Muscles and movement

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  • Answers: Golfer Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Left knee – hinge joint / flexed Right elbow – hinge joint / flexed Right shoulder – ball and socket / slight abduction Left shoulder – ball and socket / adduction. Volleyball player Right knee – hinge / flexed Left knee – hinge / slightly flexed Both elbows – hinge / extended Shoulders – ball and socket / adducted Hips – ball and socket / flexed (or abducted).
  • Label the skeleton diagrams
  • Muscles and movement

    1. 1. Movement analysis <ul><li>Look at the pictures and identify what movement actions are taken place at each joint </li></ul>
    2. 2. Movement Analysis Annotate the pictures to show the movements that are occurring at each joint
    3. 3. Analyse the joint movements involved in these two sports actions.
    4. 4. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility between the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul><ul><li>[4 marks] </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ball and socket joints Use your understanding of the structure of the shoulder and hip joints to explain which allows the greatest range of movement The hip joint
    6. 6. <ul><li>Shoulder Joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the scapula (glenoid fossa) is small and shallow making the joint less stable </li></ul><ul><li>The joint capsule is very loose (allowing seperation between the two bones) allowing more movement </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the humerus is rounded but not as ball-like as the head of the femur, therefore it does not sit as deeply into the glenoid fossa </li></ul><ul><li>The shoulder joint is stabilised by the rotator cuff muscles but these are not as strong as the muscles surrounding the hip. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively easy to dislocate a shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the pelvis (acetabulum) is deep and cup-like in shape making the joint more stable </li></ul><ul><li>A rim of fibrocartilage adds depth to the acetabulum, adding to stability </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the femur is very spherical and fits snugly into the acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>The joint is supported by 5 strong ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>The hip joint is surrounded by large muscle groups that aid stability, e.g. Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively difficult to dislocate the hip </li></ul>
    7. 7. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>(b) 1 mark for each of </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shallow and allows more movement than the hip </li></ul><ul><li>The acetabelum on the hip joint is quite deep giving more stability and less movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles and connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint are less restrictive than the hip as stability is not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment regarding the difference in technique for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment concerning training for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>[max 4] </li></ul>
    9. 9. Exam question – Jan 2008 <ul><li>Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance </li></ul><ul><li>(3 marks) </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance (3 marks) </li></ul>Structure Role Ligaments Hold joint in place/join bone to bone Articular cartilage Prevents wear and tear/friction/ absorb compression Muscles/tendon Provide strength or support/allow greater range of movement Synovial fluid Lubricates/nourishes cartilage/rids joint of waste debris Pads of fat Absorbs shock/protect from wear and tear Bursae Helps reduce friction Joint capsule Stabilise joint Synovial membrane Secretes synovial fluid Menisci Improves fit of the joint
    11. 11. Homework ANTERIOR – ‘In front of’ POSTERIOR – ‘Behind’ SUPERIOR – ‘Above’ INFERIOR – ‘Below’ MEDIAL – ‘Middle’ LATERAL – ‘Side’ LATERAL MEDIAL Centre line of body The sternum is anterior to the vertebrae The vertebrae is posterior to the sternum The cervical vertebrae are superior to the lumbar vertebrae The tibia is inferior to the femur The vertebrae is medial to the carpals The humerus is lateral to the scapula
    12. 12. Homework <ul><li>Flexion of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>11. Horizontal flexion of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>12. Horizontal extension of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>13. Abduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>14. Adduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>15. Abduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>16. Adduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>17. Rotation of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>18. Rotation of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>19. Circumduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>20. Lateral flexion of the spine </li></ul>For each of the actions below, give at least one sporting action that demonstrates the movement
    13. 13. Review Quiz 2 The Skeletal System In silence complete all 10 questions No conferring with others!! All books and notes out of sight!!
