April 2011         Virtual Mainframe –Legacy Application Rehosting                   Santosh Kumar                    Vish...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011ContentsIntroduction	                                        ...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011alternatives to run their business applications. They now had...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011product will be able to provide an exact functionality match ...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Target PlatformsThe availability of multiple computing platfo...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011the size, complexity and criticality of the applications and ...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Low CostThe costs involved in procuring, operating and upgrad...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Rehosting – Reference Architecture                           ...
Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Application Rehosting ProcessLegacy applications usually exis...
10Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Non-Performance ParametersThis includes identifying the req...
11Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011testing effort in a typical rehosting exercise would be aro...
12Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Appendix – A                              TP  BP           ...
13Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011References1. Wikipedia	 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histor...
14Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011About HCLHCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies is a leading glob...
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HCLT Whitepaper: Virtual Mainframe

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http://www.hcltech.com/search/apachesolr_search/custom-application-services ~More on Custom Application Services

Legacy applications usually exist within an ecosystem of interfaces, tools and utilities on the mainframe which they actively interact with. Legacy applications, in general, also do not exist on the mainframe in isolation and as such share certain application assets and the mainframe resources with other applications. The presence of such interactions and dependencies makes it imperative that any rehosting exercise focuses on not just the application inventory but also on providing a similar eco-system on the target platform for the application to run in.

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HCLT Whitepaper: Virtual Mainframe

  1. 1. April 2011 Virtual Mainframe –Legacy Application Rehosting Santosh Kumar Vishnu Prasad
  2. 2. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011ContentsIntroduction 2Mainframe Migration Options 3Application Rehosting 4Application Rehosting Process 9End Notes 11Appendix – A 12References 13About the Authors 13About HCL 14IntroductionBack‑groundFrom the mid 1950’s, Mainframes have been the main stay fororganizations enabling them to integrate all their data processingrequirements and applications into a single, robust managementinformation system. Around the same time COBOL was developedwith the aim of making it easy to write business applications.This early beginning and widespread adoption of Mainframehardware with COBOL applications running on them has led tothe current scenario where almost all organizations have at least apart of their business IT requirements being addressed by ‘LegacySystems’. Significantly, these ‘Legacy Systems’ handle core businessfunctionalities and are characterized by large application sizes andhigh complexity.Rise of the AlternativesStarting with the 1970’s and 80’s, the world of computingsaw the conception and rise of alternate computing platformslike UNIX, Linux and Windows where the emphasis was onflexibility, interoperability, application portability and standardscompatibility. This also sparked the evolution and rise of variouslanguages, programming paradigms, application architectures andcommunication protocols. The advent of these more modernapplication languages and powerful, flexible computing platformshas provided organizations with cheaper and comparably powerful© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  3. 3. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011alternatives to run their business applications. They now haddifferent options to choose from for their IT infrastructurebeyond Mainframes.InertiaThe availability of options doesn’t automatically result in the useand adoption of the same. Factors like business criticality, existingtechnical complexity of the ‘Legacy Applications’, the innate riskaverseness of organizations and, in certain instances, the outrightsuperiority of the mainframes have resulted in their persistence asthe pre-dominant IT platform in spite of growth in the numberof replacement options. As a consequence of this inertia againstnew platforms, the Mainframe has evolved into a niche butmonopolistically controlled platform with unrealistic licensingcosts and methods.The Need for MigrationAt present, in a post recessionary world, organizational IT is drivenas much by the need to improve Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) andReturn on Investment (ROI) as it is by technical and performancecharacteristics. Now, organizations are keen to explore avenueswhich enable them to decrease costs while retaining functionality,meeting SLAs and mitigating risk. The main approach for realizingthis, by migrating their existing legacy applications and functionalityto alternate server environments which offer greater economiesof scale and increased