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Joints

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  • 1. Review Quiz 1 The Skeletal System In silence complete all 10 questions No conferring with others!! All books and notes out of sight!!
  • 2. Answers
    • Axial - Any 2 from: Skull/cranium, vertebrae, ribs
    • Appendicular – Any 2 bones other than skull/cranium, vertebrae, ribs
    • Movement, support, mineral storage, blood cell production and protection
    • Patella
    • Epiphysis
    • Articular (hyaline) cartilage
    • Humerus, radius, ulna
    • Carpals, radius, ulna
    • Femur, tibia
    • Talus, tibia, fibula
    • Head of femur and accetabulam of the pelvis
  • 3. Grading
    • <4/10 <40% U
    • 4/10 40% E
    • 5/10 50% D
    • 6/10 60% C
    • 7/10 70% B
    • 8/10+ 80%+ A
  • 4. Joints and movement
  • 5. Specification
    • Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the :
    • • Wrist : flexion and extension
    • • Radio-ulnar : pronation and supination
    • • Elbow : flexion and extension
    • • Shoulder : abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, rotation, horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, circumduction
    • • Spine (cartilaginous, gliding and pivot): flexion, extension, lateral flexion
    • • Hip : abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, rotation
    • • Knee : flexion and extension
    • • Ankle : dorsi flexion, plantar flexion
  • 6. Learning objectives
    • To know and understand:
    • The different types of synovial joints
    • The structure of a synovial joint
    • The range of movement of synovial joints
    • To be able to:
    • Identify and describe the structure of a synovial joint
    • Identify the type of joint and the range of movement it will allow
  • 7. Classification of Joints
    • Fibrous (fixed)
      • No movement
      • Most stable
    • Cartilaginous (slightly movable)
      • Little movement
      • Stable
    • Synovial
      • Free movement
      • Least stable
  • 8. Joints and movement
    • Muscle attached to two adjacent bones on either side of a joint
    • Muscle contraction across a joint = movement
    • What determines how much movement takes place at each joint?
  • 9. Synovial joints
    • Name the 6 types of synovial joints
    • Ball and socket joint
    • Hinge joint
    • Condyloid joint
    • Saddle joint
    • Gliding joint
    • Pivot joint
  • 10. Synovial joints
    • Condyloid joint
    • This is a synovial joint that allows movement in two planes , an example of this would be the wrist .
    • The two main bones of the forearm (the radius and unla ) and the bones of the hands ( carpals ) are the articulating bones that form the joint.
    • The joint structure is much flatter and shallower than a ball and socket joint.
    • Complete a description for each of the other 4 synovial joints. Ensure that you mention
    • Structure
    • An example with articulating bones
    • The number of planes of movement
  • 11. Planes of movement
  • 12. Hinge joint
    • Cylindrical shape articulating with trough-shaped depression
    • Movement occurs in one plane – bend and straighten
    • Examples: Knee, elbow, ankle
  • 13. Pivot
    • Rounded or pointed structure that articulates with ring-shaped structure of another
    • Movement occurs in one plane – rotation around longitudinal axis
    • Examples: Radio-ulna and spine (neck)
  • 14. Gilding joint
    • Articulating surfaces are almost flat and of a similar size
    • Movement occurs in three planes but very limited
    • Examples: Between the bony processes of the vertebrae
  • 15. Ball and socket
    • Ball shaped head of one bone articulates with the cup like shape of another
    • Movement occurs in three planes- allows greatest range of movement
    • Examples: Shoulder and hip
  • 16. Synovial joint structure - knee Femur Tibia Patella Tendon Cruciate ligaments Articular cartilage Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid Bursa Pre patella bursa Meniscus Pad of fat Ligament Joint capsule Quadricep Synovial membrane
  • 17. Key features - NEW
    • Bursa
      • a flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial fluid that contains a thin film of synovial fluid
      • prevents friction at sites where ligaments, muscles, tendons and bones might rub together
    • Meniscus
      • White fibrocartilage that improves the fit between adjacent bone ends
      • Make joint more stable and reduces wear and tear between joint surfaces
    • Pad of fat
      • Fatty pad that provides cushioning between the fibrous capsule and a bone or muscle
  • 18. Find your family!
    • You have been given a piece of paper which has written on it either:
      • A name of a part of a synovial joint
      • A definition of a part of a synovial joint
      • A function of a part of a synovial joint
    • Work together to find your group of three (matching name, definition and function)
  • 19. Structure of a synovial joint
    • Complete the table to show the name, definition and function of each part of the synovial joint.
  • 20. Planes of movement
    • Stood in anatomical position
    • All movement is described in relation to this position
  • 21. Types of movement
    • What type of movements do we already know?
      • Flexion
      • Extension
      • Abduction
      • Adduction
      • Rotation
    Horizontal flexion Horizontal extension Lateral flexion Circumduction Pronation Supination Dosiflexion Plantar flexion
  • 22. Flexion & Extension
    • Flexion – makes a body part move in a forwards direction from the anatomical position
    • Extension – makes a body part move in a backwards direction from the anatomical position
    • Except the knee joint! Flexion = lower leg moves backwards
  • 23. Memory aids
    • Horizontal flexion/extension
      • Fingers are already pointing to the horizon
    • Abduction
      • Being taken ‘away’ from or ‘abducted’
    • Supination
      • Holding a bowl of soup ‘ soup ination’ = palms upwards
    • Plantar flexion
      • P for plantar and P for point ed feet
  • 24. Practical task – on your feet….
    • Find a position in which all the major joints in your body are flexed
  • 25. Movement analysis table
    • Complete the ‘ Movement allowed ’ column of your movement analysis table
  • 26. Movement analysis
    • Look at the pictures and identify what movement actions are taken place at each joint
  • 27. Sporting examples
    • For each of the joint actions work in pairs to think of at least one sporting example for each type of movement
  • 28. Exam question – Jan 2008
    • Identify two structures of a synovial joint and describe the role of one of these structures during physical performance
    • (3 marks)
  • 29. Exam question – May 2005
    • Identify two structures of the hip joint and describe the role of each structure during physical performance
    • (4 marks)
  • 30. Specimen paper 2000
    • Explain the differences in flexibility measurements given for the shoulder joint and the hip joint in terms of….
    • (i) the structure of the joint;
    • (ii) the difference between swimmers and gymnasts.
  • 31. Specimen Paper 2000
    • (b) 1 mark for each of
    • • The glenoid fossa at the shoulder joint is very shallow and allows more movement than the hip
    • • The acetabelum on the hip joint is quite deep giving more stability and less movement.
    • • The muscles and connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint are less restrictive than the hip as stability is not essential
    • • Any relevant comment regarding the difference in technique for swimmers or gymnasts
    • • Any relevant comment concerning training for swimmers or gymnasts
    • [max 4]
  • 32. Home study
    • Complete exam questions
    • Revise notes from today’s lesson for next weeks review test
    • Read pages 15 – 26 : Muscles
    • Ensure you have an understanding of the following terms
      • Origin
      • Insertion
      • Agonist
      • Antagonist
      • + learn as many new muscle names as possible!
  • 33. Next lesson
    • Muscles
    • You will need…
    • Movement analysis table
    • Completed exam questions
    • To have completed the reading tasks