HCLT Whitepaper: Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment

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Development in the electronics industry has come a long way from nascent low performing devices to advanced devices with high computational speed and power. The advancement in the
industry led to an exponential increase in power densities, which in turn drove the innovation of smarter and smaller products. These advanced technologies, coupled with miniaturization requirements, guided innovation-driven thermal management in electronic devices.
Thermal management is essential in electronics, as it improves reliability and enhances performance by removing heat generated by the devices.
This paper highlights the development and challenges faced in the thermal management of electronic equipment in various domains.
It gives an overview of innovative cooling solutions developed over the years. It presents HCL case studies in various domains such as medical, consumer, aerospace and defense, and automotive
electronics. It also gives a process flow chart which demonstrates the thermal methodology of electronic equipment in general

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HCLT Whitepaper: Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment

  1. 1. February 2010Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment
  2. 2. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010ContentsAbstract 2Introduction 3Market Trend and Consumer Demand 3Need for Thermal Management 4Thermal Management: Challenges and Solutions 6Medical Electronics 9Consumer Electronics 11Aero Defense Electronics 13Automotive Electronics 15Process Flow 16Conclusion 17Appendix 18Acronyms 18References 19Authors 19ABOUT HCL 20AbstractDevelopment in the electronics industry has come a long wayfrom nascent low performing devices to advanced devices withhigh computational speed and power. The advancement in theindustry led to an exponential increase in power densities, which inturn drove the innovation of smarter and smaller products. Theseadvanced technologies, coupled with miniaturization requirements,guided innovation-driven thermal management in electronic devices.Thermal management is essential in electronics, as it improvesreliability and enhances performance by removing heat generatedby the devices.This paper highlights the development and challenges faced in thethermal management of electronic equipment in various domains.It gives an overview of innovative cooling solutions developedover the years. It presents HCL case studies in various domainssuch as medical, consumer, aerospace and defense, and automotiveelectronics. It also gives a process flow chart which demonstratesthe thermal methodology of electronic equipment in general.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  3. 3. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010IntroductionThe phrase thermal management encompasses the technology of thegeneration, control and dissipation of heat generated in electronicdevices and systems. Heat is an inevitable by-product of everyelectronic device, and is usually disadvantageous to performance andreliability. The electronic packaging trend has been to reduce sizeand increase performance of the product, both of which contributeto exponential increase in power consumption of the system. Figure 1: World thermal management market trend (Source: BCC Research, USA)BCC Research[6] has estimated that global thermal managementtechnology spending increased to an estimated $6.8 billion by theend of 2008 and should reach $11 billion by 2013 [Fig.1]. Report[6]highlights are given below.• The largest end-markets for thermal management technologies in 2007 were the computer industry (57% of total revenues) and telecommunications (16%)• By 2013, medical and office electronics should move into a tie for second place with telecommunications, each with a 12% market shareMarket Trend and Consumer DemandIn the past two decades, the conventional electronic industry hasbecome digital savvy, where consumer needs and demands are drivingthe design and manufacture of products. The electronic industryresponded to consumer demand with innovation, offering productswhich were more powerful than conventional ones, and matchingthe endless needs of the consumer. The electronic industry can bedivided into four broad categories. These categories represent all ofthe electronic devices in the industry. This section gives the markettrend and consumer demands for the aforesaid categories.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  4. 4. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Medical Electronics• According to Prismark Partners[13], approximately $53 billion was spent on non-IT medical electronics equipment in 2006, accounting for 4% of the global electronics industry• This amount is expected to reach $66 billion in 2010Consumer Electronics• Consumer electronics[14] sales are expected to hit 724 billion dollars in 2009, That’s up 4.3 percent from the 694 billion dollars in 2008• Flat panel displays were accounted for 57.2% of materials by 2003, and then to grow to 82.3% of the total by 2013• The value of worldwide shipments of display materials were reached $13.6 billion by 2003 and then to the growth of $30.8 billion by 2013• The value of CRT glass represented more than 88% of all CRT materials usedAero Defense Electronics• The performance of the market[10] is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 3.6 percent for the five-year period 2006-2011, expected to drive the market to a value of US$1,096 billion by the end of 2011• The US and European markets will grow over the same period with CAGRs of 3.4 percent and 3.9 percent respectively, to reach the values of US$594.5 billion and US$284.3 billion respectively in 2011Automotive Electronics• The automotive ASIC market[11] was worth $2.99 billion in 2006, and a compound annual growth rate of 8.2 percent would put it at $4.10 billion by 2010Need for Thermal ManagementIf we observe the statistics of market trends and consumer demand inelectronics, there has been an explosive growth in the industry. Thetremendous growth in electronic equipment demands innovativesolutions to the new challenges of thermal management. The majorchallenges on the thermal management front can be understoodby the heat dissipation of electronic devices, which vary from5 W/cm2 on a PWB to 2000 W/cm2 for a semiconductor laser.Providing cooling solution for former heat flux is manageable, butfor later heat flux is very difficult, and needs novel cooling solutions.This will be further explained in Fig. 2.In general, a vehicle re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere will havethe highest heat flux on its surface. Figure 2 shows the heat fluxvariation with comparative technologies trend. VLSI electronicsheat flux can be comparable with that of re-entry heat flux; thisheat flux is very high. Thermal management must be provided forthese electronics.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  5. 5. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010 Figure 2: Heat flux vs. comparative technologies trend (Source: Charlespoint Group Boston, MA)Further, the junction temperature of the chip has to be maintainedbelow the allowable limit specified by the vendor in most cases forboth performance and reliability factor. Reliability[1] is defined as theprobability that a device will perform its required function understated conditions for a specific period of time. Product reliability isseen as the single most important factor to determine the qualityand superiority of product technology. Stringent standards andguidelines to ensure user safety have revolutionized developmentin the packaging industry The need for increased reliability hasenergized the industry to seek the latest cutting-edge technologysolutions.From a reliability and performance point of view, thermalmanagement needs to be carried out for every electronic devicewhich dissipates heat. This is essential for modern electronics,for as they consume more power, they also generate more heat.This has led to the development of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation software and advances in thermal managementtechniques. The increasing complexity and power density ofmodern electronics has challenged the traditional approach of usingprototypes and testing. The modern CFD simulation softwaredeveloped for challenging environments and high power dissipationdevices has led to a reduction in the product development cycle.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  6. 6. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Thermal Management: Challenges and SolutionsThis section describes various challenges faced in thermal managementand the novel solutions for the ever growing challenges.Thermal Management ChallengesThe following are thermal management challenges in electronicequipment:• Reduced form factors• Ever growing power densities• Harsh environments• Product miniaturization• Reducing product cost• Reliability and performance constraints• Meeting stringent standards• Development of advanced technologies and materials• Increasing consumer demands and needsThe next section explains some of the thermal management solutionsdeveloped over the years.Thermal Management SolutionsSolutions were developed based on thermal requirements ofelectronic equipment. Thermal management of electronic devicescan be classified on two broad-based parameters, i.e. product leveland industry level. The product level can be further classified intotwo levels.• Printed wire board (PWB) level – DIMMs, power cards, processors, chips and various components• System level – Single rack (e.g. servers, etc.) – Multiple racks (e.g. data center, etc.) Figure 3: Analysis level vs. industry trend (Source: HCL Technologies Ltd)© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  7. 7. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Figure 3 shows the distribution of thermal management in industrylevels with that of component, board and system level analysis.The comparative data highlights the focus of industry ledinnovation. For instance, the medical electronics industry is morefocused on making products at system level, whereas consumerelectronics focuses more on component level analysis (like thesemiconductor industry).The latest technologies in the thermal management arena functionin and around the basic heat transfer modes, i.e. conduction,convection (natural and forced) and radiation. Development hasreached a stage where the technologies overlap the basic functionalindustrial domains. Figure 4 gives the usage percentage of eachmode of heat transfer technology in various domains. Dependingupon the requirement in the respective domains, a different modeof heat transfer will be chosen accordingly. For example, themedical electronics domain will use primarily conduction coolingtechnology, whereas consumer electronics will mostly use naturalconvection heat transfer technology. Figure 4: Industry vs. heat transfer technologies trend (Source: HCL Technologies Ltd) Figure 5: Heat flux vs. year of cooling technology development (Source: IBM USA[7])© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  8. 8. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010The chip cooling technologies are evolving over the years toaccommodate steep increase in heat flux. Figure 5 shows the plotbetween advancement in cooling technology and chip heat flux.The exponential curve shows the increase in the heat flux andchanges in the cooling technologies. Future cooling solutions arebeing developed around multi-phase heat transfer technologies. Thecooling technologies such as thermal vapor chamber, cold platesand jet impingement mechanisms have revolutionized the future ofthe thermal management landscape.The solution for these challenging thermal tasks has led to noveltyin thermal management. The development of technologies ismoving from single-phase heat transfer to multi-phase heat transfer,which has led to the design of advanced cooling solutions. The latestcooling technologies leverage nanotechnology and the advancementin smart materials. Figure 6 briefly explains the various innovativecooling solutions available in the thermal management industry. Figure 6: Innovative cooling solutions© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  9. 9. Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Medical ElectronicsThe medical electronics area has traditionally included implantablemedical devices, medical diagnostic tools and monitoring devices.Today, however, the market is being fueled by an explosive growthin personal medical equipment. Driven by the need to reducehealthcare costs, patients’ desires to manage their own health, andan increased emphasis on preventive medicine, the adoption ofconsumer based, portable and often wearable medical products isincreasing at a substantial rate. The major medical products can beclassified into two categories.• Large infrastructure equipment – Medical imaging systems (e.g. X-ray and MRI) – IT equipment (e.g. picture archival communication systems) – Biochemical analysis equipment (e.g. lab instruments and DNA analyzers)• Small stationary - portable equipment – Patient monitoring systems – Bedside monitoring unitsChallenges• Meeting stringent medical standards• Overall reliability requirements, including component reliability, test methods and standards• Limited space and closed-case environment• The acoustic design standards limit the use of moving parts• Advancement in printed circuit board (PCB) substrate technology provides a new challenge when using conduction cooling technique• In-depth understanding of RF technology and potential communication interference between medical devices and other productsHCL Case Study: Thermal Analysis of Bed Side Monitor UnitThe bedside monitor unit is designed for high packaging factor,plus low EMI/EMC and noise levels. It consists of multiple inputoutput boards dissipating 90W of heat, and was designed to meetIngress protection standards. A typical bedside monitor unit isshown in Fig. 7.Thermal Challenges• Low EMI/EMC design• High packaging factor• Very low noise levels• Power dissipation is 80W• Qualifying for ingress protection standards© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Cooling Solution• Special baffles were designed to divert the flow from fans to heat sink as the EMI/EMC shields were obstructing the flow• With the help of dedicated ducts, pressure drop was optimized inside the system• To reduce the temperature of the unit, low thermal conductive material was used between heat dissipating chips and the unit surface• A low-noise fan was chosen to meet noise and vibration standards Figure 7: Bedside monitor unit© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Consumer ElectronicsIn this era of communications and entertainment, growth ofconsumer electronics is exploding. Consumer demand for increasedmobility, wireless connectivity and advanced features demand haspaved the way for a variety of new products, including servers,laptops, ruggedized