business flexibility, has increasingly gainedcredibility among organizations as this enables them to reduceoverall expenditures while allowing them to leverage their existingsystems in new ways to open up opportunities for increasedIT value.Mainframe Migration OptionsMigrating out of mainframes can be accomplished in multiple ways,the main ones being:Application Re-engineeringThis approach involves partial or complete redesign of theapplication architecture and re-writing the application to fit into thisnew architecture. It results in an efficient and optimized solutionfor the platform it is being targeted at but is heavily dependenton the functionality of the current application being completelyunderstood and exactly replicated. This approach usually involvestaking advantage of modern programming languages, tools andmethodologies to transform and recode the existing functionality.Application ReplacementThis approach involves replacing the existing application and itsfunctionality with a ready-made solution package, also referred toas ‘Commercial-off-the-Shelf’ solution (COTS). ‘Replacement’ is aviable option when the ‘COTS’ already has all of the functionalitybeing delivered by the existing application and is available for thetarget platform being considered. In practice, however, no COTS© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  4. 4. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011product will be able to provide an exact functionality match andwould thus require varying degrees of customization and testingbefore it can be rolled-out for general use.Application RehostingThis approach involves changing hosts or platforms on which theapplication runs. However, unlike the other methods, the softwareapplication being rehosted doesn’t undergo major change in howthe end users use it. This ability to enable an existing applicationto be run ‘As-Is’, on the target platform ensures that Rehostingremoves the risk associated with adopting a new platform forexisting application functionality and at the same time bringsthe benefits of moving to a new platform in terms of flexibilityand cost.Migration Option ComparisonWhen compared based on parameters like Migration Cost,Migration Time, Time for realizing ROI, Skills required to work onthe Migrated platform, Migration Risks, Innovation in the processand Ability to Extend the application on the target platform, thevarious migration options stack up as follows: Re-engineer Replace Rehost Cost High High Moderate to Low Time High High to Moderate Low ROI Moderate Slow Fast Skills Re-train Re-train Retain Risks Moderate Moderate Low Innovation High Moderate Low Extensibility High High to Moderate ModerateTable A - Migration Option ComparisonIf organizations need a quick turnaround on their mainframemigration activity, a lower TCO and faster ROI in the migratedsolution, it is clear that Rehosting is the way to go.Application RehostingWhat it EntailsApplication Rehosting involves moving the application portfolio– everything that makes up the application’s eco-system likeapplication code and logic, data, scripts, screens etc. – from themainframe to the new platform with minimal or no changes. Itpreserves current business rules, procedures and functionalitiesand causes minimal disruption to how the end-user interfaces withthe application.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  5. 5. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Target PlatformsThe availability of multiple computing platforms in the market hasmeant that there are many target platform options to choose frombased on organization specific business needs and strategy. Thechoice of computing platforms includes: Hardware Platforms Wintel, x86, SPARC, Itanium Operating Systems Windows, UNIX, Linux Emulation Layers .NET, JVMTable B: Target platform options for rehostingTypes of RehostingThe major components that make up any legacy application arethe programs, batch scripts, UI components, files and tables.Apart from these the eco system also consists of components likecontrol cards and configuration files. On the basis of how thesesource components are handled during rehosting to a targetplatform, there are two main ways via which application rehostingcan be achieved.Retaining the Technology StackThis method makes sure that the change required in the existingtechnology stack of the application during rehosting is minimum,thereby eliminating risk to a high degree and greatly reducing thetime taken for the migration. To achieve all this, it necessitates thepresence of an Application Execution Environment (usually in theform of a software emulation layer) that provides behavior andtechnology support similar to the source mainframe. However,this method uses the target platform environment merely as afoundation for the emulation layer and doesn’t immediately exploitthe features of the environment for the application. Usually, in thismethod of rehosting, the task of altering the technology stack istaken up as a follow-up/ phase-2 activity.Altering the Technology StackThis method ensures that the way the end-users interact withthe application and application functionality remains unchangedbut changes a few components in the technology stack to takeadvantage of the target platform environment. For example, JCLsare converted to Shell Scripts; BMS Maps are converted to .NETscreens etc. However, the technology conversion makes this methodinherently more risky and would require more effort and time spenton risk mitigation efforts when compared to the previous method.Proven emulation platforms, tools and techniques by multiplevendors are available for rehosting of either type.