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The name and location of the major muscles that cause movement at the major joints
The movement caused by these muscles at the joints
The 3 types of muscular contraction
To be able to:
Identify the location of the major muscles of the body
Identify the origin and insertion of each muscle
Explain the function of the agonist, antagonist and fixator muscles
Explain the 3 different types of muscular contraction
Key terms The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at the joint. Shortens and pulls on the bone to cause movement The muscle that has an action opposite to that of the agonist and helps in the production of co-ordinated movement Stabilises one part of the body, allowing movement to occur in another Prevents any unnecessary movement AGONIST MUSCLE ANTAGONIST MUSCLE FIXATOR MUSCLE
Key terms The point of attachment of a muscle to a bone, where the bone is stationary during muscular contraction The point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone moves during muscular contraction ORIGIN INSERTION
ANTERIOR VIEW POSTERIOR VIEW Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus medius and minimus Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Soleus Gastrocnemius Wrist extensors Triceps Brachii Biceps Brachii Deltoid Pronator teres Iliopsoas Abductor longus Adductor magnus Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Wrist flexors External obliques Internal obliques Supinator Infraspinatus &teres minor Teres major & subscapularis Erector spinae group
The glenoid fossa of the scapula is relatively shallow therefore there is a higher risk of dislocation
The rotator cuff muscles have their origin at the scapula and their insertion on the head of the humerus
Increase the stability of the shoulder joint.
The role of muscular contraction Electrical stimulus Muscular contraction (tension) occurs as a result of an electrical stimulus being sent from the brain through the nervous system to a specific muscle (agonist)
3 types of muscular contraction ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops in muscle but there is no change in muscle length. It is a static contraction as no movement occurs at the joint ISOTONIC CONTRACTION Tension is produced in the muscles while there is a change in muscle length. It is a dynamic contraction because movement occurs at the joint MUSCULAR CONTRACTION Tension develops in a muscle CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle shortens Causes joint movement ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle lengthens Controls joint movement ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Stops joint movement
The quadriceps muscle group contracts eccentrically as you descend stairs or a hill. The quadriceps contract eccentrically to keep the knee from collapsing too fast or too far.
In racquet sports, you are constantly swinging a heavy “weight” — the end of the racquet. That weight would drag your wrist into deep flexion with every swing if not for eccentric contraction of the muscles on the back of the arm.
Is the muscle producing tension while lengthening?
Is the muscle working to control the movement?
Type of contraction Eccentric contraction of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius But this is a static movement.....
Plyometric training Involves movements that produce an eccentric contraction immediately followed by a concentric contraction Plyometrics is used to increase the speed or force of muscular contractions, providing explosiveness for a variety of sport-specific activities. Eccentric contraction occurring in the quadriceps to control the landing position
Pair up the muscles that work together antagonistically
Record in your notes
Movement Analysis Joint Type Type of movement Agonist muscle Antagonist muscle Type of muscle contraction Articulating bones
Movement analysis Articulating bones May 2008 Player performing a basketball lay-up shot Use your anatomical and physiological knowledge to complete the table below for the players right knee Joint Joint type Type of movement Agonist Antagonist Type of movement Main muscle fibre type Knee Extension
Movement analysis May 2009 Exam – Question 1 [5 marks] Hinge Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius Biceps femoris, Semi-tendinosus, Semi-membranosus Concentric Femur tibia fibula Articulating bones Joint Joint type Type of movement Agonist Antagonist Type of movement Main muscle fibre type Knee Extension