Tooth Morphology Basics

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Tooth Morphology Basics

  1. 1. Tooth Morphology Basics Howard Chi, D.M.D.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Primary and permanent dentition • Tooth identification system • Trait categories • Tissues of the tooth • Dental terminology • Anatomy of tooth structure
  3. 3. Primary and Permanent Dentition
  4. 4. Dentition Refers to all of the teeth in the maxillae and the mandible * maxillary arch - maxillary teeth * mandibular arch - mandibular teeth Maxillary arch Mandibular arch
  5. 5. Humans Have Two Dentitions Throughout Life 1) Primary Dentition - during childhood 2) Permanent Dentition - during adulthood Primary Permanent
  6. 6. Primary Dentition • There are 20 teeth in the primary dentition • 10 maxillary - 10 mandibular • This dentition is also termed the deciduous dentition Permanent 1st Molars
  7. 7. Primary Dentition The dental formula for one side of the mouth is: I 2 C 1 M 2 = 10 teeth on either side 2 1 2 11 212 11 212
  8. 8. Deciduous Teeth Those teeth that “fall out” due to a natural process of tooth succession
  9. 9. Permanent Dentition Also called the succedaneous dentition - that which succeeds the primary dentition There are 8 teeth in each quadrant I 2 C 1 PM 2 M 3 = 16 teeth 2 1 2 3 each side
  10. 10. Permanent Dentition First signs of this dentition appear at age 6
  11. 11. Permanent Dentition A A A P P P P P Anterior Teeth - incisors and canines Posterior teeth - premolars and molars
  12. 12. Tooth Identification Systems
  13. 13. Tooth Identification Systems There are three main systems used in modern dentistry for the numbering of teeth. They are: * Universal Numbering System * Palmer Notation System * International Numbering System
  14. 14. Universal Numbering System 1. Suggested by Parreidt in 1882 2. Adopted by the A.D.A. in 1975 3. Uses numbers 1 through 32
  15. 15. Universal Numbering System 1 for upper right third molar around to 16 upper left third molar 1 16
  16. 16. Dropping down same side to 17 lower left third molar and around to 32 Universal Numbering System 1732
  17. 17. For deciduous dentition, letters A through T are used Universal Numbering System A B C D E F G H I J T S R Q P O N M L K
  18. 18. Universal Numbering System
  19. 19. Palmer Notation System Utilizes brackets to represent the four quadrants Upper Right Upper Left Lower Right Lower Left
  20. 20. • Permanent teeth are labeled 1 to 8 on each side of the midline • On deciduous teeth same brackets with letters A through E Palmer Notation System
  21. 21. Palmer System
  22. 22. International Numbering System • Uses two digits for each tooth • First digit represents dentition, arch and side • Second number denotes the tooth (1-4 perm. and 5-8 prim.)
  23. 23. International Numbering System 1 = permanent dentition, maxillary, right 2 = permanent dentition, maxillary, left 3 = permanent dentition, mandibular, left 4 = permanent dentition, mandibular, right 5 = primary dentition, maxillary, right 6 = primary dentition, maxillary, left 7 = primary dentition, mandibular, left 8 = primary dentition, mandibular, right
  24. 24. International Numbering System
  25. 25. Trait Categories
  26. 26. Trait Categories Set Traits: (dentition traits) distinguish teeth in the primary from secondary dentition
  27. 27. Trait Categories Arch Traits: distinguish maxillary from mandibular
  28. 28. Trait Categories Class Traits: Distinguish the four categories of teeth ... incisors, canines, premolars, molars
  29. 29. Trait Categories Type Traits: Distinguish teeth within one class
  30. 30. Tissues of the Tooth
  31. 31. Tissues Of A Tooth 1) Dentin 2) Enamel 3) Cementum 4) Pulp
  32. 32. Enamel • Makes up the protective outer surface of the anatomic crown • Mostly inorganic and calcified hard, white shiny surface of the anatomic crown
  33. 33. Dentin • Found in the crown and root, making up bulk of tooth • Found beneath the enamel and cementum and surrounding the pulp tissue • Not normally visible • Mostly inorganic and calcified
  34. 34. Cementum • Makes up the surface of the anatomic root • Very thin next to cervical line • Mostly inorganic calcified • Dull yellow in color
  35. 35. Pulp • Is non calcified found within the pulp chamber • Develops from the dental papilla (from mesoderm) • Surrounded by dentin except at the apical foramen
  36. 36. Pulp • Normally not visible except on dental radiographs • In the coronal portion termed the pulp chamber • In the root portion termed the pulp canal(s)
  37. 37. Pulp - Functions • Formative - dentin producing cells (odontoblasts) produce dentin thoughout the life of a tooth • Sensory - nerve endings permit the sense of pain
  38. 38. Pulp - Functions • Nutritive - nutrient transport from the blood stream to extensions of the pulp that reach into dentin • Defensive/Protective - responds to injury and decay by forming reparative dentin
  39. 39. Junctions Of Tooth Structure Cementoenamel Junction - also called the cervical line, separates the anatomic crown from the anatomic root.
  40. 40. Junctions Of Tooth Structure Dentinoenamel Junction - is the inner surface of the enamel cap visible in cross section or in badly worn teeth
  41. 41. Junctions Of Tooth Structure Cementodentinal Junction - a.k.a. dentinocemental junction is the inner surface of cementum lining the root visible in cross section or badly worn teeth
  42. 42. Anatomic Versus Clinical Crown Anatomic Crown - that part of the tooth covered in enamel Clinical Crown - that part of the tooth that is visible in the oral cavity
  43. 43. Dental Terminology