    14. 14. Answers <ul><li>Synovial, e.g. Wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous, e.g. the discs of cartilage between the vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous, e.g. Cranium (plates of cranium fused together), coccyx </li></ul><ul><li>Knee = hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder = ball and socket </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist = ankle </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle = hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Pad of fat </li></ul><ul><li>Bursa </li></ul><ul><li>Meniscus </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist = flexion & extension </li></ul><ul><li>Spine = flexion, extension, lateral flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Radio-ulnar = pronation & supination </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle = dorsiflexion & plantar flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder = flexion & extension, horizontal flexion & extension, abduction & abduction, rotation, circumduction </li></ul>
    15. 15. Grading <ul><li><4/10 <40% U </li></ul><ul><li>4/10 40% E </li></ul><ul><li>5/10 50% D </li></ul><ul><li>6/10 60% C </li></ul><ul><li>7/10 70% B </li></ul><ul><li>8/10+ 80%+ A </li></ul>
    16. 16. Learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand: </li></ul><ul><li>The name and location of the major muscles that cause movement at the major joints </li></ul><ul><li>The movement caused by these muscles at the joints </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 types of muscular contraction </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the location of the major muscles of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the origin and insertion of each muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the function of the agonist, antagonist and fixator muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the 3 different types of muscular contraction </li></ul>
    17. 17. Key terms The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at the joint. Shortens and pulls on the bone to cause movement The muscle that has an action opposite to that of the agonist and helps in the production of co-ordinated movement Stabilises one part of the body, allowing movement to occur in another Prevents any unnecessary movement AGONIST MUSCLE ANTAGONIST MUSCLE FIXATOR MUSCLE
    18. 18. Antagonistic Pairs During elbow flexion ...... During elbow extension ...... Agonist = Agonist = Antagonist = Antagonist = Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Triceps brachii Biceps brachii
    19. 19. Key terms The point of attachment of a muscle to a bone, where the bone is stationary during muscular contraction The point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone moves during muscular contraction <ul><li>For each of the following muscle identify the approximate positions of the (a) origin, (b) insertion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul></ul>ORIGIN INSERTION
    20. 20. Muscles <ul><li>Use sticky labels to label one person in your group with all the muscles you can remember </li></ul>
    21. 21. Pectorals Deltoids Biceps Abdominals Quadriceps Hamstrings Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Triceps Gastrocnemius Gluteals Front View Back View GCSE Muscles Skip to labelled diagram
    22. 22. Muscles <ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul><ul><li>Soleus </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis minor </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul><ul><li>Erector spinae group </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist extensors </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist flexors </li></ul><ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus minimus </li></ul><ul><li>Internal obliques </li></ul><ul><li>External obliques </li></ul><ul><li>Pronator teres </li></ul><ul><li>Supinator </li></ul><ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus lateralis </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus medialis </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus intermedius </li></ul>Hamstrings Quadriceps
    23. 23. ANTERIOR VIEW POSTERIOR VIEW Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus medius and minimus Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Soleus Gastrocnemius Wrist extensors Triceps Brachii Biceps Brachii Deltoid Pronator teres Iliopsoas Abductor longus Adductor magnus Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Wrist flexors External obliques Internal obliques Supinator Infraspinatus &teres minor Teres major & subscapularis Erector spinae group
    24. 24. Elbow Flexion <ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul>
    25. 25. Wrist Flexion Extension <ul><li>Wrist flexor </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist extensor </li></ul>
    26. 26. Radio-ulnar Pronation Supination <ul><li>Pronator teres </li></ul><ul><li>Supinator </li></ul>
    27. 27. Ankle <ul><li>Soleus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul>Dorsiflexion <ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul>Plantar flexion
    28. 28. Knee <ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul></ul>Extension <ul><li>Quadriceps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus lateralis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus medialis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus intermedius </li></ul></ul>Flexion
    29. 29. Spine 1 Flexion <ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Erector spinae group </li></ul>
    30. 30. Spine 2 Rotation <ul><li>Internal & external obliques </li></ul>Lateral flexion <ul><li>Internal & external obliques </li></ul>
