The stellar universe is not so difficult of comprehension as the real actions of other people---Marcel Proust
Research recognizes the wages and fringe benefits are not main reasons that employees like their job and stay with organization but they are quality of job and supportiveness of work environment
POS: An area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential.
Chapter 1 ob
Chapter # 1 Organizational Behavior Importance of interpersonal skills: Pre-1980: The business schools emphasized technicaleducation like: Economics, Accounting, Finance, And Quantitative techniques
Post 1980• The business faculty was convinced that without realizing human behavior it is not possible to develop effective management practices and retaining of employees with the organization.• Not doubt technical skill are necessary but they are not enough to succeed in management.
What managers do?• Manager defined- the person gets things done through other people.• Organization defined- Consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people to achieve some specific goal or set of goals.1. What functions a manager performs in the organization?2. What roles he plays in the organization?3. What Skills he needs to do the above two?4. What activities he execute?
Functions of the ManagementPlanning:1. defining goals2. establish strategy to achieve goals3. integrate and coordinate activitiesOrganizing:1. What tasks to be done2. Who will to do them3. How they are to be grouped4. Who report to whom and5. Where decisions are to be made
Functions of management continueLeading:1. Motivate employees2. Direct activities of others3. Resolving conflicts among membersControlling:1. Monitoring the organization’s performance2. Comparing the actual performance and set goals3. Identifying the deviations4. Making corrections
Roles of the Management• Interpersonal Roles:1. Figurehead- routine duties of social and legal nature.2. Leader- responsible for motivation and direction of employees.3. Liaison- Maintaining network of outside contacts who provide favors and information.
Management roles continueInformational Roles:1. Monitor-nerve center of int-ext. info.2. Disseminator-transmits info, to members of org.3. Spokesman-to outsiders for plans, policies, actions and resultsDecisional Roles:1. Entrepreneur-searches opportunities & initiate change2. Disturbance Handler-corrective actions to handle crisis3. Resource Allocator-approves org- significant decisions4. Negotiator-responsible to represent in major negotiations
Managerial Activities1. Traditional: -decision making, planning and controlling.2. Communication: -exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.3. HRM: -motivating, disciplining, managing conflicts, staffing, and training.4. Networking: -socializing, politicking and interacting with outsiders
Management skillsThere are three skills needed for a manager tobe an effective manager:1. Technical skills- ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise2. Human skills-ability to work with, understand, motivate both individuals and groups3. Conceptual skills-mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
Definition of Organizational Behavior• A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
A Systematic StudyLooking at relationships, attempting to attributecauses and effects, and drawing conclusions basedon scientific evidence.EBM – Evidence-based management.Basing managerial decisions on the best available.Intuition- a gut feeling not necessarily supported byresearch i.e. “why I do what I do”The trick, of course, is to know when to go withyour gut (Jack Welch).
Disciplines that Contribute to OB1. Psychology: the science that seeks t measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.2. Social Psychology: an area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology, and that focuses on the influence of people on one another
Disciplines that Contribute to OB continued3. Sociology: the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture.4. Anthropology: the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Challenges & Opportunities of OB• Responding to Globalization: the organizations are working acrossboundaries of different nations, Japanese are inUS, Americans are working in China, Indians areworking Japan and Chinese are working in alarge number of countries.The different challenges were emerged with theadvent of multinationalization like:
Challenges & Opportunities of OB1. Increased Foreign Investment- international appointments and back home syndrome.2. Working with People from Different Cultures Change in life style, values, geography and religion shape them.3. Coping with Anti-capitalism.4. Low cost of labor in less developed countries.5. Managing People during time of terror
Managing Diversity1. Gender2. Race3. National Origin4. Age5. Disability6. Domestic Partner7. Religion8. Changing U.S. Demographics9. Implications- Human beings are not alike you have to treat who they are
Challenges & Opportunities of OB1. Improving Quality and Productivity2. Improving Customer Service3. Improving People Skills4. Stimulating Innovation and Change5. Coping with “Temporariness”6. Working in Networking7. Working in Networked Organizations8. Helping Employees Balance their work-life Conflicts9. Creating a Positive Work Environment.
Dependent Variables in OB The dependent variable is an outcome asthe effect some (independent varialbes) otherfactors. The scholars historically tended toemphasize some dependent variables. In OB primary variables are:productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and jobsatisfaction. Two more variables are added to OBrecently: deviant workplace behavior andorganizational citizenship behavior
Dependent Variables in OB (continued)1. Productivity: A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency.2. Absenteeism: A failure to report to the work.3. Turnover: Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from organization.4. Deviant Workplace Behavior: Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and , in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.
Dependent Variables in OB (continued)5. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.6. Job Satisfaction: A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Independent Variables The presumed cause of some change in adependent variable. Independent variables are ofthree types:1. Individual-Level Variables: individual entering inthe organizations are like used cars—low mileage,or well worn due to driven on rough roads- havingdifferent biographical features: like age, gender,marital status; Personality traits: like inherentemotional framework, values and attitudes; andbasic ability levels.
Group-Level VariablesIt is more than sum of the individual behaviors.The behavior of the group is different from thebehavior when they are alone.For example:a). Acceptable standards of behavior.b). The degree to which group members are attracted to each other.
Organization System-Level Variables System-level variables more than the sum ofthe behavior of members of the organization.1. Design of the Formal Organization2. Internal culture of the organization3. HRM policies and practices, that is, staffing, training and development programs, performance evaluation methods. All have impact on the dependent variables oroutcomes of employees, teams and the structure.