  44. 44. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Facial Surface - the surface next to the face, the outer surface of a tooth resting next to the cheeks or gums. Used in both anterior and posterior teeth
  45. 45. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Buccal Surface - the facial surface of posterior teeth. Meaning next to the cheek
  46. 46. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Labial Surface - the facial surface next to the lips, generally used for anterior teeth
  47. 47. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Proximal Surface - the surface or side of a tooth that is next to an adjacent tooth, not considered self-cleansing
  48. 48. Mesial Surface - is the surface of the tooth nearest to the midline of the dental arch Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces
  49. 49. Distal Surface - is the surface of the tooth farthest from the midline of the dental arch Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces
  50. 50. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Lingual Surface - is the surface of maxillary and mandibular teeth nearest the tongue
  51. 51. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Palatal Surface – is the surface of maxillary teeth nearest the palate
  52. 52. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Occlusal Surface - is the chewing surface of the posterior teeth found within cusp and marginal ridges
  53. 53. Terminology Used To Distinguish Tooth Surfaces Incisal Edge - is the cutting edge, ridge or surface of anterior teeth
  54. 54. Anatomy of Tooth Structure
  55. 55. Divisions Of The Crown And Root Of A Tooth Divisions Cervico-occlusally Cervical 3rd Middle3rd Incisal 3rd Cervical 3rd Middle3rd Occlusal 3rd Anterior Posterior
  56. 56. Divisions Of The Crown Of A Tooth Divisions Mesiodistally Distal 3rd Middle3rd Mesial 3rd
  57. 57. Divsions Of The Crown Of A Tooth Divisions Faciolingually Lingual 3rd Middle3rd Facial 3rd
  58. 58. Divisions Of The Crown And Root Of A Tooth Divisions Cervico-occlusally Apical 3rd Middle3rd Cervical 3rd Cervical 3rd Middle3rd Incisal 3rd Apical 3rd Middle3rd Cervical 3rd Cervical 3rd Middle3rd Occlusal 3rd Anterior Posterior
  59. 59. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Cusp - is a point, or peak on the chewing surface of premolar or molar tooth
  60. 60. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Cusp Slopes Or Ridges - are the inclined surfaces that form an angle at the cusp tip
  61. 61. How Many Cusp Ridges Does This Tooth Possess?
  62. 62. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Cingulum - is the enlargement or bulge on the cervical third of the lingual surface of the crown of anterior teeth
  63. 63. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Labial Ridge- isaridgerunning cervico-incisally in approximately thecenter of thelabial surfaceof thecanines
  64. 64. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Buccal Ridge - is the ridge running cervico- occlusally in approximately the center of the buccal surface of premolars
  65. 65. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Cervical Ridge - ridge running mesiodistally on the cervical one-third of the buccal surface of the crown, found on all deciduous teeth but only on the permanent molars
  66. 66. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Marginal Ridge - on incisor and canine located on the mesial and distal border of the lingual surface
  67. 67. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Marginal Ridge - on posterior teeth located on the mesial and distal border of the occlusal surface
  68. 68. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Triangular Ridge - on the occlusal surface of posterior teeth, is the ridge from any cusp tip to center of the occlusal surface - ML cusp of upper molars have two
  69. 69. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Oblique Ridge - found only on maxillary molars made of the triangular ridges of the mesiolingual and distobuccal cusps
  70. 70. Transverse Ridge - ridge crossing the occlusal surface of posterior teeth in a B-L direction and made of connecting triangular ridges Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown
  71. 71. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Mamelon - is one of three tubercules sometimes present on the incisal edge of an incisor tooth that has not been subject to wear
  72. 72. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Sulcus - is a broad depression or valley on the occlusal surface of posterior teeth
  73. 73. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Developmental Groove - is a sharply defined, narrow and linear depression, formed during tooth development separating lobes or a major portion of a tooth - a fissure may be found at the depth of a developmental groove
  74. 74. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Supplemental Groove - small irregularly placed grooves not at the junction of lobes or major portions of the teeth
  75. 75. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Fossa - a depression or hollow found on the lingual surfaces of some anterior teeth and on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth
  76. 76. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Pits - often occur at the depths of fossa where two or more grooves join
  77. 77. Morphology Of An Anatomic Crown Furcation - is the place on multirooted teeth where the root trunk or base divides into separate roots Root Trunk
  78. 78. Curve Of Spee Anteroposterior curve of the occlusal plane - curve of the maxillary arch is convex
  79. 79. Curve Of Wilson Gradual curve of posterior teeth from left to right side viewed from the anterior region - curve of maxillary teeth is convex

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