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Emotion

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  • 1. experience and emotion Alan Dix Talis & University of Birminghamhttp://www.hcibook.com/e4/chapters/emotion
  • 2. experience and emotion why user experience is important the use of emotion theories of emotion design of experience peak experience extended episodic experience
  • 3. why user experience?
  • 4. emotion matters!clinical images of technology vs. Facebook? 1980s phone brick vs. iPhone emotion is part of being human
  • 5. not new?from early days (inc. iso 9241): effectiveness efficiency satisfactiond o re ign often
  • 6. business valuefor employees happy users are productive usersfor customers happy users are buying users!
  • 7. why UX now? service orientation never had it so good?
  • 8. service orientation
  • 9. internet => service rather than productservice => more frequent user choicemore choice => usability and UX critical
  • 10. never had it so good?
  • 11. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pursue higher needs only self- afterlevel 5 actualisation lower needs satisfied creativity, autonomy, learning, personal growthlevel 4 esteem needs (ego) approval, status, prestige, self-worth, self-confidencelevel 3 love needs (social) to be loved, cared for, friendship. relationships sense of family, tribe, class, territorylevel 2 safety needs (security) shelter, protection from harm and from diseaselevel 1 physical needs, food, water, warmth, immediate escape from danger and pain
  • 12. ... and for user interfaces?increasing focus onuser experience useronce ‘lower’ experienceneeds aresatisfied usability? functionality
  • 13. is this right?western obsession with slimming?what if I talk too long and you get hungry?... Apple strong focus on UX, but usability and functionality suffer
  • 14. when feelings matter
  • 15. emotion in interfacesprimary goal – eliciting emotion is the purpose of the product e.g. art, games, entertainment – may need more functional support e.g. efficient TV remote, Flickr image uploadersecondary goal – some other primary purpose – but emotions help e.g. alertness in repetitive job, motivation in learningN.B. overlap, e.g. online shopping
  • 16. systems and emotioninput/outputelicit emotion – designed to create a feeling e.g. dependability for bank, excitement for holidaydetect and respond to emotion affective g – detect emotion mputin co e.g. physiological sensing, language, facial expressions – modify and adapt the system e.g. if game player bored increase the difficultyact as conduit for emotion – record or transmit users own emotions e.g. emoticons in IM
  • 17. systems and emotioninput/outputelicit emotion – designed to create a feeling e.g. dependability for bank, excitement for holidaydetect and respond to emotion affective g – detect emotion mputin co e.g. physiological sensing, language, facial expressions – modify and adapt the system e.g. if game player bored increase the difficultyact as conduit for emotion – record or transmit users own emotions e.g. emoticons in IM
  • 18. example application areas games, toys and companions, education, arts, home, intimacy
  • 19. gamesemotion is the primary focus, aim to elicit emotionSnood like bar-game ‘bubbles’ but the faces make it feel different
  • 20. educationemotion secondary goal, aim to elicit emotion• games and edutainment• extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation• persuasive interfaces
  • 21. the homeemotion is the primary focus, aim to elicit emotionplace of frenzied activity and place of calmwork of living and pleasure of life the right colours, the right designsbig consumer area: e.g. Philips Ambilight
  • 22. intimacyemotion is the primary focus, aim to mediateemotion• loved ones far away – friends, family, partners• can technology bring people nearer – social networking – wearable and ubiquitous technology inTouch Scent Whispers
  • 23. expressing affect and identityexplicit expression – mediate emotion• emoticons• capitalisation• drawing
  • 24. expressing affect and identityexpression through action – detect emotionSenToythe Splatty
  • 25. EXERCISE• individually – think of two ‘experiences’ (good or bad) • one with technology • one without• in small groups (2-4 people) – discuss your experiences with one another: • is experience primary or secondary goal? • where does the emotion fit in Maslow? • (for technology experiences) does it elicit, detect or mediate emotion?
  • 26. theories of emotion,motivation and experience psychology, physiology, sociality reason and emotion, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, experience and enchantment
  • 27. kinds of emotionpsychologists distinguish: emotion – physiological and neurological state of the body feeling – subjective experience mood – longer term positive or negative feelings based on chemical and other factors in the body
  • 28. kinds of emotion (2)basic emotions e.g. fear, anger and happiness – shared with many animals – limbic system of the brain (aka. ‘reptile’ brain)complex emotions e.g. shame, anxiety, and regret – higher parts of the brain making sense of lower emotions and influencing them
  • 29. kinds of emotion (3)arousal – flight or fight response heart rate, dilation of blood vessels, adrenaline – same physiological state for fear and laughtervalance – direction: positive or negative – harder to detect from physiological signs can use facial expression, voice, vocabulary (semantic)
  • 30. reason and emotionemotion is essential for reasoning – Mr Spock? real case ‘Elliot’ tumour cut off emotion IQ perfect, but couldn’t make decisions – not just random! ‘gut’ feelings are heuristic ... but fast!also regulates – motivation and focus keeps us on the job – boredom changing tack when stuck
  • 31. the happy meanYerkes–Dodson curve – best performance at medium arousal optimal performance High overstimulation wakefulness Performance Low Low High Level of Arousal
  • 32. the happy meanYerkes–Dodson curve optimal performance High overstimulation wakefulness – best performance at medium arousal Performance Low Low High Level of Arousalflow (Csikszentmihalyi) – understanding experience – between boredom and anxiety http://www.flickr.com/photos/indywriter/339896763/
  • 33. the happy meanYerkes–Dodson curve optimal performance High overstimulation wakefulness – best performance at medium arousal Performance Low Low High Level of Arousalflow (Csikszentmihalyi) – understanding experience – between boredom and anxietyzone of proximal development (Vygotsky) – education – at the edges of knowledge
  • 34. experience and enchantment(McCarthy and Wright)four threads of experience sensual – visual, aural, tactile emotional – feelings, relationships compositional – integrity, coherence spatio-temporal – sense of time and location
