Music 111 & 112 - Romanticism


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A powerpoint outlining the principles of music in the Romantic era, used in conjunction with the New Brunswick Music 111/112 Curriculum,

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Music 111 & 112 - Romanticism

  1. 1. The Romantic Era<br />Music 111/112<br />
  2. 2. The Romantic Era (1815 – 1910)<br />A period of change; emancipation from values and norms set forth during the Classical era<br />Changes occurred in music, art, literature<br />Themes<br />Forms<br />Ensembles<br />
  3. 3. The Classical Era<br />Strict rules about social and musical norms<br />Lighter, melodically-charged music<br />Tonality-centres<br />The Romantic era came about as a rejection of these ideas for a more human, explorative, less contrived state of mind as reflected in their music<br />
  4. 4. Tonality<br />In earlier music, composers deviated from the tonal centre of a piece and used dissonance only to make the return to the tonic more satisfying<br />Romantic composers began to reject some of the ideas put forth by Bach and those who came after him on the subject of tonality and harmony: they found that dissonance and tonal ambiguity served the themes they strived to communicate in their music<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Themes in Romantic Music<br />The trials and tribulations of unrequited love<br />The supernatural<br />The pastoral<br />Exoticism/adventure<br />The misunderstood artist<br />The moon<br />Sturm und Drang<br />
  7. 7. Bridging the Gap: Beethoven<br />
  8. 8. Bridging the Gap: Beethoven<br />Beethoven is commonly considered to be the composer who represents the transition between Classical and Romantic music<br />Early years: Studied with Haydn which likely informed his earliest compositions<br />Was referred to as “Mozart’s replacement” : much of his early music exemplifies Mozartian qualities<br />Master of counterpoint<br />
  9. 9. Beethoven<br />In his early years, Beethoven was not known for his composition but for his work as a pianist<br />As his hearing began to deteriorate, Beethoven resolved to focus himself on writing rather than playing<br />The crisis brought on by his loss of hearing at the turn of the century  themes of war, heroism and struggle in his work (Symphony No. 5, for example)<br />
  10. 10. Beethoven<br />Celebrated in his middle period for combining familiar elements and techniques of Classical music with innovative use of themes, texture, emotion and form.<br />In spite of his loss of hearing, tackled the largest forms: string quartet and symphony<br />Symphonies 3 – 8<br />Appassionata<br />Fidelio<br />
  11. 11. Beethoven<br />In his later years, LvB returned to his study of early music, further mastering the hybrid of eras he had created<br />Influence of early music in Symphony No. 9 – chorus, vertical harmony evident<br /><br />Experimentation with form is obvious<br />Addition of choir to Symphony No. 9; extra movements added or removed from compositions<br />Even further emotional intensity in works<br />
  12. 12. Beethoven’s Musical Periods<br />
  13. 13. Form in Romantic Music<br />Traditional forms still popular<br />Symphony, opera, concerto, sonata, string quartet<br />New forms embraced: <br />lieder, tone poem, symphonic poem, suite, concert overture, song cycle.<br />Composers manipulating, adding to and taking away from traditional form to serve their purposes<br />
  14. 14. Lieder<br />German art song explodes on to scene<br />Schubert (over 600 lieder!), Schumann, Brahms, Strauss, Wolf.<br />Themes of love, nature, death, sadness, disillusionment.<br />Two forms: strophic or through-composed<br />Piano as a partner, not an accompaniment, to voice<br />
  15. 15. Gretchen am Spinnerade<br />Setting of Goethe’s Faust: Gretchen sits at her spinning wheel contemplating her feelings for Faust.<br />“My peace of mind has fled My heart is heavy I will never find peace, never again...” <br /><br />
  16. 16. Program Music<br />Idea of music having a theme, story or idea behind it becoming increasingly popular<br />Beethoven’s themed symphonies: No. 3 (Eroica); No. 5 (War); No. 6 (Pastoral)<br />Berlioz’ SymphonieFantastique<br />Liszt and l’idee fixe <br />
  17. 17. Rise of the virtuoso<br />Music lessons becoming more accessible  stronger players<br />Pianists, violinists and flautists most commonly showcased<br />In many cases, prominent composers were also technically gifted musicians because they were the only ones capable of playing their own music<br />Virtuoso concerts<br />
  18. 18. Rise of the conductor<br />The conductor now a full-fledged performer: equally as celebrated and respected as the musical ensemble<br />Some composers conducting their own works: Beethoven, Liszt, Boulez<br />Conductor a necessity as ensemble and scope of dynamics, contrast and expression grow simultaneously<br />
  19. 19. The Industrial Revolution<br />Improvement in the mechanics and quality of instruments<br />Advent of the printing press  sheet music available to anyone who wanted it<br />Aristocracy no longer the sole patron of music<br />Musical instruments more readily available to the masses as a result of the revolution and of the rise of the middle class<br />As a result, musical ensembles grew drastically in size and became of a higher and higher calibre<br />