laptops, hybrid routers, data centers andcameras. The silicon solutions driving these products are morehighly integrated than ever before, as advancements in processtechnology are delivering system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions that aresmaller, faster, and lower cost. These trends, along with the broadrange of emerging equipment, require diversity in new IC packagetypes to meet specific applications.The evolution of the microprocessor from a 486 Intel chip to amulti-core processor shows the exponential increase in powerdensity needed to achieve superior computing power. Figure 8shows the comparative changes in processor wattage over the years.The obvious change in the processors is the amount of powerconsumption, which has increased from 70W to 250W in the lastdecade. This power consumption has challenged the industry tocreate cutting edge technologies to deal with thermal management.Consumer electronics thermal management is one of the mostchallenging and innovative in the entire technological landscape.The semiconductor which involves chip cooling to server anddatacenter cooling has led to innovation of some of the finest coolingtechnologies in the field of thermal management (Fig. 6). Figure 8: Power vs. chip development (Source: HCL Technologies Ltd)Challenges• Harsh environment• High power dissipation• Miniaturization• Competitive packaging factor with overall high heat flux© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010• Components with a lower form factor pose a challenge due to obstructed flow passage• Acoustic and vibration standards• Ineffective and insufficient airflow distributionHCL Case Study: Thermal Management ofMulti-Core ProcessorUntil now in the electronic industry, a passive cooling solution hasdominated previous generation processors. This solution is verycumbersome and noisy because it contains a big heat sink, heat pipesand a dedicated fan. This system consists of a multi-core processer.The total power consumption of the unit is 220W. Since it is a nextgeneration processor (number of cores and power dissipation wasmore), the thermal management is even more cumbersome andchallenging. There is a need to provide a feasible thermal coolingsolution for this processor at high ambient temperature. Thermalmanagement in a multi-core processor is shown in Fig. 9.Thermal Challenges• High ambient temperature• High power dissipation = 220W• Pressure drop should be minimumCooling Solution• A novel cold plate has been designed for the multi-core processor• The number of passes for the cold plate was optimized with a constraint on minimizing the pressure drop• A simple, reliable, hassle-free and optimal cold plate has been designed for next generation processors Figure 9: Cold plate technology for multi-core processor cooling© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Aero Defense ElectronicsThe Aero and Defense industry is entering a transformational changewith more power efficient and higher power density components.Thermal and power management are widely considered to be thecrucial links in the ability to embrace high performance advancedtechnology. The development in directed-energy weapons andUAVs is growing, and these innovations require ultra-efficientenergy systems. The products include electric power generating,distribution, management and control systems, auxiliary powerunits, LRUs, and environmental control systemsCurrent and future generation processors are making it difficult formilitary systems designers to efficiently manage thermals in missioncritical systems, forcing thermal engineers to devise novel methodsof thermal management.Aero and Defense electronics thermal management is one ofthe most sensitive to the environment and most stringent inthe entire technological landscape. The lightweight carbonthermal-management systems, fuel cells, CNT thermal interfaceand spray cooling are innovations of the decade which are meetingthe tough requirement of Aero standards.Challenges• Require more power, but have less space• High functional density• Compatibility with two-level maintenance• Ability to facilitate insertion of new technology and mitigate component obsolescence• Harsh environment conditions with high product reliability• Adherences to RTCA DO StandardsHCL Case Study: Thermal Simulation of Line Replace UnitIn Aero and Defense, the typical field problem in line replacementunits (LRUs) of an aircraft involves the rapid thermal runaway inelectrical components due to the high power density of 6,750W. Itconsists of electrical components including IGBTs, transformers,inductors and bus bars. There is a need to consider the joule heatingeffect on bus bars while optimizing them. A detailed modeling ofthese components was done, and the LRU is shown in Fig. 10.Thermal Challenges• Altitude condition• Cooling high power density components such as IGBTs, transformers and inductors• High power dissipation = 6,750W• Bus bars design and optimization with joule heating effect• Pumping power should be minimum• Detailed modeling of transformers, inductors and bus bars• Preventing thermal runaway© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Cooling Solution• Detailed modeling was done for complex transformers, inductors and bus bars• The cooling solution was provided using liquid technology• The cold plate was designed for optimum velocity and pressure drop• Complex bus bars were designed and optimized• Joule heating effect was evaluated with respect to optimum bus bar design• Transformers and inductors were cooled by routing the flow through the optimized channels• Cold plate has been optimized with respect to pressure drop Figure 10: Line replacement unit© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  15. 