  • 35. experience and enchantment (2)(McCarthy and Wright)six processes of sense-making anticipating – what is going to happen connecting – pre-cognitive sensation interpreting – complex emotions reflecting – looking back appropriating – interweaving into life recounting – telling others
  • 36. EXERCISEin your groups – do any of these theories help you to understand/express your experiences
  • 37. designing experience? crackers – a case study
  • 38. designing experience• real crackers – cheap and cheerful! – bad joke, plastic toy, paper hat – pull and bang
  • 39. designing experience• virtual crackers – cheap and cheerful – bad joke, web toy, cut-out mask – click and bang
  • 40. designing experience• virtual crackers – cheap and cheerful – bad joke, web toy, cut-out mask – click and bang
  • 41. how crackers work fill in web form sender receive email recipient To: wxv From: .. closed cracker page open message
  • 42. closed cracker page
  • 43. how crackers work fill in web form sender receive email recipient To: wxv From: .. closed cracker page open recipient clicks message cracker opens ... very slowly open cracker page joke links web toy mask
  • 44. open cracker page
  • 45. mask page
  • 46. how crackers work fill in web form sender receive email recipient To: wxv From: .. closed cracker page open recipient clicks watches message progress cracker opens ... very slowly open cracker page sender joke links web toy mask
  • 47. The crackers experience real cracker virtual crackerSurface elements design cheap and cheerful simple page/graphics play plastic toy and joke web toy and joke dressing up paper hat mask to cut outExperienced effects shared offered to another sent by email message co-experience pulled together sender cant see content until opened by recipient excitement cultural connotations recruited expectation hiddenness contents inside first page - no contents suspense pulling cracker slow ... page change surprise bang (when it works) WAV file (when it works)
  • 48. EXERCISEin your groups – try to deconstruct the aspects of your non- computer experiences from the last exercise – use the surface/experienced distinction – do you feel you have learnt from this? – does it give you ideas how to create a similar digital experience? ... or maybe inspiration for a novel one.
  • 49. designing for peak experience mars bar vs baked bean design why peak experience always wins how to design for peak experience
  • 50. baked bean vs. mars bar design en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MBar_700.jpg freefoto.com
  • 51. baked bean design – things others others choose for us – things we have to share – corporate software – inc. universities! – office systems, government web systemsmars bar design – things we choose for ourselves – games, entertainment – some web services
  • 52. who wins? quality ofexperience other peak products good enough one peak product product different users good enough products never win for any user, some peak product always better
  • 53. how to design for peakexperiencetraditional interface design user profiles, central personas, average and typical, process and methods, from need to solutiondesign for peak experience individual user, niches, extreme personas, specific and eclectic ideas and inspiration, from concept to use
  • 54. when to seek peak experienceindividual choiceuser experience centralthe long tail many applications for smaller groups
  • 55. EXERCISEin your groups discuss: – are your experiences peak experiences? – if you were designing technology to emulate or support the non-technological experiences, can you think how you might seek a peak experience product?
  • 56. extended episodic experience going beyond a single ‘experience’
  • 57. extended episodic experiencebasic issue: experiences are not singular and unrelated but instead a flow, a stream, a threadhow to understand this? no fixed answer as yet but exploring and seeking the right question
  • 58. understanding user experience• Csikszentmihalyi – Flow – between boredom and anxiety – focused attention, immediate feedback, loss of sense of time• McCarthy and Wright – technology as experience – anticipating – prospective – connecting, interpreting – reflecting, appropriating, recounting – retrospective• Dix – deconstructing experience – analyse experiential elements (deconstruct) – reconstruct in new way
  • 59. but all about a single‘experience’
  • 60. much of our experience is: extended – happening over protracted periodsbut episodic – composed of (linked) discrete events
  • 61. EXERCISEin your groups discuss: – do the experiences you have discussed fit into bigger extended experiences? – try to think of as many different kinds of extended experiences that you have or know about – write a list 
  • 62. moving towards a theory ofextended episodic experience interlinked events intertwined threads significant places
  • 63. interlinked eventseach event is Janus-like looks back to past experiences (retrospective) looks forward to future ones (prospective) resent ep living in th , but ... ood so unds gc.f. McCathy & Wright
  • 64. generosity and reciprocity “…I bothered to link them; they should bother to link me. It’s like Friendster, we put testimony, and they have to put testimony. If this person didn’t link me, it’s like she is being choosy of friends…” quote from Haliyana Khalid, PhD Thesis
  • 65. eee & model of mindfirst order – direct enjoying a picture during browsingsecond order – reflective both prospective “will she feel happy to see this picture?” and retrospective “why did he write that narrative”higher order – reflexive “how will others view my actions/intentions now” one participant regarded others’ posts as self-exhibitionist (retrospective) and so worried that she might be seen so (prospective)
  • 66. intertwined threadsthreads of communication with peoplerepeated visits to placescrossing mediameeting one anotherintermixing contexts N.B. body chemistry shifts slowly
  • 67. significant places / peopleplace or space? Harrison and Dourish Augé: non-places and supermodernity shopping malls, airports, ...spaces of experience become places of significance walking to work through the park each morning viewing friends’ status on Facebook each day Brief Encounter... also ongoing experience with people
  • 68. EXERCISEin your groups: – analyse your extended experiences using the concepts above – do they help explain them? – what do they miss out?
  • 69. THE ENDyou have – seen why user experience is important – thought about some theories of emotion – deconstructed an experience – looked at peak experience – and extended episodic experienceand I hope .... had fun 

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