Impact of a healthy lifestyle on the skeletal and muscular system

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  • 1. Starter – Answer the following Define linear motion Define angular motion Define general motion Identify the 5 effects a force can have on an objective Explain Newton’s 1st law Explain Newton’s 2nd law Explain Newton’s 3rd law
  • 2. SpecificationCandidates should be able: Evaluate critically the impact of different types of physical activity (contact sports, high impact sports, activities involving repetitive actions).... .....on the skeletal and muscular systems (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, growth plate, joint stability, posture and alignment).... .....with reference to lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle.
  • 3. Learning Objectives To be able to present research on the impact of different types of exercise on a specific area of the muscular or skeletal systems and be able to evaluate your own and others success doing this To understand the following in relation to physical activity  Osteoarthritis  Osteoporosis  Growth plates  Joint stability  Muscle alignment and posture To be able to critically evaluate the impact of different types of exercise on the skeletal and muscular system, using sporting examples and specific terminology To understand the grading criteria for 10 mark answers
  • 4. Possible exam questionTaking part in physical activity is considered essential to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. However taking part in some activities can result in injury and a reduction in activity levels.Discuss both the positive and negative impact of participating in different types of physical activity on the joints and muscles of the body [10 marks] Specimen paper 2008
  • 5. Impact of physical activity on the muscularand skeletal systems Type of Positive impact Negative impact activity Low impact endurance High impact, Contact activities Repetitive actions
  • 6. Osteoporosis Weakening of the bones caused by a reduction in the bones density making them prone to fracture Most common in the bones of the hip, spine and wrist, although any bone can be affected Risk factors  _______________ in childhood, adolescence or adulthood Inactivity  __________ causing immobility and sedentary lifestyle Injury menopausal  Post _________________ women calcium  Low levels of ____________ and / or vitamin D in the diet With ageing there is a reduction in strength and density anyway due to a decrease in collagen
  • 7. Osteoporosis and Physical Activity Best to try to prevent by combining a healthy diet with physical activity in childhood and adolescence as this builds strong and healthy bones Peak bone density (when bone is at its strongest) occurs during early adulthood when bone growth/maturation is complete High peak bone density at this age reduces the risk of osteoporosis in later life High impact activity is thought to be most effective at achieving a high peak bone density , e.g. Resistance training 3 times per week NICE (the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) suggest that participation in resistance or strength training, weight bearing activities and high impact activities has a positive effect on bone health and reduces the long term risk of osteoporosis
  • 8. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis can lead to...Increased risk of fracture Poor posture
  • 9. Growth plate injuries The growth plate is a delicate plate of cartilage between the shaft and epiphysis of a long bone; this where bones continue to grow in length until maturation takes place Upon reaching the end of adolescence the growth plate fuses and becomes solid bone Also known as the epiphyseal plate
  • 10. Growth plate injuries ossificationBones do not fully mature until ______________is complete in lateadolescence, so growth plates represent an area of weaknessYoung athletes run the risk of damaging the epiphysis and/or theepiphyseal plateRisk factors __________ activities causing fractures across the growth Impact plate, e.g. Football, rugby, basketball or hard/heavy falls in any activity Repetitive overuse _________________ of a bone or joint from excessive practice can have similar effect, e.g. Rowers, runners, jumpers, racket players and gymnasts
  • 11. Osteoarthritis A degenerative joint disease involving the breakdown and eventual loss of articular cartilage at the ends of long bones in a joint Causes pain, swelling and reduced motion in your joints Commonly affects weight bearing joints, such as hips and kneesArticular cartilage...• Absorbs shock• Releases synovial fluid• Prevents friction between bone movements
  • 12. http://www.davidlnelson.md/Osteoarthritis.htmOsteoarthritisSymptoms... Pain, swelling and reduced joint motion Formation of bone spurs (bone projections) that limit motion and cause painCauses• Trauma - High impact sports and contact sports• Repetitive overuse• Major injuries cause greater risk in later life• Ageing (natural wear and tear with age)• Overweight / obesity putting extra forces on the joint• advanced cases there is a complete loss or articular cushion
  • 13. Osteoarthritis
  • 14. Osteoarthritis After knee replacement
  • 15. Tiger Woods Tore ACL while jogging Bypassed surgery to complete 2008 season Articular cartilage damaged developed as a result of ACL injury Also suffered stress fracture to tibia Surgery 3 times in 5 years
