Further involvement 3 amateur and professional
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Further involvement 3 amateur and professional

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    Further involvement 3 amateur and professional Further involvement 3 amateur and professional Presentation Transcript

    • Why are more females taking part in sport andphysical activity now than in the past? [4 marks]
    • Why are more females taking part in sport andphysical activity now than in the past? [4 marks]Because there are: More sports and events available to females, e. Can take part in marathons More competitions/events/leagues available to females More coaches available to females More role models available to females More opportunities at school available to females More encouragement available to females More times available to play due to female/male role changes/traditions; More favourable attitudes towards female participation/equality for women Equal opportunities – can not discriminate based on gender Well publicised/promoted campaigns to increase female participation; Women’s only sessions in clubs/centres; Changing attitudes/ambitions amongst women; Increased chance of sponsorship for elite women athletes/earning money; More female sports coverage on TV/media; More childcare available.
    • Attitudes have changed towards many aspects ofsporting participation.Explain how attitudes have changed in terms ofwomen’s participation and also in terms of opportunitiesfor women in management and their role as officials. [4 marks] Women’s participation ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... Management and role as officials ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................ (Total 4 marks)
    • Explain how attitudes have changed in terms of women’sparticipation and also in terms of opportunities for women inmanagement and their role as officials. [4 marks] Award up to three marks for identifying greater participation and up to three further marks for considering the management and officials’ roles. Greater participation  A greater level of social acceptability for women to taking part in sport. it is no longer thought of as unfeminine  Greater opportunities as more sports, activities and clubs are being formed/ Women’s soccer is now the fastest-growing sport in the country  Equal opportunities - which allows women more chances to take part in sport  Changing attitudes in schools - which now allows access to more sports for girls as part of their timetabled provision  Events are now open to women - which they were not allowed to compete in before/ e.g, marathons and distance events, pole vault. Accept the above plus any other suitable examples. Management and officials’ roles  More provision equals more opportunities - and as more clubs and organisations are formed/ more vacancies arise for women  Equal opportunities - means that women are not now discriminated against/ and can now have roles in male sports/ eg. Wendy Thoms and Karen Brady in soccer and female referees in snooker etc. Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.
    • Influence of socio-economicgroup If socio-economic status is low you may less likely to participate in physical due to cost of coaching, equipment, kit and transport. Certain activities tend to be more expensive to be involved in than others, e.g. ◦ Golf ◦ Tennis ◦ Skiing
    • VOCATIONS/CAREERS IN SPORTAmateurs and Professionals
    • AmateursSomeone that takes part in a sport or an activity as a pastime or hobby rather than for any financial gain. They take part for the enjoyment factor, do not get paid for taking part and usually also have a job
    • ProfessionalSomeone who takes part in a sport or an activity for their livelihood. They will get paid for taking part and will do it as a full-time job
    • Semi-professionalSomeone who might have a job but who also takes part in sport for payment.They would normally work full-time and play sport in their spare time.Some may work part-time so they can train and play over a longer period
    • Amateur or Professional? Look at the sports below and decide what ‘code’ exists for each. Semi-ProfessionalSport Amateur ProfessionalFootball   Athletics  /? /?Boxing   Rugby Union   Swimming   Gymnastics   
    • Amateur & Professional SportThe status of each competitor is defined by the rules and regulations laiddown by the governing body of the particular sport undertaken.In most cases, amateurs and professionals do not compete together,although some sports are ‘open’ to both, for example: Golf Tennis Open sport: An activity that allows both amateurs and professionals to compete together
    • Amateur SportThere are several loopholes and ways of getting help and assistance that allow amateur players to receive money:1. Sponsorship deals – the performer is given equipment, clothing, training facilities, free travel and even cash payments in return for endorsing a particular make or product2. Occupations – a ‘job’ that includes a great deal of time off to train and compete3. Expenses payments (e.g. Petrol) – these are often far more than the expenses actually incurred and are effectively just cash payments4. Scholarships – universities and colleges offer sports scholarships, which then allow full-time sport to be carried out5. Trust Funds – Some amateurs, particularly athletes can accept prize and appearance money, but it must be paid into a trust fund and used only to help them train and compete
    • Amateur Sport 6. Lottery Grants – Talented sports people can now qualify for financial support in the form of a lottery grant from UK Sport. Once again this is often dependant upon whether the sport you are involved in has been identified as a ‘target’ sport by UK Sport. 7. Understanding Employers – In some cases, an understanding employer may allow you time off to train and compete, seeing it as a good way of promoting their own business. Good examples of this include the Armed Forces.
