Muscles and movement 2


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Muscles and movement 2

  1. 1. Starter <ul><li>In pairs, label your muscle man with as many muscles as you can remember </li></ul><ul><li>No notes! </li></ul>
  2. 2. Homework <ul><li>Flexion of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>11. Horizontal flexion of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>12. Horizontal extension of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>13. Abduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>14. Adduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>15. Abduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>16. Adduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>17. Rotation of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>18. Rotation of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>19. Circumduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>20. Lateral flexion of the spine </li></ul>For each of the actions below, give at least one sporting action that demonstrates the movement
  3. 3. Learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand: </li></ul><ul><li>The name and location of the major muscles that cause movement at the major joints </li></ul><ul><li>The movement caused by these muscles at the joints </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 types of muscular contraction </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the location of the major muscles of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the origin and insertion of each muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the function of the agonist, antagonist and fixator muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the 3 different types of muscular contraction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key terms The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at the joint. Shortens and pulls on the bone to cause movement The muscle that has an action opposite to that of the agonist and helps in the production of co-ordinated movement Stabilises one part of the body, allowing movement to occur in another Prevents any unnecessary movement AGONIST MUSCLE ANTAGONIST MUSCLE FIXATOR MUSCLE
  5. 5. Antagonistic Pairs During elbow flexion ...... During elbow extension ...... Agonist = Agonist = Antagonist = Antagonist = Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Triceps brachii Biceps brachii
  6. 6. Key terms The point of attachment of a muscle to a bone, where the bone is stationary during muscular contraction The point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone moves during muscular contraction ORIGIN INSERTION
  7. 7. ANTERIOR VIEW POSTERIOR VIEW Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus medius and minimus Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Soleus Gastrocnemius Wrist extensors Triceps Brachii Biceps Brachii Deltoid Pronator teres Iliopsoas Abductor longus Adductor magnus Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Wrist flexors External obliques Internal obliques Supinator Infraspinatus &teres minor Teres major & subscapularis Erector spinae group
  8. 8. Elbow Flexion <ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wrist Flexion Extension <ul><li>Wrist flexor </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist extensor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Radio-ulnar Pronation Supination <ul><li>Pronator teres </li></ul><ul><li>Supinator </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ankle <ul><li>Soleus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul>Dorsiflexion <ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul>Plantar flexion
  12. 12. Knee <ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul></ul>Extension <ul><li>Quadriceps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus lateralis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus medialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus intermedius </li></ul></ul>Flexion
  13. 13. Spine 1 Flexion <ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Erector spinae group </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spine 2 Rotation <ul><li>Internal & external obliques </li></ul>Lateral flexion <ul><li>Internal & external obliques </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hip Flexion <ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hip Abduction <ul><li>Gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus minimus </li></ul>Adduction <ul><li>Adductor group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor brevis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor magnus </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Shoulder 1 Flexion <ul><li>Deltoid (anterior) </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Deltoid (posterior) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Shoulder 2 Abduction <ul><li>Deltoid (middle) </li></ul>Adduction <ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul>
  19. 19. Shoulder 3 Horizontal flexion <ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul>Horizontal extension <ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul>
  20. 20. Shoulder 4 Lateral rotation <ul><li>Teres minor </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus </li></ul>Medial rotation <ul><li>Teres major </li></ul><ul><li>Subscapularis </li></ul>
  21. 21. Task <ul><li>Complete the movement analysis table to show the agonist and antagonist for each of the movements at each joint </li></ul>
  22. 22. Muscles for Support <ul><li>The function of some muscle is to provided support and stability rather than movement </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The multifidus and transverse abdominis are responsible for maintaining posture and core stability , which are important for many sports </li></ul>
  23. 23. Muscles for support <ul><li>E.g. The Rotator Cuff muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Subscapularis </li></ul><ul><li>Teres Minor </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa of the scapula is relatively shallow therefore there is a higher risk of dislocation </li></ul><ul><li>The rotator cuff muscles have their origin at the scapula and their insertion on the head of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the stability of the shoulder joint. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The role of muscular contraction Electrical stimulus Muscular contraction (tension) occurs as a result of an electrical stimulus being sent from the brain through the nervous system to a specific muscle (agonist)
  25. 25. Types of muscular contraction
  26. 26. 3 types of muscular contraction ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops in muscle but there is no change in muscle length. It is a static contraction as no movement occurs at the joint ISOTONIC CONTRACTION Tension is produced in the muscles while there is a change in muscle length. It is a dynamic contraction because movement occurs at the joint MUSCULAR CONTRACTION Tension develops in a muscle CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle shortens Causes joint movement ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle lengthens Controls joint movement ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Stops joint movement
  27. 27. 3 types of muscular contraction <ul><li>REMEMBER: </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contraction does not mean that the muscle is shortening, just that there is tension! </li></ul><ul><li>When muscles contract they may be shortening, lengthening or staying the same length </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contraction can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause joint movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control joint movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop joint movement </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Types of contraction Concentric Isometric Eccentric
  29. 29. Remember <ul><li>In dynamic movements…. </li></ul><ul><li>Agonist = concentric contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist = eccentric contraction </li></ul>
  30. 30. Remember <ul><li>If the examiner asks about an explosive sporting action or technique, the type of contraction is likely to be concentric </li></ul><ul><li>If the examiner asks about an action that involves working against gravity (decelerating or lowering a body part slowly/working to control movement ), the type of contraction is likely to be eccentric </li></ul>
  31. 31. Antagonistic muscle action
  32. 32. Eccentric Contraction <ul><li>The quadriceps muscle group contracts eccentrically as you descend stairs or a hill. The quadriceps contract eccentrically to keep the knee from collapsing too fast or too far. </li></ul><ul><li>In racquet sports, you are constantly swinging a heavy “weight” — the end of the racquet. That weight would drag your wrist into deep flexion with every swing if not for eccentric contraction of the muscles on the back of the arm. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Eccentric contraction <ul><li>Can you answer yes to the following questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the muscle producing tension while lengthening? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the muscle working to control the movement? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Type of contraction Eccentric contraction of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius But this is a static movement.....
