Lesson 1 Skeletal system

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  • Pupils to write down a definition for axial and appendicular – give examples
  • Lesson 1 Skeletal system

    1. 1. AS Physical Education Unit G451: An Introduction to Physical Education Anatomy and Physiology (Section A)
    2. 2. <ul><li>2hr written exam = 90 marks (60% of total AS mark) </li></ul><ul><li>Exam includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy and Physiology (30 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring movement skills (30 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural studies (30 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>All sections include one 10 mark question </li></ul>ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    3. 3. A&P: Summary of content The skeletal and muscular systems Motion and movement ( Biomechanics ) The cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relation to the performance of physical activity
    4. 4. Your responsibilities! <ul><li>Attend all lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Complete all homework and hand in on time </li></ul><ul><li>Catch up on work if absent </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all your work together in a folder and review it on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement your work class work and homework with independent reading </li></ul><ul><li>100% effort </li></ul><ul><li>Listen and show respect to one another </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to class discussion </li></ul>
    5. 5. The skeletal and muscular system <ul><li>Overview of the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Joints, movement and muscles </li></ul><ul><li>The role of muscular contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Movement analysis of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibre types </li></ul><ul><li>Warm up/cool down </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of different types of physical activity on the skeletal and muscular systems </li></ul>
    6. 6. Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand: </li></ul><ul><li>The structure and function of the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of bones </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of cartilage and their function </li></ul>
    7. 7. The skeletal system You have 10 minutes to cut out the bones of the skeleton and stick them on sugar paper to form a skeleton. Label the skeleton with as many bones as you can Aim for 21 bones!
    8. 8. The skeletal system You have three minutes to label one member of you group with as many bones names as you know using the stickers provided Aim for 21!
    9. 9. The Skeletal System Cranium Clavicle Pelvis Humerus Radius Femur Ulna Tibia Patella Fibula Scapula (back) Sternum Vertebrae Ribs Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Skip to labelled diagram Mandible
    10. 10. New additions <ul><li>Talus </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneus </li></ul>
    11. 11. Axial vs. Appendicular Appendicular skeleton The bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that join to the axial skeleton Axial skeleton Forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, spine and rib cage Skull Ribs Vertebral column Sternum Shoulder girdle Upper limbs Pelvic girdle Lower limbs Clavicle? Scapula? Pelvis?
    12. 12. Types of bones Complex shapes and have a variety of functions including protection Small and compact, designed for weight bearing and strength. Cyclindrical in shape and found around the limbs of the body. Their main function is to act as levers for movement. Ease joint movement and resist friction and compression. Usually covered in cartilage . Offer protection to the internal organs and provide suitable sites for muscle attachment.
    13. 13. Cyclindrical in shape and found around the limbs of the body. Their main function is to act as levers for movement. Small and compact, designed for weight bearing and strength. Complex shapes and have a variety of functions including protection. Offer protection to the internal organs and provide suitable sites for muscle attachment. Ease joint movement and reduce friction and compression. Embedded in tendon and usually covered in cartilage When running the iliopsoas pulls on the femur to cause flexion at the hip. The bones in the wrist when performing a handstand The vertebrae – protect the spinal cord and help absorb shock The sternum & ribs – protects the lung but provides attachment for the intercostal muscles Patella – aids the smooth articulation and movement between the femur and tibia Femur, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Tibia, Fibula, Femur, Metacarpals, Metatarsals, Phalanges Carpals, tarsals Mandible, Calcaneus Talus Cranium, Scapula, Pelvis, Ribs, Clavicle Patella (some metatarsals and metacarpals) Type of bone Description Key example Other examples Long Short Irregular Flat Sesamoid
    14. 14. The skeletal system Label the skeleton with all the bones Choose 5 colours and use them to identify the 5 types of bones
    15. 15. Long bones <ul><li>Longer than it is wide </li></ul><ul><li>Made of collagen fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with minerals (mostly calcium salts) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains cavity filled with bone marrow – BC generation </li></ul><ul><li>Long shaft – diaphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Two rounded ends – epiphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ends covered by articular cartilage – cushions/absorbs shock, reduces friction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth plate in region between diaphysis and epiphysis until adulthood – promotes longitudinal bone growth </li></ul>
    16. 16. Functions of the skeletal system Functions Support Blood cell production Movement Protection Mineral store
    17. 17. Functions of the skeletal system <ul><li>1 . Support - provides a rigid framework to the body giving it shape and providing suitable sites for the attachment of skeletal muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Protection – protects the internal organs .e.g. the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Movement – the bones of the skeleton give a large surface area for the attachment of muscles. The long bones provide a system of levers against which the muscles can pull. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Blood production – bone marrow produces both RBC and WBC. RBC are produced at the end of long bones. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>5. Mineral storage – the bones store vital minerals such as calcium which can be distributed to other parts of the body when required. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of how the functions of the skeleton enable you to carry out your every–day needs and routines and sporting actions. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand </li></ul><ul><li>The structure and function of the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of bones </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of cartilage and their function </li></ul>
    19. 19. Cartilage <ul><li>Articular (hyaline) cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on articulating surfaces of bones that form joints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly resilient and made up of collagen fibres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the bone from wear and reduces friction between articulating bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>White fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denser, tougher tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows shock absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the parts of the body where there is a high amount of stress. E.g. the socket of a hip joint, vertebral discs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pliant and flexible tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving support and flexibility, e.g. pinna and Eustachian tube of ear </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Other important fibres <ul><li>Tendons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough band of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect bone to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents dislocation </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Home study <ul><li>Organise folder </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joints: Carnell et al . pages 7-10 “Types of joints” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The skeleton: Carnell et al . pages 1-7 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Next lesson <ul><li>Synovial joints and planes of movement </li></ul><ul><li>You will need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement analysis sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer to set question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An understanding of the types and structure of synovial joints </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Quiz
    24. 24. Round 1 – picture board 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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