15. 15Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Automotive ElectronicsThe quantity, value and complexity of electronics in passengervehicles continue to rise. This brings a corresponding increase inshielding, grounding and thermal management challenges for theautomotive design engineer. Vehicle electronics can be loosely splitinto ‘in cab’ and ‘out of cab’ applications.• In cab applications – Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) – Instrument panels – Radios – Infotainment – Satellite navigation – Head-up displays• Out of cab applications – Engine management ECUs – Braking ECUs – Diverse array of sensor unitsThe emergence and evolution of thick, soft thermal gap fillers ineither die-cut sheet or form-in-place formats range has enabledengineers to effectively couple surface-mount devices to a chassisor enclosure. At the same time, this approach can often simplifyand speed module assembly by removing the need for somemechanical fixes.Challenges• High engine temperature environment• Harsh operating conditions• Stringent automobile standards• Use of commercially available, off-the-shelf items to control product cost• Electronics modules in passenger vehicles, particularly those mounted out-of-cab, are often sealed to prevent moisture ingress, which makes it very challenging to provide a cooling solution• Cooling techniques are limited to conduction and “limited” convection• Under-bonnet modules are often exposed to extreme temperatures coupled with smaller footprints• Protecting modules from damage or malfunction due to spurious electrical signals through EMI/EMC shieldingHCL Case Study: Thermal Analysis of Motor Control UnitThe development of the electric car has propelled the need forthermal management in the electric motor. The electric motorcouples inductors and a rotating hub to produce wheel motion.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  16. 16. 16Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010Heat is a by-product of this mechanism. The thermal wattage isaround 1.5kw A typical motor control unit is shown in Fig. 11.Thermal Challenges• High thermal dissipation = 1.5kw Modeling of inductors• Design of an optimal flow channel• Selection of a coolant• Pumping power should be minimized• Complexity of the model and flowCooling Solution• Glycol-based water cooling jackets were designed to transfer the high wattage• Optimal coolant pumping rate was found where pumping power is minimized• Coolant fluid flow channels are optimized for maximum heat transfer and minimum pressure drop• Complex inductors were modeled Figure 11: Motor control unitProcess FlowA thermal engineer makes use of industry-wide best practices and hisjudgment for engineering design decisions. The three most importantproponents in making engineering decisions: 1. Understand theheat transfer circuit of the system (i.e. convection, conduction andradiation); 2. A thermal equivalent model for analysis needs to beidentified for mimicking the exact model; 3. A process flow chartmust be designed to reduce errors in the model and analysis, andto obtain the results quickly. Figure 12 shows the indicative bestpractice for the thermal simulation of board level and system levelproduct designs.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  17. 17. 17Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010 Figure 12: Thermal management methodology (Source: HCL Technologies Ltd)ConclusionThis paper highlights the importance of thermal management(reliability and performance of devices) in electronic equipmentwith respect to ever increasing product packaging factors, thermalwattages, and consumer needs. A glimpse of market trends andconsumer demand for electronics was presented, with a viewof the increasing importance of thermal management. Thermalmanagement needs, challenges and solutions were also highlighted.An overview of specialized cooling solutions has been given withrespect to product advancement. Case studies were presented invarious domains (medical, consumer, aero defense and automotiveelectronics) to illustrate HCL’s capabilities. A thermal managementmethodology flow chart was designed using best practices, andsimulation approaches from the industry were also presented.As needs and demands grow every day, thermal managementtechnology will continue to evolve.