Odd one out <ul><li>Tibia – Ulna – Fibula – Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Skull – ribs – pelvis – vertebral column </li></ul><ul...
Name me…
Mineral storage Movement Protection  Blood cell production Support <ul><li>… the five functions of the skeletal system </l...
Articular White fibrocartilage Elastic cartilage <ul><li>… the 3 different types of cartilage </li></ul>
Radius Ulna   <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the radio-ulna joint </li></ul>
Carpals Radius Ulna   <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the wrist joint </li></ul>
Femur Tibia <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the knee joint </li></ul>
Glenoid fossa of Scapula Head of Humerus <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the shoulder joint </li></ul>
Femur Tibia  <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the knee joint </li></ul>
Key terms – body positions <ul><li>Select from the words below to complete the following sentences </li></ul><ul><li>The s...
Review Quiz 1 The Skeletal System In silence complete all 10 questions No conferring with others!! All books and notes out...
Answers <ul><li>Axial - Any 2 from: Skull/cranium, vertebrae, ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular – Any 2 bones other than...
Grading <ul><li><4/10 <40% U </li></ul><ul><li>4/10 40% E </li></ul><ul><li>5/10 50% D </li></ul><ul><li>6/10 60% C </li><...
Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand: </li></ul><ul><li>The structural and functional characteristic...
Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>Complete the following columns of the movement analysis table for each of the joints.....
Classification of Joints <ul><li>Fibrous   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most stable  </li>...
Synovial joints <ul><li>Ball and socket joint </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid joint </li></ul><u...
Synovial joints <ul><li>Name the 6  types  of synovial joints </li></ul>Condyloid Gliding Pivot Ball & socket Hinge Saddle...
TASK <ul><li>Complete the following columns of the movement analysis table for each of the joints.... </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Synovial joint structure - knee Femur Tibia Patella Tendon Cruciate ligaments Articular cartilage Synovial fluid within sy...
Key features - NEW <ul><li>Bursa  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial fluid </li></ul></ul><...
Structure of a synovial joint Ligament Meniscus Joint capsule Articular cartilage Synovial fluid Bursa Features that impro...
Structure of a synovial joint <ul><li>Complete the table to show the name, definition and function of each part of the syn...
Joint Capsule Discs of fibro-cartilage Synovial fluid Synovial membrane Articular cartilage Bursa Ligaments Pads of fat Me...
Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip j...
Ball and socket joints Use your understanding of the structure of the shoulder and hip joints to explain which allows the ...
<ul><li>Shoulder Joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the scapula (glenoid fossa) is small and shallow making the joint l...
Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip j...
Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>(b) 1 mark for each of </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shall...
Exam question – Jan 2008 <ul><li>Identify  two  structures of a  synovial  joint and describe the role of  one  of these s...
Exam question – May 2005 <ul><li>Identify  two  structures of the  hip joint  and describe the role of each structure duri...
Types of movement   <ul><li>What type of movements do we already know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Flexion & Extension <ul><li>Flexion  – makes a body part move in a  forwards  direction from the anatomical position </li>...
Type of movements <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction  </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </l...
Memory aids <ul><li>Horizontal flexion/extension  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers are already pointing to the horizon </li><...
Practical task – on your feet…. <ul><li>Find a position in which all the major joints in your body are flexed </li></ul>
TASK   <ul><li>In the table, match the type of movement to the correct definition </li></ul>
Movement analysis table   <ul><li>Complete the ‘ Movement allowed ’ column of your movement analysis table  </li></ul>
Key terms – body positions <ul><li>Flexion of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion...
Movement analysis <ul><li>Look at the pictures and identify what movement actions are taken place at each joint </li></ul>
Muscles <ul><li>Label one person in your group with all the muscles you can remember </li></ul>
Pectorals Deltoids Biceps Abdominals Quadriceps Hamstrings Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Triceps Gastrocnemius Gluteals Front...
Muscles <ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>Trapezius </l...
