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Literature review


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  • 1. Hsueh-Yung (Jack) Chen SEYS 777 Dr. Murfin 12/18/2012
  • 2.  What is Problem Solving Learning What is the relationship between PBL and ill- structured problem How to effectively scaffold the process of solving ill-structured problem
  • 3.  Problem-first Collaboration Independent study Sharing information Discuss of solution Evaluation
  • 4.  Helps students to understand what they are going to learn and how the information is going to be relevant to them (Gallagher et al., 1995) Ill-Structured Problems
  • 5.  Ill-defined Vaguely or unclear goals Multiple solutions. Solution paths, or no solutions at all Multiple criteria for evaluating solution Uncertainty about which concepts, rules, and principles to apply No general rules Require leaners to express personal opinions Need to make judgments about the problem and defend them (Jonassen, 1997)
  • 6.  Scaffolding ◦ Hard scaffold ◦ Soft scaffold Problem ◦ Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky) Forming a team ◦ Creative problem solving profile (Basadur)
  • 7.  Static supports that can be anticipated and planned in advance based on typical students difficulties with a task (Saye & Brush, p.81) Questions prompts Study of Ge (2003) and Xie (2008) ◦ Students perform significantly better than students who did not receive question prompts ◦ Defined goal of the problems and categorized the problems significantly more clearly
  • 8.  Teacher-students interaction or student-student interaction Diagnosis Feedback Study of Folmer (2009) and Greene and Land (2000) ◦ During interaction with instructors or groups helped to generate ideas ◦ Be more reflective on their solution and justified their ideas more thoroughly
  • 9.  Large enough to challenge thought, and small enough to confuse the student Ill-structured Extended questions◦ What do we know?◦ What do we need to know?◦ What are we going to do?◦ What is your purpose?◦ What assumptions are you making?◦ Given those results, what do you think you should do next?
  • 10.  Ge (2003), Peterson (2004)◦ Not significant Creative Problem Solving Profile (Basadur)◦ Student’s experiencing◦ Ideation◦ Thinking◦ Evaluation Basadur and Head (2001), Peterson (2004)◦ Heterogeneous teams outperform both complete and partial homogenous teams
  • 11.  Chin (2006) and Folmer (2009) Initial resistance Interdisciplinary final objective ◦ Cultural beliefs and folklore ◦ Curiosity arising from personal experiences ◦ Family members’ concerns ◦ Observations of others ◦ Issues arising from previous lesson Various method of learning ◦ Textbooks and internet ◦ Surveys and interviews ◦ Questionnaires ◦ Field observation reports
  • 12.  The purpose of this study will be to construct and test scaffolding process on an ill-structured problem based lesson on the topic of human skeleton system of 10th grade human biology classes.
  • 13.  What is the influence of scaffolding on the ill- structured problem based lesson outcome among expert and novice? ◦ How do students feel about the problem-based learning? ◦ What is the role of ill-structured in the biology science education? ◦ Does ill-structured problem based lesson needs scaffolding process? ◦ Will the outcome of ill-structured problem based lesson be the same among the expert with and without scaffolding process?
  • 14.  Action Research: mixed methods Sample: ◦ 1 human biology I class n= (20) ◦ 1 human biology I class n= (20) ◦ 1 human biology II class n= (20)
  • 15.  Quantitative analysis ◦ Research paper and presentation with rubric attached Qualitative analysis ◦ The classroom observations ◦ field notes, ◦ transcripts of group interactions and of interview with the students, ◦ ending unit questionnaire
  • 16.  There will be a positive effect on the outcome of scaffolding among the novice and among the expert the scaffolding process can generate new solution for the presented problem