Helps students to understand what they are going to learn and how the information is going to be relevant to them (Gallagher et al., 1995) Ill-Structured Problems
Ill-defined Vaguely or unclear goals Multiple solutions. Solution paths, or no solutions at all Multiple criteria for evaluating solution Uncertainty about which concepts, rules, and principles to apply No general rules Require leaners to express personal opinions Need to make judgments about the problem and defend them (Jonassen, 1997)
Scaffolding ◦ Hard scaffold ◦ Soft scaffold Problem ◦ Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky) Forming a team ◦ Creative problem solving profile (Basadur)
Static supports that can be anticipated and planned in advance based on typical students difficulties with a task (Saye & Brush, p.81) Questions prompts Study of Ge (2003) and Xie (2008) ◦ Students perform significantly better than students who did not receive question prompts ◦ Defined goal of the problems and categorized the problems significantly more clearly
Teacher-students interaction or student-student interaction Diagnosis Feedback Study of Folmer (2009) and Greene and Land (2000) ◦ During interaction with instructors or groups helped to generate ideas ◦ Be more reflective on their solution and justified their ideas more thoroughly
Large enough to challenge thought, and small enough to confuse the student Ill-structured Extended questions◦ What do we know?◦ What do we need to know?◦ What are we going to do?◦ What is your purpose?◦ What assumptions are you making?◦ Given those results, what do you think you should do next?
Ge (2003), Peterson (2004)◦ Not significant Creative Problem Solving Profile (Basadur)◦ Student’s experiencing◦ Ideation◦ Thinking◦ Evaluation Basadur and Head (2001), Peterson (2004)◦ Heterogeneous teams outperform both complete and partial homogenous teams
Chin (2006) and Folmer (2009) Initial resistance Interdisciplinary final objective ◦ Cultural beliefs and folklore ◦ Curiosity arising from personal experiences ◦ Family members’ concerns ◦ Observations of others ◦ Issues arising from previous lesson Various method of learning ◦ Textbooks and internet ◦ Surveys and interviews ◦ Questionnaires ◦ Field observation reports
The purpose of this study will be to construct and test scaffolding process on an ill-structured problem based lesson on the topic of human skeleton system of 10th grade human biology classes.
What is the influence of scaffolding on the ill- structured problem based lesson outcome among expert and novice? ◦ How do students feel about the problem-based learning? ◦ What is the role of ill-structured in the biology science education? ◦ Does ill-structured problem based lesson needs scaffolding process? ◦ Will the outcome of ill-structured problem based lesson be the same among the expert with and without scaffolding process?
Action Research: mixed methods Sample: ◦ 1 human biology I class n= (20) ◦ 1 human biology I class n= (20) ◦ 1 human biology II class n= (20)
Quantitative analysis ◦ Research paper and presentation with rubric attached Qualitative analysis ◦ The classroom observations ◦ field notes, ◦ transcripts of group interactions and of interview with the students, ◦ ending unit questionnaire
There will be a positive effect on the outcome of scaffolding among the novice and among the expert the scaffolding process can generate new solution for the presented problem