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  18. 18. 18Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010AppendixSource HCL Technologies Ltd: The data represented inthis paper is from the vast experience of HCL Technologiesin Thermal Management. The data is collected from100 different products in each of the following domains (Medicalelectronics, Consumer electronics, Aero/ Defense electronics andAutomotive electronics).AcronymsCFD Computational Fluid DynamicsCNT Carbon NanotubesCRT Cathode Ray TubeDIMM Dual In-line Memory ModuleECU Engine Control UnitEMI/EMC Electromagnetic Interference/ CompatibilityIC Integrated CircuitIGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar TransistorLRU Line Replace UnitPWB/PCB Printed Wiring Board/ Printed Circuit BoardRF Radio FrequencyUAV Unmanned Aerial VehicleVLSI Very Large Scale Integration© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  19. 19. 19Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010References1. Scott Speaks Vicor, ‘Reliability and MTBF Overview’, Vicor Reliability Engineering, Europe2. Tai Phan and Joseph Steinman, ‘AMC/ATCA Thermal Management: A Case Study’, Interphase Corporation3. Dr. Robert Hannemann, ‘Thermal Control of Electronics: Perspectives and Prospects’, Charlespoint Group, Boston, MA4. Joseph Fjelstad, ‘Thermal Management Challenges’, Verdant Electronics5. Roger Schmidt, ‘Data Center Trends and Power Management’, IBM USA6. BCC Research, http://www.bccresearch.com/report/SMC024E.html7. Richard C. Chu, ‘Thermal Management Roadmap: Cooling Electronic Products from Hand-Held Devices to Supercomputers’, IBM USA8. http://www.omai.com.cn/en/shownews.asp?id=1659. http://en.kioskea.net/news/11734-growth-in-consumer-electronics- sales-to-slow-in-200910. http://www.ebis.com.sg/Portals/0/pdfs/InfoByte/Public/ Aerospace%20%20Defense.pdf11. http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800480602_499501_NT_d2dce9db. HTM12. http://www.ti.com/research/docs/SemiconductorPackagingWP.pdf13. http://www.prismark.com/AuthorsJagadish Thammanna is a Manager and Heads the CFD andThermal team at HCL Technologies. He has 15 years of experiencein Thermal management in all the niche domains and variouscross-application industries. His areas of interest includeComputational Fluid Dynamics, heat transfer and scientificprogramming. In his vast experience, he has presented and publishedmany national and international papers at technical symposiums.Ambuj Srivastav is a Thermal Analyst at HCL Technologies. Hehas 5 years of experience in designing and developing innovativesolutions for the thermal management of electronic devices, and hiscore domain areas expertise lies in thermal management of aerospaceand automotive lines of products. His experience in industry widepractices has given him insight to work on the cutting edge and thelatest technologies in thermal management.© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  20. 20. 20Thermal Management in Electronic Equipment | February 2010ABOUT HCLHCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies is a leading global IT services company, workingwith clients in the areas that impact and redefine the core of theirbusinesses. Since its inception into the global landscape after its IPOin 1999, HCL focuses on ‘transformational outsourcing’, underlinedby innovation and value creation, and offers integrated portfolio ofservices including software-led IT solutions, remote infrastructuremanagement, engineering and RD services and BPO. HCLleverages its extensive global offshore infrastructure and network ofoffices in 26 countries to provide holistic, multi-service delivery inkey industry verticals including Financial Services, Manufacturing,Consumer Services, Public Services and Healthcare. HCL takespride in its philosophy of ‘Employee First’ which empowers our55,688 transformers to create a real value for the customers. HCLTechnologies, along with its subsidiaries, had consolidated revenuesof US$ 2.5 billion (Rs. 11,833 crores), as on 31st December 2009 (onLTM basis). For more information, please visit www.hcltech.comAbout HCL EnterpriseHCL is a $5 billion leading global Technology and IT Enterprisethat comprises two companies listed in India - HCL Technologies HCL Infosystems. Founded in 1976, HCL is one of India’soriginal IT garage start-ups, a pioneer of modern computing, anda global transformational enterprise today. Its range of offeringsspans Product Engineering, Custom Package Applications,BPO, IT Infrastructure Services, IT Hardware, SystemsIntegration, and distribution of ICT products across a wide rangeof focused industry verticals. The HCL team comprises over62,000 professionals of diverse nationalities, who operate from26 countries including over 500 points of presence in India. HCLhas global partnerships with several leading Fortune 1000 firms,including leading IT and Technology firms. For more information,please visit www.hcl.in© 2010, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.

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