    • Sponsorship Expenses Scholarships payments Ways that amateurs can receive paymentUnderstanding Trust funds employers Lottery funding
    • ShamateursSomeone who is officially an amateur but accepts payments
    • ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES  Professional sportspeople can  Injury can ruin a sporting become celebrities and live a career, thereby cutting off the persons source of income. lavish lifestyle  There are always new, young competitors challenging for a top place, which can impose  They can perfect their game. increasing stress levels on individuals to keep their place at the top.  They are paid to do something  The ability to maintain fitness they enjoy. and performance usually decreases with age; the sportspersons career may not  They can normally afford to be very long. retire early.  Once their sporting career is over, they may have few qualifications to do another job.Being a professional sportsperson
    • The HistoryThe origins of amateur and professional sport started in the classsystem, which consisted of upper, middle and lower class.
    • Athletics In 1866 the Amateur Athletics Club was set up by a group of gentlemen from the upper classes. It was felt that the manual labour undertaken by the working classes made them stronger and gave them an advantage, so they were not allowed to take part. In 1880 the club became the Amateur Athletics Association and it changed the word ‘amateur’ to mean someone who got no financial rewards from sport. The working classes could now take part, but in most cases could not afford to do so!
    • Professionals Professionals receive payment for playingProfessional Sumo Wrestlers in Japan and competing; it is their job or career. Originally many were working class men with talent, who were paid to compensate for time lost from work in order to compete. They would play and train full-time. As a result, they often reach very high standards and compete with the world’s best in their sport.
    • Rugby In recent years, changes have occurred in relation to the amateur and professional status of sport. Example: In 1895, rugby split into two separate codes: Rugby in 1895 Rugby Union Rugby LeagueRugby Union wanted to keep its Rugby League wanted to pay itsamateur status and continued to offer players to make up for lost wagesits players no money for playing. and so it became professional.
    • Current Issues - RugbyIn recent years, television producers started to pay large sums of money toboth codes for the rights to broadcast games. This meant that the RugbyLeague players began to benefit from: Salaries – Clubs were able to pay their talented players large sums of money for playing.  Training – Players were now more able to give up work and could begin to train full time, in better facilities and with help from coaches and other support staff.
    • Current Issues - RugbyThe Rugby Union players were allowed to receive ‘gifts’ including:  Expensive cars  Expenses for playing and trainingThey could not however, earn a proper salary because the sport remainedamateur. As a result, many became extremely unhappy and even decided tochange codes and make a living from their talent by playing Rugby League.In 1995 the governing body of Rugby Union the Rugby Football Union(RFU), decided to allow teams to become professional. Players couldnow be paid to play.
    • Current Issues - AthleticsAll athletes are amateur in that they do not receive any direct payment forcompeting. However, in order to allow the top athletes to train and competefull-time they can accept certain benefits: Financial – Money can be passed into a trust fund for the athlete to help cover their training, competing and living expenses. For example, living, travel, eating, clothing, equipment, coaching and so on. Gifts – Athletes are also allowed to receive gifts for competing. Expensive cars are a good example of this. Sponsorship – They can now receive large sums of sponsorship, but again it must be paid into a trust fund. Many athletes now endorse clothing or footwear, using their high profile as a way of earning a living through sponsorship. Those with less talent find this difficult.The very elite athletes can compete in Grand Prix competitions, where theyactually earn money by winning – are they really amateurs?
    • Vocations (jobs) in sportJobs relating to Physical Activity FITNESS INSTRUCTOR / PERSONAL TRAINER PERFORMER / PLAYER OFFICIALCOACH MANAGER COACH PE TEACHER CHOREOGRAPHER
    • Vocations (jobs) in sport Jobs relating to Sports Science FITNESS INSTRUCTOR / PHYSIOTHERAPIST PERSONAL TRAINER OSTEOPATH EXERCISEPHYSIOLOGIST / NUTRITIONIST / RESEARCH DIETICIAN SCIENTIST SPORTS BIOMECHANIST SPORTS PSYCHOLOGIST
    • Homework Complete Process C (Evaluating & Improve sheet) for an activity of your choice It must be for one of your main four activities. Double awards candidates must do two