(Refer to Appendix-A for a comparison between some of the mainplayers in this space).When to choose RehostingAll Legacy Applications are not automatically suited for rehosting.The choice of migration strategy depends on various factors like© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  6. 6. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011the size, complexity and criticality of the applications and systemsin consideration.For e.g., SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), could very wellapply Rehosting as a Mainframe Replacement strategy, becauseall of their applications might fit cleanly into a non-mainframeplatform. On the other hand, in case of Large Mainframe shops,rehosting of non-critical work off the mainframe can free up theMIPS for more critical data processing needs and also help defertheir mainframe upgrade plans thereby benefitting from a hybridMainframe + Rehosting solution.They main factors that need to be considered are: Technology Factors Business Factors The availability of an Execution En- Organization’s technology roadmap vironment for the technology stack and business plans that the Legacy on the preferred target platform Application must cater to The proportion of the technology Business criticality of the stack that is not readily Rehostable Legacy Application and requires some change The availability of options to port or Current TCO of the mainframe replicate the existing eco-system and the potential reduction in cost on the preferred target platform (TCO) which can be achieved Size of the mainframe, in MIPS, The time period in which cost that is being targeted for migration reduction can be achieved (ROI)Table C: Factors influencing migration optionsAs a thumb rule, ‘Rehosting’ can be a viable solution where• Legacy Application has a fairly standard mainframe technology stack (COBOL, PL/1, CICS, JCL, VSAM, GDG, DB2, IMS, BMS)• The mainframe MIPS consumption costs are disproportionately higher compared to associated business value which is derived from the mainframe• Quick turn-around is required for the migrationRehosting BenefitsThe benefits that Application Rehosting brings to the table can becategorized as below:ContinuityIt allows organizations to continue using the stable applicationsthat they have relied upon for long, since it involves using thesame application and technology stack but on a different platform.Extensive retraining of valuable personnel is eliminated and currentskill sets can be reused. This minimizes disruptions to existing teamsand workflows.Low RiskSince the amount of change required in the application iscomparatively minimal or non-existent (as against COTS orRe-engineering), this exercise is ‘low risk’ by definition.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  7. 7. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Low CostThe costs involved in procuring, operating and upgrading the targetplatform, in terms of hardware as well as software, are substantiallylower when compared to the costs incurred for the equivalentcomponents on the Mainframe. This results in huge cost savings forthe organization post-Rehosting, with typical ROI within 18 to 24months. It also significantly reduces cost of operations, freeing upthe IT budget for full modernization and innovation.Less Effortince most of the application technology stack is retained, existingdevelopment and maintenance resources can be reused withminimal retraining. It also ensures that end-users are not faced withany radically new way of interacting with the application, therebyreducing end-user re-training efforts.ScalabilityRehosting to a modern target platform provides the organizationwith the ability to scale the system up or down based on theirload and growth. But more importantly, it opens the possibility ofhorizontally scaling out their application servers into a ‘cluster’.FlexibilityBecause the applications are now running on modern platforms,they can often be easily wrapped in a powerful GUI as opposedto the traditional character-based UI. This also makes it easier andcheaper to extend the existing applications with a Web Servicesfront-end than when they were running on the mainframe.Rehosting vs. Other types of MigrationRehosting is inherently different from other types of Migrationbecause:• It involves moving the existing application to the target platform with minimal or no changes to the way it currently exists and behaves whereas other migration options involve changing the entire application architecture, technology stack and usability• It requires the availability of compilation and run-time support for mainframe application source and data on the target platform whereas other option involve using the native environments available on the target platform• It mainly addresses the high costs and inherent inflexibility of running Legacy Applications while reducing risks involved in moving to a cheaper platform whereas other migration options usually address the challenges related to application code quality and architecture also• It is largely tool driven and achieves the porting and execution of Legacy Applications on the new platform with a high degree of automation whereas other options are comparatively more manual-work intensive and time consuming© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  8. 8. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Rehosting – Reference Architecture UI Layer IMS Screens 3270 BMS Others Batch Layer (JES) JCL/ PROC/ other CL Job Scheduler (CA-7/-11 etc.) Third party Utilities IBM Utilities (IEBCOPY, (Sync SORT etc.) IEBGENER etc.) RACF, CA Top Secret, ACF2 etc. Data Layer Security Layer Indexed DB2/ IMS GDG Flat Files Files DB etc. Application Layer 4GL 3GL X Gen Pac Base Business Business Logic in Logic in CA Ideal Other COBOL PL/1 Assembler, REXX, DYL280, SAS etc. Transaction Layer CICS TS IMS DC Other z/OS, OS390, Bull etc. UI Layer 3270 IMS Screens BMS JSP HTML .NET Web Services Batch Layer (Emulated JES/ OS Layer etc.) Active Directory, OpenLDAP, Other LDAP based products JCL/ PROC/ shell Scripts/ Job Scheduler (Autosys, Perl .... BMC Control...) Equivalent 3rd party utilities Data Layer Security Layer Indexed RDBMS GDG Oracle, DB2 SQL Flat Files Files Server etc. Application Layer 4GL 3GL Business Business Converted to Logic in Logic in supported 3GL COBOL PL/1 Converted to equivalent in supported 3GL Transaction Layer Emulated CICS/ IMS DC/ OLTP environments Windows, UNIX, LinuxFigure 1 - Generic Rehosting Reference Architecture© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  9. 9. Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Application Rehosting ProcessLegacy applications usually exist within an ecosystem of interfaces,tools and utilities on the mainframe which they actively interactwith. Legacy applications, in general, also do not exist on themainframe in isolation and as such share certain application assetsand the mainframe resources with other applications. The presenceof such interactions and dependencies makes it imperative that anyrehosting exercise focuses on not just the application inventory butalso on providing a similar eco-system on the target platform forthe application to run in.In order to achieve that, the process of Rehosting should usually beas indicated: General Assessment Inventory Assessment Rehosting Strategy Platform Setup Pilot Rehosting Complete Rehosting Testing UAT Go-LiveFigure 2 – Rehosting ProcessGeneral AssessmentThis is the beginning of the process where the existing applicationon the mainframe is assessed to understand the following:Technology stackThis includes identifying programming languages, scriptinglanguages, transaction processing environments, batch and onlinetechnologies, files types, data types, database types and utilities.Application EnvironmentThis includes identifying processes for backups, archiving and DR,identifying application interfaces, character sets, compiler options,identifying batch scheduling, security and access managementrequirements and identifying utilities and third party toolsbeing used.Usage and PerformanceThis includes identifying application usage patterns, applicationload characteristics, application response times and base lining theperformance of the application in its current state.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Non-Performance ParametersThis includes identifying the requirements – existing as well asfuture – for application availability, scalability, modificationand extensibility.Inventory AssessmentThe general assessment is followed by a detailed inventoryassessment. This is required in order to obtain:Size of applicationIn terms of number of components and complexity of components.Technology GroupingGrouping of the components in terms of their technology tounderstand the size and proportion of each technology in theover-all technology stack.Rehosting StrategyThe results of the assessment enables the formation of the rehostingstrategy which consists of:• Choice of rehosting environment vendor• Strategy to handle un-supported technologies• Environment mapping• Target Architecture, Sizing and WorkflowRehosting Environment SetupThis is where the target platform is built for the first time andconfigured as per the decided architecture.Pilot RehostingAs the saying goes, “The proof is in the pudding”. Having donethe assessment and developed a strategy for the rehosting based onthat definitely makes the exercise proceed smoothly and quicklybut doesn’t provide a 100% guarantee that the strategy will succeedcompletely in meeting all the requirements. In order to save time,effort and costs, it is advisable to put the rehosting strategy to testby means of a Test run or Pilot done on a small, representativesubset of the application. This will help identify any shortfalls in theoverall rehosting strategy which can then be rectified accordingly.Rehost the complete applicationOnce the strategy has been tested and perfected via the Pilot, theentire application – programs, scripts, screens, data, tools andutilities – can then be rehosted to the target platform in a smoothand efficient manner.Post-Rehosting TestingBy definition, rehosting provides the same functionality of thelegacy application on the target platform. Hence the focus of the© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011testing effort in a typical rehosting exercise would be around thenon-functional aspects like performance, stability and availability.Functional regression testing will also be carried out.UAT/ Parallel Run/ Field TestingIn this phase, the target platform will be configured in the same wayas it would eventually be as a live system and will be run alongsidethe mainframe. As much as possible, the same data will be usedon both the platforms and end-users would be invited to use therehosted platform. Using the new platform in a production likeenvironment helps identify any final wrinkles in the rehostingstrategy and eliminate them.Go-liveThe final phase, where the new target platform takes the place ofthe mainframe as the application platform.TrainingAs a parallel activity which can be taken up along with any of thetesting phases, training activities have to be started for the variousteams that would be using the new platform. This includes:Application teamThey have to be trained in working with new IDEs which willbe used for ongoing application development and maintenanceactivities.Administration