  • 16. Impact of repetitive actionsPositive Negative Increased calcium deposits =  Too much repetitive = too strengthening of bones much stress Strengthened ligaments and  Inflammation of tendons and tendons bursae Thickens articular cartilage  Tearing of muscles and tendons  Wearing away of articular cartilage  Bones stress fractures
  • 17. Impact of high impact/contactactivity Can lead to bone fractures Growth plate damage - weak area in young Ligament damage Tendon damage Damage articular cartilagePreventing skeletal/muscle damage Strength training increases bone density and strength of ligaments and tendons Avoid repetitive actions of same joints Overload gradually as muscles and bones become stronger Flexibility training to avoid soft tissue/muscle tears
  • 18. Joint stability The resistance offered by various musculo-skeletal tissues that surround a joint Exercise strengthens the ligaments and muscles surrounding the joint With no exercise....  Ligaments become shorter and less elastic and therefore are more likely to tear  Muscle tone will be lost, which will decrease the stabilising effect of the muscles  Synovial fluid will be reduced, making the joint more prone to other disorders
  • 19. Joint stability and exercise Impact and contact sports can lead to ligament damage or dislocation  Ankle and knee are particularly susceptible to ligament damage  Shallow shoulder joint is particularly susceptible to dislocation Resistance training can increased the strength of the muscles and make the joint more stable  E.g. Rotator cuff muscles
  • 20. Posture & muscle alignment Having good posture and muscle alignment allows you to carry out physical activity with both maximum efficiency and minimum risk of injury Core stability muscles around the trunk are important for maintaining good posture  Multifidis and transverse abdominis Muscle tone – even at rest the muscles are in a state of partial contraction. The greater the muscle tone the better your posture and core stability Prevent excess pressure on lumbar spine – prevents lower back pain
  • 21. Posture and physical activity Right type of activity and performing using good posture and technique will can improve posture. Aerobic exercise reduced weight causing less pressure and strain to be put on the muscles and joints and becomes easier to maintain correct body alignment Strength training or Swiss ball training improves muscle tone in the postural muscles of the trunk, developing core stability and reducing risk of lower back pain
  • 22. 10 mark questions
  • 23. Introduction Set the scene Show you know what is meant by different types of exercise Show you know what is meant by a healthy active lifestyle
  • 24. Main discussion: Positive v Negatives Analyse the positive effects of the different types of exercise Analyse the negative effects of the different types of exercise You must use sporting examples and specific terminology
  • 25. Conclusion Do the positive effects outweigh the negative effects? Explain why you think this is so
  • 26. 10 mark marking tableCriteria Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Comprehensive Competent Limited 8-10 marks 5-7 marks 0-4 marksKnowledge andunderstandingAnalysis/critical evaluationand/ordiscussion/explanation/developmentPractical application ofknowledge / examplesUse of technical andspecialist vocabularyStandard of writtencommunicationMark awarded Level: ………….. Marks: …………..
  • 27. Homework Complete the 10 mark question on the exam question sheet provided. Use the table to plan your answer
  • 28. Learning Objectives To be able to present research on the impact of different types of exercise on a specific area of the muscular or skeletal systems and be able to evaluate your own and others success doing this To understand the following in relation to physical activity  Osteoarthritis  Osteoporosis  Growth plates  Joint stability  Muscle alignment and posture To be able to critically evaluate the impact of different types of exercise on the skeletal and muscular system, using sporting examples and specific terminology To understand the grading criteria for 10 mark answers
  • 29. Plenary For each of the following types of activity, identify an impact on the muscular or skeletal system (positive or negative)
  • 30. Next lesson
  • 31. MINIMUM Recommendations for Physical Activity World Health Organisation (WHO) American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)Children &Young People Healthy adults (U65) Moderate intensity activity for at least 60  Moderate intensity cardio work for 30mins per day mins, 5 times per week  OR, intense cardio for 20min 3 times perAdults (U65) week At least 30 minutes of moderate intensity  AND, strength training twice per weekexercise most, if not all days Should include flexibility, muscular strengthand endurance exercise twice a weekCan be split into several shorter bouts Build up gradually These are for healthy individuals and will maintain health 60 to 90mins to improve when already in poor health or to lose weightModerate exercise is… Moderate exercise is… Brisk walk  working hard enough to raise HR and Cycling, swimming, gardening with moderate break sweat, yet can still holdeffort conversation