 
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Joints and movements

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  • Label the skeleton diagrams
  • Joints and movements

    1. 1. Odd one out <ul><li>Tibia – Ulna – Fibula – Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Skull – ribs – pelvis – vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus – clavicle – sternum – phalanges </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia – tarsals – fibula – talus </li></ul><ul><li>Femur – humerus – ulna - patella </li></ul>
    2. 2. Name me…
    3. 3. Mineral storage Movement Protection Blood cell production Support <ul><li>… the five functions of the skeletal system </li></ul>
    4. 4. Articular White fibrocartilage Elastic cartilage <ul><li>… the 3 different types of cartilage </li></ul>
    5. 5. Radius Ulna <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the radio-ulna joint </li></ul>
    6. 6. Carpals Radius Ulna <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the wrist joint </li></ul>
    7. 7. Femur Tibia <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the knee joint </li></ul>
    8. 8. Glenoid fossa of Scapula Head of Humerus <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the shoulder joint </li></ul>
    9. 9. Femur Tibia <ul><li>… all the articulating bones of the knee joint </li></ul>
    10. 10. Key terms – body positions <ul><li>Select from the words below to complete the following sentences </li></ul><ul><li>The sternum is ………………………………………. to the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>The scapula is ………………………………………. to the clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>The thoracic region of the vertebral column is …………………………………. to the lumbar region </li></ul><ul><li>The tibia is …………………………………….. to the femur </li></ul><ul><li>The vertebral column is …………………………………. to the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>The phalanges are ……………………………………… to the pelvis </li></ul>Medial Superior Posterior Anterior Lateral Inferior  
    11. 11. Review Quiz 1 The Skeletal System In silence complete all 10 questions No conferring with others!! All books and notes out of sight!!
    12. 12. Answers <ul><li>Axial - Any 2 from: Skull/cranium, vertebrae, ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular – Any 2 bones other than skull/cranium, vertebrae, ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Movement, support, mineral storage, blood cell production and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Articular (hyaline) cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus, radius, ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Carpals, radius, ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Femur, tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Talus, tibia, fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Head of femur and accetabulam of the pelvis </li></ul>
    13. 13. Grading <ul><li><4/10 <40% U </li></ul><ul><li>4/10 40% E </li></ul><ul><li>5/10 50% D </li></ul><ul><li>6/10 60% C </li></ul><ul><li>7/10 70% B </li></ul><ul><li>8/10+ 80%+ A </li></ul>
    14. 14. Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>To know and understand: </li></ul><ul><li>The structural and functional characteristics of a synovial joint </li></ul><ul><li>The range of movement of synovial joints </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the main muscles groups of the muscular system </li></ul>
    15. 15. Today’s learning objectives <ul><li>Complete the following columns of the movement analysis table for each of the joints.... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Classification of Joints <ul><li>Fibrous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most stable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synovial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least stable </li></ul></ul>Give an example for each type of joint Mostly located in axial skeleton Mostly located in appendicular skeleton
    17. 17. Synovial joints <ul><li>Ball and socket joint </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid joint </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding joint </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot joint </li></ul>
    18. 18. Synovial joints <ul><li>Name the 6 types of synovial joints </li></ul>Condyloid Gliding Pivot Ball & socket Hinge Saddle Wrist Spine (between the bony processes of the vertebral discs) Radio-ulnar Atlas and axis (C1 & C2) (neck) Hip Shoulder Elbow Knee Ankle Thumb
    19. 19. TASK <ul><li>Complete the following columns of the movement analysis table for each of the joints.... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Synovial joint structure - knee Femur Tibia Patella Tendon Cruciate ligaments Articular cartilage Synovial fluid within synovial cavity Bursa Bursa Meniscus Pad of fat Ligament Joint capsule Quadriceps Synovial membrane
    21. 21. Key features - NEW <ul><li>Bursa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents friction at sites where ligaments, muscles, tendons and bones might rub together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meniscus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White fibrocartilage that improves the fit between adjacent bone ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make joint more stable and reduces wear and tear between joint surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pad of fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty pad that provides cushioning between the fibrous capsule and a bone or muscle </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Structure of a synovial joint Ligament Meniscus Joint capsule Articular cartilage Synovial fluid Bursa Features that improve STABILITY Features that improve MOBILITY
    23. 23. Structure of a synovial joint <ul><li>Complete the table to show the name, definition and function of each part of the synovial joint. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Joint Capsule Discs of fibro-cartilage Synovial fluid Synovial membrane Articular cartilage Bursa Ligaments Pads of fat Meniscus Fibrous tissue encasing the joint Forming a capsule around the joint adds stability C-shaped rims of fibrocartilage Acts as shock absorbers A fluid that fills the joint capsule Nourishes and lubricates the articular cartilage Lines the joint capsule Secretes synovial fluid Covers the articulating surfaces of the bones Prevents friction between the ends of bones White fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone By securing the bones of joints together it adds significantly to joint stability A sac filled with synovial fluid located between tendons/ligaments and bones To reduce friction where tendons, ligaments, muscle or bones might rub together Fatty tissue located between fibrous capsule and bone or muscle Provides a cushion between the joint capsule and the bone/muscle Wedges of fibrocartilage found between bones Stabilises joint by improving the fit between bones. Reduces wear & tear STRUCTURE & FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT Joint feature Structure Function