teamThey have to be trained in the administration of the variouscomponents that make up the new application ecosystem.Decommissioning ModernizationOnce the new platform is in place, plans for decommissioning theapplication from the mainframe as well as for modernizing andextending the rehosted application can be worked on.End NotesOne size doesn’t fit all in the context of legacy modernization.There is no single, pre-packaged solution that is right for everyoneseeking to modernize their existing mainframe applications.While the traditional legacy modernization and migration methodshave their place, “Legacy Rehosting” makes a strong case for itself asa viable modernization solution because of the benefits it provides interms of reduced migration risk, short implementation time frame,faster ROI and greatly reduced TCO. “Legacy Rehosting” worksfor enterprises irrespective of their mainframe footprint. It canbe leveraged either to completely replace their mainframes or forpartial workload offloading from the mainframe. In either case theend result is a sizable reduction in their overall mainframe costs.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011Appendix – A TP BP Other engines Appli‑ tools Data Platform Runtime cation (Monitor‑ Support environ‑ handling ing, Secu‑ ment rity etc.) Microfo‑ Windows Server Minimal ISAM Via 3rd cus UNIX Enterprise to No GDG Party Linux Edition (for change Any TPE BPE) RDBMS MFCOBOL Runtime Clerity Windows UniKix TPE Minimal ISAM Provides UNIX UniKix BPE to No Oracle, Monitoring, Linux change DB2 UDB Security vCOBOL and Access Runtime mgmt. All others via 3rd Party Oracle UNIX Tuxedo as JCL ISAM Via 3rd Tuxedo Linux TPE converted Oracle, Party OS Shell as to shell DB2 UDB BPE scripts MFCOBOL BMS or Net- converted COBOL to JSP/ HTML Fujitsu Windows NeoKicks BMS Convert Via 3rd Alchemy and .NET converted indexed Party NeoBatch to ASP. file to NET tables NetCOBOL Runtime Any RDBMS COBOL- Windows XCICS JCL VSAM Provides IT UNIX XeBE converted Emulation Schedul- HTWC Linux to shell Any ing. All COBOL-IT scripts RDBMS others via or Net- 3rd Party COBOL TMax‑ UNIX Open- Minimal VSAM Via 3rd Soft Linux FRAME (for to No Emulation Party TPE and change Any BPE) RDBMS Own COBOL Runtime IBM TX- Windows TX-Series JCL VSAM Via 3rd Series UNIX (CICS) as converted Emulation Party Linux TPE to shell Any No JCL scripts RDBMS support MFCOBOL or Net- COBOL***Click on the vendor name for the website© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011References1. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_IBM_mainframe_ operating_systems2. The History of Computing Project http://www.thocp.net/hardware/mainframe.htm3. IBM http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/ mainframe_intro.html4. University of Maryland, Baltimore County http://www.cs.umbc.edu/courses/graduate/631/Fall2002/ COBOL.pdf5. Microsoft http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details. aspx?FamilyID=1637d24d-fb67-4d6e-adc7-e101981c728bdispla ylang=enAbout the AuthorsSantosh Kumar is a Mainframe migration/modernization architectwith the HCL Mainframe Solutions Centre of Excellence. He hasaround 10 years of Mainframe development and solutions experienceand has been involved in architecting multiple large scale legacymodernization programs.Vishnu Prasad is a Senior Project Manager handling LegacyApplication Rehosting with the HCL Mainframe Solutions Centreof Excellence. He has around 10 years of Mainframe developmentand modernization solutions design experience.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14Virtual Mainframe - Legacy Application Rehosting | April 2011About HCLHCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies is a leading global IT services company, workingwith clients in the areas that impact and redefine the core of theirbusinesses. Since its inception into the global landscape after itsIPO in 1999, HCL focuses on ‘transformational outsourcing’,underlined by innovation and value creation, and offers integratedportfolio of services including software-led IT solutions, remoteinfrastructure management, engineering and RD services andBPO. HCL leverages its extensive global offshore infrastructureand network of offices in 26 countries to provide holistic,multi-service delivery in key industry verticals includingFinancial Services, Manufacturing, Consumer Services, PublicServices and Healthcare. HCL takes pride in its philosophy of‘Employee First’ which empowers our 72,267 transformers tocreate a real value for the customers. HCL Technologies, alongwith its subsidiaries, had consolidated revenues of US$ 3.1 billion(Rs. 14,101 crores), as on 31st December 2010 (on LTMbasis).About HCL EnterpriseHCL is a $5.5 billion leading global technology and IT enterprisecomprising two companies listed in India - HCL Technologiesand HCL Infosystems. Founded in 1976, HCL is one of India’soriginal IT garage start-ups. A pioneer of modern computing, HCLis a global transformational enterprise today. Its range of offeringsincludes product engineering, custom package applications,BPO, IT infrastructure services, IT hardware, systems integration,and distribution of information and communications technology(ICT) products across a wide range of focused industry verticals.The HCL team consists of over 79,000 professionals of diversenationalities, who operate from 31 countries including over500 points of presence in India. HCL has partnerships with severalleading Global 1000 firms, including leading IT and technologyfirms. For more information, please visit www.hcl.com.© 2011, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.

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