  35. 35. Plyometric training Involves movements that produce an eccentric contraction immediately followed by a concentric contraction Plyometrics is used to increase the speed or force of muscular contractions, providing explosiveness for a variety of sport-specific activities. Eccentric contraction occurring in the quadriceps to control the landing position
  36. 36. Remember <ul><li>In dynamic movements…. </li></ul><ul><li>Agonist = concentric contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist = eccentric contraction </li></ul>
  37. 37. Isotonic contraction Eccentric Isometric contraction Concentric <ul><li>Concentric contraction in the biceps brachii during the upward phase of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii produces tension and shortens </li></ul><ul><li>It pulls the forearm upwards to cause flexion of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentric contraction in the biceps brachii during the downward phase of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii produces tension and lengthens </li></ul><ul><li>It slows the lowering of the forearm and controls extension of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric contraction occurs in the biceps brachii when the muscle is holding the weight still </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii develops tension and stays the same length </li></ul><ul><li>It stops flexion and extension of the elbow </li></ul>
  38. 38. TASK <ul><li>Write how the three types of muscular contraction can be applied to the biceps brachii during a bicep curl </li></ul><ul><li>Give at least two examples of each type of contraction from sporting actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete task 14 on page 29 </li></ul>
  39. 39. Type of contraction? Isometric Gymnastic rings
  40. 40. Type of contraction? Rectus abdominus Sit up (downwards phase) Eccentric
  41. 41. Type of contraction? Scoring a try Concentric
  42. 42. Type of contraction? Weight lifting – hold position Isometric
  43. 43. Type of contraction? Penalty kick Concentric
  44. 44. Type of contraction? Press up Eccentric Triceps brachii
  45. 45. Task <ul><li>Pair up the muscles that work together antagonistically </li></ul><ul><li>Record in your notes </li></ul>
  46. 46. Movement Analysis Joint Type Type of movement Agonist muscle Antagonist muscle Type of muscle contraction Articulating bones
  47. 47. Movement analysis Articulating bones May 2008 Player performing a basketball lay-up shot Use your anatomical and physiological knowledge to complete the table below for the players right knee Joint Joint type Type of movement Agonist Antagonist Type of movement Main muscle fibre type Knee Extension
  48. 48. Movement analysis May 2009 Exam – Question 1 [5 marks] Hinge Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius Biceps femoris, Semi-tendinosus, Semi-membranosus Concentric Femur tibia fibula Articulating bones Joint Joint type Type of movement Agonist Antagonist Type of movement Main muscle fibre type Knee Extension
  49. 49. Movement analysis <ul><li>Select a picture of a sporting action and complete a full movement analysis </li></ul>
  50. 50. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Complete the movement analysis exam questions (try to complete without using your textbook or movement analysis table) </li></ul><ul><li>Read textbook pages 32-33 – Muscle fibre types </li></ul>
  51. 51. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility between the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul><ul><li>[4 marks] </li></ul>
  52. 52. Ball and socket joints Use your understanding of the structure of the shoulder and hip joints to explain which allows the greatest range of movement The hip joint
  53. 53. <ul><li>Shoulder Joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the scapula (glenoid fossa) is small and shallow making the joint less stable </li></ul><ul><li>The joint capsule is very loose (allowing seperation between the two bones) allowing more movement </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the humerus is rounded but not as ball-like as the head of the femur, therefore it does not sit as deeply into the glenoid fossa </li></ul><ul><li>The shoulder joint is stabilised by the rotator cuff muscles but these are not as strong as the muscles surrounding the hip. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively easy to dislocate a shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the pelvis (acetabulum) is deep and cup-like in shape making the joint more stable </li></ul><ul><li>A rim of fibrocartilage adds depth to the acetabulum, adding to stability </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the femur is very spherical and fits snugly into the acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>The joint is supported by 5 strong ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>The hip joint is surrounded by large muscle groups that aid stability, e.g. Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively difficult to dislocate the hip </li></ul>
  54. 54. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>(b) 1 mark for each of </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shallow and allows more movement than the hip </li></ul><ul><li>The acetabelum on the hip joint is quite deep giving more stability and less movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles and connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint are less restrictive than the hip as stability is not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment regarding the difference in technique for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment concerning training for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>[max 4] </li></ul>
  56. 56. Exam question – Jan 2008 <ul><li>Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance </li></ul><ul><li>(3 marks) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Skeletal Muscle Fibres <ul><li>Muscle fibre – a long cylindrical muscle cell. Muscle fibres are held together in bundles to make up an individual skeletal muscle </li></ul>
  58. 58. Characteristics of Muscle Fibres <ul><li>Excitability – muscles reacting to a stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Contractility – muscles contract and apply force </li></ul><ul><li>Extensibility – the extent to which muscles can stretch </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity – muscle returning to their original length </li></ul>