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Muscle fibre types
 

Muscle fibre types

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    Muscle fibre types Muscle fibre types Presentation Transcript

    • Progress Test 1
      • Complete all question.
      • When you have finished raise your hand and if you will be given an extension task to complete.
    • Aerobic Exercise
      • Exercise is performed in the presence of oxygen
      • Energy is produced through the process of aerobic respiration
      • Submaximal intensity
      • Occurs over a prolonged period of time
      Glucose + Oxygen Energy Carbon dioxide Water + +
    • Anaerobic Exercise
      • Exercise is performed in the absence of oxygen
      • Energy is produced through the process of anaerobic respiration
      • Maximal intensity exercise
      • Can only be sustained for a short period of time due to build up of lactic acid
      • Build up an oxygen debt
      Glucose Energy Lactic Acid + Oxygen debt - where the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply. After exercise oxygen has to be repaid, which explains why heart rate remains elevated after exercise
    • Characteristics of Muscle Fibres
      • Excitability – muscles reacting to a stimulus
      • Contractility – muscles contract and apply force
      • Extensibility – the extent to which muscles can stretch
      • Elasticity – muscle returning to their original length
    • Muscle fibre types Marathon 1500m 100m Slow oxidative twitch (SO) Type 1 Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG)Type 2a Fast glycolytic (FG) Type 2b
    • Type 2a – Fast Oxidative fibres
      • Anaerobic fibres that are more resistant to fatigue than type 2b
      • Generate slightly less force than type 2b muscles
      • Also known as FOG fibres
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? Low anaerobic capacity Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? Low number of capillaries Type 2b
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? Highly resistant to fatigue Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High number of mitochondria Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High Glycogen stores Type 2b
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High myoglobin concentration Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? Slow speed of contraction Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High Phosphocreatine (PCr) stores Type 2b
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High aerobic capacity Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? High Triglyceride (fat) stores Type 1
    • Type 1 or Type 2b? Highest force of contraction Type 2b
    • Warm ups and cool downs
      • To know and understand:
      • The effects of a warm-up and cool-down on skeletal muscles
      • To be able to:
      • Analyse the effect of a warm up and cool-down on skeletal muscle tissue in relation to the quality of performance of physical activity.
    • Exam Question 2009
      • Give two ways that a warm up affects the speed and strength of muscular contraction (2 marks)
      • .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    • Warm ups and cool down
      • In pairs
        • Discuss what you need to include in a warm up and a cool down
        • Why?
      • Define warm up and cool down
    • Effects on skeletal muscle Effects of warm up Effects of a cool down
      • Increase in muscle/core body temperature
      • = reduction in muscle viscosity , leading to improvement in the efficiency of muscular contraction
      • = a greater speed and force of contraction due to a higher speed of nerve transmission
      • = an increased elasticity that reduces the risk of injury due to increased extensibility of tendons and ligaments
      • = improved co-ordination between antagonistic pairs
      • Keeps the capillaries dilated, allowing oxygen rich blood to flush through the muscles
      • = an increase in the speed of lactic acid and carbon dioxide removal
      • = reduce acidity level
      • = reduced stimulation of pain receptors
      • Decreased risk of DOMS ( delayed onset of muscle pain and soreness ) experienced 24-48 hours after intense exercise due to microscopic tears in muscle fibres
    • Ice baths
      • The theory
      • Constricts blood vessels
      • Decreased metabolic activity and slow down physiological processes
      • Reduce swelling and tissue breakdown
      • When removed from bath the blood vessels in the legs are flushed with blood rich in oxygen that repays the oxygen debt and flushes away the build up of lactic acid
      Water temperature between12 to 15 degrees Celsius for 5 to 10 minutes
    • Exam Question 2009
      • Give two ways that a warm up affects the speed and strength of muscular contraction (2 marks)
      • .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    • Exam Answer 2009
      • Give two ways that a warm up affects the speed and strength of muscular contraction (2 marks)
      • Increased speed/force/strength of muscle contraction
      • Increased speed of nerve transmission to the muscle fibres
      • Increased temperature of the muscle
      • Reduced muscle viscosity / less resistance in the muscle
      • Improved elasticity of muscle fibres
      • Improved co-ordination between antagonistic pairs
    • Specimen paper 2000
      • Explain the differences in flexibility between the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of….
      • (i) the structure of the joint;
      • (ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts.
      • [4 marks]
    • Ball and socket joints Use your understanding of the structure of the shoulder and hip joints to explain which allows the greatest range of movement The hip joint
      • Shoulder Joint
      • The socket on the scapula (glenoid fossa) is small and shallow making the joint less stable
      • The joint capsule is very loose (allowing seperation between the two bones) allowing more movement
      • The head of the humerus is rounded but not as ball-like as the head of the femur, therefore it does not sit as deeply into the glenoid fossa
      • The shoulder joint is stabilised by the rotator cuff muscles but these are not as strong as the muscles surrounding the hip.
      • It is relatively easy to dislocate a shoulder
      • Hip joint
      • The socket on the pelvis (acetabulum) is deep and cup-like in shape making the joint more stable
      • A rim of fibrocartilage adds depth to the acetabulum, adding to stability
      • The head of the femur is very spherical and fits snugly into the acetabulum
      • The joint is supported by 5 strong ligaments
      • The hip joint is surrounded by large muscle groups that aid stability, e.g. Gluteus maximus
      • It is relatively difficult to dislocate the hip
    • Specimen paper 2000
      • Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of….
      • (i) the structure of the joint;
      • (ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts.
    • Specimen paper 2000
      • (b) 1 mark for each of
      • The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shallow and allows more movement than the hip
      • The acetabelum on the hip joint is quite deep giving more stability and less movement.
      • The muscles and connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint are less restrictive than the hip as stability is not essential
      • Any relevant comment regarding the difference in technique for swimmers or gymnasts
      • Any relevant comment concerning training for swimmers or gymnasts
      • [max 4]
    • Exam question – Jan 2008
      • Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance
      • (3 marks)
    • Impact of exercise on muscles and bones Which activities provide the lowest risk and highest risk of injury to the musculo-skeletal system. Give a reason for your answer
    • Example Question Taking part in physical activity is considered essential to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. However, taking part in some activities can result in injury and a reduction in activity levels. Discuss both the positive and the negative impact of participating in different types of physical activity on the joints and muscles of the body . [10marks]
    • Impact of exercise on muscles and bones There are 5 key musculo-skeletal disorders that are affected by exercise These effects may be positive or negative dependent upon the type of exercise Muscular system 1. Osteoporosis 2. Growth plate disorder 3. Osteoarthritis 4. Joint stability 5. Posture and alignment Skeletal system - bones Skeletal system - joints
    • Task As a group you must investigate and research the positive and negative impact of exercise on your disorder and deliver a 10 minute presentation/lesson to the rest of the group
      • You must include:
      • A clear and detailed description of the disorder
      • How it is caused
      • Those at most at risk
      • Consider the positive and negative effects of different types of exercise, e.g.
        • Low impact endurance
        • High impact
        • Repetitive actions
        • Contact activities
      • A handout of key information for the rest of the class
      • A quick learning task at the end to test how well the group have understood
      • Be prepared to be asked questions at the end
      • Presentation could be poster or powerpoint based
      • Try to include pictures/videos
    • Task Complete research task in groups ready to present on the second lesson back after half term – Thursday 12 th November