(s)/a(s) have multiple meanings, the construction [article] + [noun] + de + [subject pronoun] is used to clarify the meaning.• Possessive pronouns have the same forms as stressed possessive adjectives and are preceded by a definite article. No tengo mi papel Me prestas el tuyo
Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns• Specify to which noun a speaker is referring to.• They precede the nouns that they modify and agree in number and gender. Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Este Esta Estos Estas This; these Ese Esa Esos Esas That; those Aquel Aquella Aquellos Aquellass That; those (over there)
Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns• There are three sets of demonstrative adjectives. este : used to point out nouns that are close. ese : used to modify nouns that are not close. aquel : refer to nouns that are far away.• Demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives except they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel.• Esto, eso, and aquello are neuter pronouns that refer to unspecified things, ideas, or situations.• They do not vary in gender or number.• They do not carry an accent mark.
Reflexive Verbs• In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and recieves the action.• To get or become is frequently expressed by the Spanish verb ponerse + [adjective]• In the plural, reflexive verbs can express reciprocal actions done to one another• The reflexive pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun.• Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns: Ex: lavarse – to wash (oneself) Yo me Nosotros/as nos lavamos lavo Tú te lavas Vosotros/as os laváis Ud./Ella/Él se lava Uds./Ellos/Ellas se lavan
Reflexive Verbs• Verbs used to describe daily routines and personal care: acostarse- to go to bed afeitarse- to shave cepillarse- to brush (one’s hair) despertarse- to wake up dormirse- to go to sleep ducharse- to take a shower lavarse- to wash oneself levantarse- to get up ponerse- to put on (clothing) vestirse- to get dressed• Many verbs change meaning when they are used with a refelxive pronoun aburrir- to bore aburrirse- to be bored acordar- to agree acordarse(de)- to remember comer- to eat comerse- to eat up ir- to go irse(de)- to go away (from) paracer- to seem paracerse- to resemble, to look like• Some spanish verbs and expressions are always relexive; many are followed by a, de, & en acercarse (a)- to approach; fijarse (en)- to take notice of; arrepentirse (de)- to repent (of); morirse (de)- to die (of); atreverse (de)- to dare (to); olvidarse (de)- to forget (about); convertirse (en)- to become; preocuparse (por)- to worry (about); darse cuenta (de)- to realize; quejarse (de)- to complain about; enterarse (de)- to find out (about); sorprenderse (de)- to be surprised (about)
Por y ParaUses of Para Uses of PorDestination Motion or a general location (toward, in the direction of) (along, through, around by)Deadline or a specific time in future Duration of an action (by, for) (for, during, in)Purpose or goal + [infinitive] Reason or motive for an action (in order to) (because of, on account/behalf of)Recipient Object of a search (for) (for, in search of)Comparison with others or opinion Means by which (for, considering) (by, by way, by means of)Employment Exchange or substitution (for) (for, in exchange for) Unit of measure (per, by) Agent (passive voice) (by)
Por y ParaExpressions with para: No estar para bromas: to be in no mood for jokes No ser para tanto: to not be so important Para colmo: to top it all off Para que sepas: just so you know Para siempre: foreverExpressions with por: Por allí/aquí: around there/here Por lo tanto: therefore Por casualidad: by chance/accident Por lo visto: apparently Por ejemplo: for example Por mas/mucho que: no matter how much Por eso: therefore, for that reason Por otro lado/parte: on the other hand Por fin: finally Por primera vez: for the first time Por lo general: in general Por si acaso: just in case Por lo menos: at least Por supuesto: of course
To become- hacerse, ponerse, volverse, llegar a ser• There are several different Spanish equivalents for the English verb “to become”• Ponerse is followed by an adjective and express a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that does not last long: Me puse enfermo en Caracas I got sick in Caracas. Heli se pone roja cuando habla Heli turns red when she talks• Volverse is followed by an adjective and indicates a sudden, profound, change in mental or emotional state: Se ha vuelto loco He went crazy Ella se ha vuelto insorportable She has become unbearable• Hacerse is followed by a noun or adjective and indicate a change brought about by effort: Mi hermana se ha hecho abogado My sister has become a lawyer Mi abuelo se hizo rico My grandfather became wealthy• Llegar a ser may also be followed by a noun or adjective and it indicates a change that has occurred over time and does not imply effort: La novela que escribió el ano pasado ha llegado a ser un superventas. The novel that he wrote last year has become a best seller.
To become• There are often reflexive verb equivalents for ponerse + [adjective]• When used with object pronouns instead of reflexive pronouns, such verbs convey that another person or thing is imposing mental, emotional, or physical state on some one else. ponerse alegre alegrarse ponerse furioso/a enfurecerse ponerse deprimido/a deprimirse ponerse triste entristecerse