Emotions & MoodsTime cools, time clarifies; no mood canbe maintained quite unaltered through the course of hours. (Mark Twain)
Emotions, moods and OB The workplace was considered emotions and moodfree space in the universe. The business has nothing to dowith emotions and moods the people have either positive ornegative. But recently it is felt that people make theworkplace and as people are not free from emotions, so it isnot possible to make emotions free place in the midst ofpeople.There are two possible explanations:1. Myth of Rationality – no frustration, fear, anger, love , hate, joy, grief and similar feeling at job.2. Emotions are Disruptive – Negative -- frustrate the performance of employee, rarely constructive – enhance performance.
Three terms– Affect, emotion &mood1. Affect—A broad range of feelings that people experience. It can be experienced in the form of emotions and moods.2. Emotions– Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.3. Moods– Feelings that tend to less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Emotions and Moods Differentiated Emotions Moods• Caused by specific event. • Cause is often general and unclear• Very brief in duration (seconds or • Last longer than emotions (hours or minutes ) days)• Specific and numerous in nature- • More general – positive and negative anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgus t, surprise• Usually accompanied by distinct facial • Generally not indicated by distinct expressions. expressions• Action oriented in nature. • Cognitive in nature.
Structure of Moods High Negative affect down High Positive affect down To To Low positive affect Low negative affect• Tense • Alert• Nervous • Excited• Stressed • Elated• Upset • Happy• Sad • Content• Depressed • Serene• Bared • Relaxed• Fatigued • calm
Functions of EmotionsThe emotions are not irrational-- decisions be made on thinking and feelingsFollowing are the functions that emotions Serve1. Positive affect– A mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end.2. Negative Affect – A mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end.3. Positivity offset– The tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on).4. Evolutionary psychology– An area of inquiry which argues that we must experience the emotions we do because they serve a purpose.
Sources of Emotions & MoodsFrom where emotions come:1. Personality: built in tendencies to experience certain moods & emotions more frequently. Affect Intensity– difference in strength to experience emotions2. Day of the Week and Time of the Day: day later in week or near to week end are felt with good emotions and moods. Early time of the day is felt with bad moods.3. Weather: people are of the opinion that their moods are good or bad due to weather conditions but research has not such evidence.
Sources of Emotions & Moods4. Stress: mounting level of stress worsen our moods. Stress takes toll on our moods.5. Social Activities: type of activity– physical, informal, epicurean (eating with others) create more positive affect than attending meetings and sedentary (TV watching).6. Sleep: Less and poor quality puts in bad mood and impairs decision making and control on emotions.
Sources of Emotions & Moods7. Exercise: enhances positive moods – not much strong –donot expect miracles.8. Age: Early age is with good moods –wrongPeople learn to improve emotional experience with age andhave fewer negative emotions as they get more older.9. Gender: Women experience emotions more intensely ascompared to men except anger. But it depends how someoneis culturally socialized.Men– are more tough- expression of emotions distorts themasculine image.Women– are expected to express more positive emotionsthan men –example shown by smiling.
OB Applications on Emotions & Mood1. Selection: criteria be adjusted. As people with emotions sold more than their counterparts with less emotional intelligence.2. Decision Making: Positive moods and emotions seen to help decision making. Positive moods– help problem solving skills, make quick decision. Negative moods– poorer decisions, perfectionist searching for perfect decision – hard to find.
OB Applications on Emotions & Mood3. Creativity: people with Positive Moods open inthinking- that leads to creativity. Moreover, peoplein positive mood feel everything is going okay anddo not feel to make change that hinders creativity.4. Motivation: Positive moods – solved better wordpuzzles– who saw funny clip than the group withviewing funny puzzles. Positive feedback enhancespositive moods that in turn results in bettermotivation to do job well.
OB Applications on Emotions & Mood5. Leadership: Effective leadership rely onemotional appeals to help convey theirmessages. Excitements, enthusiastic and activeleaders organize their subordinates better andconvey better efficacy, competence, optimism.6. Negotiation: the negotiators with angerbetter win over the opponents. Negativeemotions about bad performance loose infuture negotiations.
OB Applications on Emotions & Mood7. Customer Service: Emotional worker dobetter business and repeat. More satisfaction isattach with emotional dealing.Emotional Contagion – the process by whichpeoples’ emotions are caused by the emotionsof others.8. Job Attitudes: “Never take your work home”but it not easy –people having a good day atwork take good moods to their homes.
OB Applications on Emotions & Mood7. Deviant Workplace Behavior: (violateestablished norms that threaten organizationsor its’ members or both) Negative emotions leadto such behavior.