    25. 25. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Ball and socket joints Use your understanding of the structure of the shoulder and hip joints to explain which allows the greatest range of movement The hip joint
    27. 27. <ul><li>Shoulder Joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the scapula (glenoid fossa) is small and shallow making the joint less stable </li></ul><ul><li>The joint capsule is very loose (allowing seperation between the two bones) allowing more movement </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the humerus is rounded but not as ball-like as the head of the femur, therefore it does not sit as deeply into the glenoid fossa </li></ul><ul><li>The shoulder joint is stabilised by the rotator cuff muscles but these are not as strong as the muscles surrounding the hip. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively easy to dislocate a shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>The socket on the pelvis (acetabulum) is deep and cup-like in shape making the joint more stable </li></ul><ul><li>A rim of fibrocartilage adds depth to the acetabulum, adding to stability </li></ul><ul><li>The head of the femur is very spherical and fits snugly into the acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>The joint is supported by 5 strong ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>The hip joint is surrounded by large muscle groups that aid stability, e.g. Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively difficult to dislocate the hip </li></ul>
    28. 28. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of…. </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the structure of the joint; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Specimen paper 2000 <ul><li>(b) 1 mark for each of </li></ul><ul><li>The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shallow and allows more movement than the hip </li></ul><ul><li>The acetabelum on the hip joint is quite deep giving more stability and less movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles and connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint are less restrictive than the hip as stability is not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment regarding the difference in technique for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>Any relevant comment concerning training for swimmers or gymnasts </li></ul><ul><li>[max 4] </li></ul>
    30. 30. Exam question – Jan 2008 <ul><li>Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance </li></ul><ul><li>(3 marks) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Exam question – May 2005 <ul><li>Identify two structures of the hip joint and describe the role of each structure during physical performance </li></ul><ul><li>(4 marks) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Types of movement <ul><li>What type of movements do we already know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul></ul>Horizontal flexion Horizontal extension Lateral flexion Circumduction Pronation Supination Dosiflexion Plantar flexion
    33. 33. Flexion & Extension <ul><li>Flexion – makes a body part move in a forwards direction from the anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Extension – makes a body part move in a backwards direction from the anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Except the knee joint! Flexion = lower leg moves backwards </li></ul>
    34. 34. Type of movements <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal extension </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion </li></ul>
    35. 35. Memory aids <ul><li>Horizontal flexion/extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers are already pointing to the horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being taken ‘away’ from or ‘abducted’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a bowl of soup ‘ soup ination’ = palms upwards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P for plantar and P for point ed feet </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Practical task – on your feet…. <ul><li>Find a position in which all the major joints in your body are flexed </li></ul>
    37. 37. TASK <ul><li>In the table, match the type of movement to the correct definition </li></ul>
    38. 38. Movement analysis table <ul><li>Complete the ‘ Movement allowed ’ column of your movement analysis table </li></ul>
    39. 39. Key terms – body positions <ul><li>Flexion of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>11. Horizontal flexion of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>12. Horizontal extension of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>13. Abduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>14. Adduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>15. Abduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>16. Adduction of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>17. Rotation of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>18. Rotation of the hip </li></ul><ul><li>19. Circumduction of the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>20. Lateral flexion of the spine </li></ul>For each of the actions below, give at least one sporting action that demonstrates the movement
    40. 40. Movement analysis <ul><li>Look at the pictures and identify what movement actions are taken place at each joint </li></ul>
    41. 41. Muscles <ul><li>Label one person in your group with all the muscles you can remember </li></ul>
    42. 42. Pectorals Deltoids Biceps Abdominals Quadriceps Hamstrings Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Triceps Gastrocnemius Gluteals Front View Back View Major Voluntary Muscles Skip to labelled diagram
    43. 43. Muscles <ul><li>Triceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul><ul><li>Soleus </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis minor </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul><ul><li>Erector spinae group </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist extensors </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist flexors </li></ul><ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus minimus </li></ul><ul><li>Internal obliques </li></ul><ul><li>External obliques </li></ul><ul><li>Pronator teres </li></ul><ul><li>Supinator </li></ul><ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus lateralis </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus medialis </li></ul><ul><li>Vastus intermedius </li></ul>Hamstrings Quadriceps
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