The Human perception & Overview

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  • brain image: CC. Patrick J. Lynch, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Skull_and_brain_normal_human.svg&page=1
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Descartes-reflex.JPG
  • The Human perception & Overview

    1. 1. the humanperception and cognition
    2. 2. computational analogy input processing outputperception cognition action (thinking and memory) (motor system)
    3. 3. a cycle of interaction cognitionperception action the world
    4. 4. perception
    5. 5. ‘the’ five senses sight distant sound complex smell closerpain, temperature, pressure, texture touch contact largely taste inside! smell!
    6. 6. ‘the’ five senses sight soundnot the whole smell story touch taste
    7. 7. outside and within exteroception interoceptionsight, sound, headaches,smell, touch, hunger, taste proprioception sensing the sensing the outside inside
    8. 8. outside and within exteroception interoceptionsight,sight, sound, headaches,smell, most used sense in interfaces touch, hunger, taste (e.g. retina displays!) proprioception sensing the half the brain around sensing the dedicated to vision outside inside
    9. 9. sight and sound in short
    10. 10. the eye(s) and visionon the front iris & pupil (lens) – adjust light level and focus two of them – 3D vision – but not the only wayat the back fovea – detailed and colour ... but very small, peripheral vision – b&w, movement, grabs attentioninside two pathways – fast, old, unconscious + slower, newer, conscious
    11. 11. the ears and soundinherently temporal no ‘still’ sound => issues for mediatwo of them & pinna directional ... stereo & full 3Dlittle physical focus, but ... attention – cocktail part effect background – context and grab attention
    12. 12. eye & ear ... commonattention – focus limited construction filling ga meaning grabbing attentionperiphery – context, broader, but unconscious
    13. 13. cognitionmemory and thinking
    14. 14. memory in short
    15. 15. types of memory timescale seconds sensory memory short-term memory (STM) minutes mezzanine memoryhours/days lifetime long-term memory (LTM)
    16. 16. comparison short term long term mezzanine capacity 7+/-2 chunks big! ? decay ~30s lifetime ? mins–hours needs rehearsallaying down implicit repetition implicit neural electrical physical chemical?mechanism neuron firing synapse growth LTP
    17. 17. types of LTMepisodic serial memory of events may be hard to recall out of order => story and narrativesemantic / declarative facts, concepts, skills links and associations => recognition vs recall http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Tyger_BM_a_1794.j
    18. 18. semantic not photographic perception encode reconstruct memoriesall memories are constructed  confabulation, false memories
    19. 19. mezzanine memory what have I been doing recently? short-term episodic memory what am I doing now? context – activates LTM cockpits and control rooms situation awareness reading long-term working memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Swiss_Saab_2000_Cockpit.jpg
    20. 20. implicit / tacit as well as explicitautomatic reactionsmotor memoriesexpert knowledge proceduralisation activation & context implicit explicit introspection & externalisation http://www.flickr.com/photos/protographer23/358987856/
    21. 21. thinking
    22. 22. logical?Aristotle & formal logic all men are mortal Socrates is a man => Socrates is mortalWason card test possible rule: vowel one side ⇒even on other is it right? E 7 K 2 3 4 U P A Z
    23. 23. reasoning – the real worldconfirmationnot falsificationabductionnot deductionsatisficingnot optimality
    24. 24. special purpose intelligenceWason rule: vowel one side ⇒even on other E 7 K 2 socialsocial rule: take newspaper ⇒pay for it rule: take newspaper ⇒pay for it no paper no £ paper £
    25. 25. below the surface linear – single ‘stream of conscious consciousness’ interruptions = disruptions multitasking – really rapid switching priming, insightunconscious non-linear, fuzzy, intuitive, associative share with animals
    26. 26. into action andinto the world
    27. 27. we live to act cognitionperception action the world
    28. 28. low levelautomatic reactions innate and learnt e.g. heat reflexhand–eye coordination Fitts’ Law: s time ~ log (distance/size) d
    29. 29. perception and action single stream of consciousnessattention single stream of activity grabbing attention often physical movementperiphery feeds unconsciousness associations
    30. 30. higher levellonger–term conscious planning and activitymoment-to-moment Norman’s execution evaluation cycle user establishes the goal formulates intention specifies actions at interface goal executes action execution evaluation perceives system state interprets system state system evaluates system state with respect to goal
    31. 31. Human error - slips and mistakesslip understand system and goal correct formulation of action incorrect actionmistake may not even have right goal!Fixing things? slip – better interface design mistake – better understanding of system
    32. 32. all in the mind?reminders, lists, notes, workingswe think using the world distributed cognition situated action extended mind

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