    31. 31. Hip Flexion <ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hip Abduction <ul><li>Gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus minimus </li></ul>Adduction <ul><li>Adductor group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor longus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor brevis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adductor magnus </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Shoulder 1 Flexion <ul><li>Deltoid (anterior) </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>Deltoid (posterior) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Shoulder 2 Abduction <ul><li>Deltoid (middle) </li></ul>Adduction <ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul>
    35. 35. Shoulder 3 Horizontal flexion <ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul>Horizontal extension <ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul>
    36. 36. Shoulder 4 Lateral rotation <ul><li>Teres minor </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus </li></ul>Lateral rotation <ul><li>Teres major </li></ul><ul><li>Subscapularis </li></ul>
    37. 37. Task <ul><li>Complete the movement analysis table to show the agonist and antagonist for each of the movement of each joint </li></ul>
    38. 38. Muscles for Support <ul><li>The function of some muscle is to provided support and stability rather than movement </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The multifidus and transverse abdominis are responsible for maintaining posture and core stability , which are important for many sports </li></ul>
    39. 39. Muscles for support <ul><li>E.g. The Rotator Cuff muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Infraspinatus </li></ul><ul><li>Subscapularis </li></ul><ul><li>Teres Minor </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa of the scapula is relatively shallow therefore there is a higher risk of dislocation </li></ul><ul><li>The rotator cuff muscles have their origin at the scapula and their insertion on the head of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the stability of the shoulder joint. </li></ul>
    40. 40. The role of muscular contraction Electrical stimulus Muscular contraction (tension) occurs as a result of an electrical stimulus being sent from the brain through the nervous system to a specific muscle (agonist)
    41. 41. Spot the difference! <ul><li>Holding a heavy bag </li></ul><ul><li>Bicep curl – upwards phase </li></ul><ul><li>Bicep curl – downward phase </li></ul>
    42. 42. 3 types of muscular contraction ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops in muscle but no movement occurs at the joint ISOTONIC CONTRACTION Tension develops in muscles and movement occurs at joint MUSCULAR CONTRACTION Tension develops in a muscle CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle shortens Causes joint movement ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION Tension develops while muscle lengthens Controls joint movement ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION Stops joint movement
    43. 43. 3 types of muscular contraction <ul><li>REMEMBER: </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contraction does not mean that the muscle is shortening, just that there is tension! </li></ul><ul><li>When muscles contract they may be shortening, lengthening or staying the same length </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular contraction can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause joint movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control joint movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop joint movement </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Isotonic contraction Isometric contraction <ul><li>Eccentric contraction in the biceps brachii during the downward phase of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii produces tension and lengthens </li></ul><ul><li>It slows the lowering of the forearm and controls extension of the elbow </li></ul>
    45. 45. Isotonic contraction Eccentric Isometric contraction Concentric <ul><li>Concentric contraction in the biceps brachii during the upward phase of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii produces tension and shortens </li></ul><ul><li>It pulls the forearm upwards to cause flexion of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentric contraction in the biceps brachii during the downward phase of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii produces tension and lengthens </li></ul><ul><li>It slows the lowering of the forearm and controls extension of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric contraction occurs in the biceps brachii when the muscle is holding the weight still </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii develops tension and stays the same length </li></ul><ul><li>It stops flexion and extension of the elbow </li></ul>
    46. 46. Agonist - type of contraction? Rectus abdominus Sit up (downwards phase) Eccentric
    47. 47. Agonist - type of contraction? Scoring a try Concentric
    48. 48. Agonist - type of contraction? Penalty kick Concentric
    49. 49. Agonist - type of contraction? Weight lifting – hold position Isometric
    50. 50. Agonist - type of contraction? Isometric Gymnastic rings
    51. 51. Remember <ul><li>If the examiner asks about an explosive sporting action or technique, the type of contraction is likely to be concentric </li></ul><ul><li>If the examiner asks about an action that involves working against gravity (decelerating or lowering a body part slowly/working to control movement ), the type of contraction is likely to be eccentric </li></ul>
    52. 52. Homework <ul><li>Find a picture/photograph of a sporting actions and annotate the picture to show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movement occurring at the joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The agonist causing the movement </li></ul></ul>

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