Complete Progress Test 2 . Use your notes and book to help you so that you score 35 out of 35 when I mark them.
Do not just copy sentences you must make sure you have a thorough understanding of each answer and come to ask me if you are unsure
My free periods...
Monday or Friday period 4 (lower school lunch)
Slow Twitch (Type 1) Fast Oxidative Glycolytic (Type 2a/FOG) Fast Glycolytic (Type 2b/FG) Structural Characteristics Colour Size Small Large Large No. of mitochondria Large Moderate Small No. of capillaries Large Moderate Small Myoglobin concentration High Moderate Low Phosphocreatine (PC) stores Low High High Glycogen stores Low High High Triglyceride (TG) stores High Moderate Low Functional Characteristics Speed of contraction Slow Fast Fastest Force of contraction Low High Highest Fatigue resistance High Low Lowest Aerobic capacity High Low Lowest Anaerobic capacity Low High Highest Best suited activity 100m, shot put, long jump 1500m Marathan, 10K
Effects on skeletal muscle Effects of warm up Effects of a cool down
Increase in muscle/core body temperature
= reduction in muscle viscosity , leading to improvement in the efficiency of muscular contraction
= a greater speed and force of contraction due to a higher speed of nerve transmission
= an increased elasticity that reduces the risk of injury due to increased extensibility of tendons and ligaments
= improved co-ordination between antagonistic pairs
Keeps the capillaries dilated, allowing oxygen rich blood to flush through the muscles
= an increase in the speed of lactic acid and carbon dioxide removal
= reduce acidity level
= reduced stimulation of pain receptors
Decreased risk of DOMS ( delayed onset of muscle pain and soreness ) experienced 24-48 hours after intense exercise due to microscopic tears in muscle fibres
Cardiovascular response to exercise Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output
Can measure carotid (neck) pulse or radial (wrist) pulse
Measure and record your HR in beats per minute (bpm) in the following situations
Lying down (supine)
Describe the changes in HR due to changes in position. Suggest reasons why.
Compare HR values between members of the group. What could account for these differences?
Heart rate (HR) at rest Average resting HR = 70-72 bpm Low resting HR indicates high aerobic fitness Resting heart rate below 60 is termed bradycardia Bradycardia caused by ‘hypertrophy’ which is an increase in size and strength of cardiac (heart) muscle wall Maximal heart rate = 220 - Age
Stroke volume (SV) at rest The volume of blood ejected from the heart ventricles each contraction
Stroke volume (SV) at rest The volume of blood ejected from the heart ventricles each contraction The difference in the volume of blood in the ventricle blood before and after ventricle contraction. SV = EDV – ESV SV = End Diastolic Volume – End Systolic Volume Average volume at rest = 70mls per beat
Describe the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output and resting values for each Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate = 70ml x 70bpm = 4900ml per minute = 4.9 (5) Litres per minute AT REST MAX EXERCISE Stroke Volume = 120 ml (untrained) 160ml (trained) Cardiac Output = 20-40 L/min Heart rate = 220 – Age
70ml pumped to body and 60ml left in ventricles in reserve
SV = 130ml – 10ml
120ml pumped to the body and only 10ml in ventricles in reserve.
Stroke Volume Response to Exercise Exercise Intensity Stroke Volume (mls/beat) 150 50 100 Stroke volume increases linearly as exercise intensity increases but only up to 40 – 60 % of maximal intensity. After this point, SV values reaches a plateau Maximal SV values are reached during sub-maximal exercise