Etiquette The unwritten rules or conventions of an activity Examples...
SOCIAL GROUPS THATINFLUENCEPARTICIPATIONThursday 26th January By the end of the lesson... ◦ You should be aware of the different social groupings that exist ◦ You should be able to explain how these social groupings can influence levels and types of participation
Which social groups caninfluence your participation insport?1. Peers (friends)2. Family3. Gender4. Ethnicity Teachers Professional performers (role models)
Peers People of the same age and status as you Peer pressure – where the peer group will attempt to persuade an individual to follow their lead
Effect of family and peers How might (a) your family, and (b) your peers, effect upon your participation in physical activity both positively and negativelySocial Positive effect Negative effectgroupFamily May be a role model as children Family members may not be want to following their sporting prepared or able to provide the tradition support Could provide financial support by They may have had negative paying for coaching, kit and experiences of sport that have put equipment them off physical activity Could provide transport May put pressure on children to Watch and support you play focus on academic workPeers If your peers are actively If your peer group are not in involved in sport and physical favour of regular physical activity, activity, this is likely to have a and/or have a negative view of positive effect, as you will want PE, it is like to have a negative to join in with them effect as they are likely to go along with their peers
Gender Now more opportunities for women to access as many sports as men do More women becoming officials and coaches
Richard Keys and Andy Gray Sky SportsAssistant referee Massey had just angered Wolves fans by not giving Raul Meireles offside as he set up Liverpools first goal - a decision that replays subsequently showed was correct. Keys: „Somebody better get down there and explain offside to her.‟ Gray: „Can you believe that? A female linesman. Women don‟t know the offside rule.‟ Keys : „Course they don‟t. I can guarantee you there will be a big one today. Kenny [Dalglish] will go potty. This is not the first time, is it? Didn‟t we have one before? Wendy Toms?‟ Gray: „Yeah. Yeah she was f****** hopeless as well.‟ Keys: „The game‟s gone mad!‟
Ricky Groves, ex-Arsenal midfielderand regular pundit on Radio Five Live“I know a lot of women and they‟re not consistent from hour tohour. Footballers want the rules to be applied consistently andthis wouldn‟t happen with women refs.”“It‟s hard enough for male refs to earn respect from players.With a woman in charge, players will be thinking: You knownothing about football”“Also, let‟s face it, women have periods and we all know howhormones affect them. Would women refs be banned duringtheir time of the month‟ because they might be more emotional,depressed or aggressive?”
Wimbledon – Should men andwomen get the same prize money? 2006 ◦ Women‟s singles - £625,000 ◦ Men‟s singles - £655,000 2007 - Wimbledon changed this policy, giving the same money for both events 2010 – men‟s and women‟s singles £1,000,000 each
Gender inequalityHolders of the Twenty20 World World Cup Ashes Cup Winners Winners
Gender inequality Lower pay for elite female performers, e.g. Tournament winnings Sport traditionally male dominated and women were viewed as the „weaker sex‟ ◦ Women not allowed to run 800m in Olympics until 1960, 1500m in 1972, 10,000m in 1988 Lower female participation in some religious group due to religious guidelines Has been (and still is to a lesser extent) a lack of female sports clubs, particularly in traditionally „male‟ sports, due to lack of coaches and facilities Lower profile in media = less sponsorship = less money into grassroots ◦ One of the arguments put forward for the lack of interest in women‟s sport is the low standard. Few female sporting role models (performers, coaches, media) ◦ Sports Personality of the Year – less than 25% of winners have been women
Gender inequality Male-dominated culture - Some women/girls are turned off „sport‟ because they see it is just not seen as feminine or „girly‟ Increasing pressure to been considered attractive to be a successful sportswoman and to get media interest. ◦ Increasing number of women posing for magazines / wearing revealing clothing ◦ Wimbledon admitted to putting more „attractive‟ women on Centre Court and Court 1 to appeal to the crowds. ◦ In beach volleyball regulations state that women‟s bikinis must be 7 cm across the hip. In contrast, men‟s shorts must be 10cm above the knee.
EthnicityPossible ethnicity factors that could influence participation in sport may include: Dress codes – for example, not allowing women to wear certain items of sports kit could affect the safety of the activity Codes of behaviour such as single sex rules regarding mixing with others may prevent participation. E.g. Muslim women are not always permitted to take part in mixed sex sporting activities Some cultures see a woman‟s role as in the home which limits their amount of leisure time
Specimen paperFriends of a similar age and background are known as:a) Peer groupb) Pressure groupc) Pair groupd) Support group (1 mark)
Specimen paper Not all physical activity is competitive. Many individuals take part in a leisure or recreational pastime.(a) Describe a leisure or recreational activity which is also non-competitive (2 marks)(b) For the activity you have chosen above describe the benefits which could be gained from taking part in this activity. (3 marks)
2011Name two social groups and explain how they mayhave influenced Rachel‟s decision to participate infootball, swimming and cross country. (4 marks)
2011 mark schemeAward one mark for naming each social group up to a maximum of two and a further mark for explaining how each group has influenced Rachel‟s decision to participate in football, swimming and cross country up to a maximum of four marks. Peer group or friends - will have a considerable influence/ if friends take part in an activity it is likely that you will as well/ to maintain contact with them/ to share a common interest. Family - will encourage participation/ due to the support they offer/ either financially in the form of equipment/ coaching/ or by providing transport/ or moral support. Family/ may also be role models/ in that children follow other family members/ into the sports that they do. Gender/ some activities are stereotypically male or female (or equivalent „girls play netball. Ethnicity/ due to cultural or religious beliefs, some people are stereotypically drawn towards certain activities. Ethnicity/ dress code may restrict participation, eg swimming.
2010Correct etiquette is important when taking part in physical activities.(a) Explain what is meant by etiquette. (2 marks)(b) Give an example of when you would expect etiquette. (2 marks)