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The Human perception & Overview
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The Human perception & Overview


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  • brain image: CC. Patrick J. Lynch,
  • Transcript

    • 1. the humanperception and cognition
    • 2. computational analogy input processing outputperception cognition action (thinking and memory) (motor system)
    • 3. a cycle of interaction cognitionperception action the world
    • 4. perception
    • 5. ‘the’ five senses sight distant sound complex smell closerpain, temperature, pressure, texture touch contact largely taste inside! smell!
    • 6. ‘the’ five senses sight soundnot the whole smell story touch taste
    • 7. outside and within exteroception interoceptionsight, sound, headaches,smell, touch, hunger, taste proprioception sensing the sensing the outside inside
    • 8. outside and within exteroception interoceptionsight,sight, sound, headaches,smell, most used sense in interfaces touch, hunger, taste (e.g. retina displays!) proprioception sensing the half the brain around sensing the dedicated to vision outside inside
    • 9. sight and sound in short
    • 10. the eye(s) and visionon the front iris & pupil (lens) – adjust light level and focus two of them – 3D vision – but not the only wayat the back fovea – detailed and colour ... but very small, peripheral vision – b&w, movement, grabs attentioninside two pathways – fast, old, unconscious + slower, newer, conscious
    • 11. the ears and soundinherently temporal no ‘still’ sound => issues for mediatwo of them & pinna directional ... stereo & full 3Dlittle physical focus, but ... attention – cocktail part effect background – context and grab attention
    • 12. eye & ear ... commonattention – focus limited construction filling ga meaning grabbing attentionperiphery – context, broader, but unconscious
    • 13. cognitionmemory and thinking
    • 14. memory in short
    • 15. types of memory timescale seconds sensory memory short-term memory (STM) minutes mezzanine memoryhours/days lifetime long-term memory (LTM)
    • 16. comparison short term long term mezzanine capacity 7+/-2 chunks big! ? decay ~30s lifetime ? mins–hours needs rehearsallaying down implicit repetition implicit neural electrical physical chemical?mechanism neuron firing synapse growth LTP
    • 17. types of LTMepisodic serial memory of events may be hard to recall out of order => story and narrativesemantic / declarative facts, concepts, skills links and associations => recognition vs recall
    • 18. semantic not photographic perception encode reconstruct memoriesall memories are constructed  confabulation, false memories
    • 19. mezzanine memory what have I been doing recently? short-term episodic memory what am I doing now? context – activates LTM cockpits and control rooms situation awareness reading long-term working memory
    • 20. implicit / tacit as well as explicitautomatic reactionsmotor memoriesexpert knowledge proceduralisation activation & context implicit explicit introspection & externalisation
    • 21. thinking
    • 22. logical?Aristotle & formal logic all men are mortal Socrates is a man => Socrates is mortalWason card test possible rule: vowel one side ⇒even on other is it right? E 7 K 2 3 4 U P A Z
    • 23. reasoning – the real worldconfirmationnot falsificationabductionnot deductionsatisficingnot optimality
    • 24. special purpose intelligenceWason rule: vowel one side ⇒even on other E 7 K 2 socialsocial rule: take newspaper ⇒pay for it rule: take newspaper ⇒pay for it no paper no £ paper £
    • 25. below the surface linear – single ‘stream of conscious consciousness’ interruptions = disruptions multitasking – really rapid switching priming, insightunconscious non-linear, fuzzy, intuitive, associative share with animals
    • 26. into action andinto the world
    • 27. we live to act cognitionperception action the world
    • 28. low levelautomatic reactions innate and learnt e.g. heat reflexhand–eye coordination Fitts’ Law: s time ~ log (distance/size) d
    • 29. perception and action single stream of consciousnessattention single stream of activity grabbing attention often physical movementperiphery feeds unconsciousness associations
    • 30. higher levellonger–term conscious planning and activitymoment-to-moment Norman’s execution evaluation cycle user establishes the goal formulates intention specifies actions at interface goal executes action execution evaluation perceives system state interprets system state system evaluates system state with respect to goal
    • 31. Human error - slips and mistakesslip understand system and goal correct formulation of action incorrect actionmistake may not even have right goal!Fixing things? slip – better interface design mistake – better understanding of system
    • 32. all in the mind?reminders, lists, notes, workingswe think using the world distributed cognition situated action extended mind