change & stress management (Chapter No.19


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change & stress management (Chapter No.19

  1. 1. Change & Stress Management Change- making things different
  2. 2. Forces for Change (mandatory) 1. Nature of the workforce- diversity, aging, new entrants with inadequate skills. 2. Technology-faster, cheaper, and online 3. Economic shocks- rise and fall of stocks, interest rates. 4. Competition- global, mergers and e-commerce growth. 5. Social trends- chatting, retirement and big box retailer (hyperstar, macro and metro). 6. World Politics- Iraq, terrorism, and china markets
  3. 3. Planned change Planned change- change activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Change Agents- Person who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
  4. 4. Change Resistance As it is said that the change is only permanent in the world. But there are some barriers that resist the change. The sources of change can be divided into two groups: 1. Individual Sources 2. Organizational Sources
  5. 5. Individual Sources of Change Resistance 1. Habit- programed responses when confronted or amended create resistance. 2. Security- threats to feeling and safety. 3. Economic Factors-may create joblessness 4. Fear of Unknown-what will happen after change. 5. Selective Information Processing- only that information is processed that support them.
  6. 6. Organizational Sources of Change Resistance 1. Structural Inertia- already system in force becomes resistant (stability concerns). 2. Limited Focus of Change- change is not on the whole with letter and spirit but in part. 3. Group Inertia- individual want to change but group becomes hurdle. 4. Threat to Expertise- new trends may create problem for expertise. 5. Threat to established Power relationships- that subordinate will dominate situation. 6. Threat to established resource allocation-other group will control the resources.
  7. 7. How to overcome change Resistance? Following are way to overcome change resistance: 1. Education and Communication 2. Participation 3. Building Support and Commitment 4. Implementing Change Fairly 5. Manipulation and Cooption 6. Selecting People who Accept change 7. Coercion
  8. 8. Approaches to Managing Organizational Change Lewin’s Three Steps: 1. Unfreezing- Changing to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. 2. Movement- A change process that transforms the organization from the status quo to desired end state/ 3. Refreezing- Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining force.
  9. 9. Other ways of managing change 1. Action Research- A change process based on systematic collection of data, and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. 2. Organization Development (OD)- A collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. OD efforts--a. Respect for People b. Trust and support c. Power equalization d. Confrontation e. participation
  10. 10. 6 INTERVENTIONS TO CHANGE 1. Sensitivity Training- Training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. 2. Survey Feedback- The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perception; discussion follows, and remedies are suggested. 3. Process Consultation- A meeting in which a consultant assists a client in understanding process events with which he or she must deal and identifying processes that need improvement.
  11. 11. 6 intervention (continue) 4. 5. 6. Team Building- High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness. Intergroup Development- OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other. Appreciative Inquiry- An approach that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance.
  12. 12. Creating a Culture for Change As said that change is only permanent, then it is mandatory to create adaptability in the members of the organization. There are approaches for adaptability of change: 1. Stimulating an Innovative Culture. 2. Creating a Learning Organization.
  13. 13. Stimulating an Innovative Culture Definition of Innovation- A new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. Sources of Innovation: 1. Structural Variablesa. dynamic – less centralization, formalization and have flexibility, adaptation and cross-fertilization lead innovation. b. long tenure management. c. Slack resources (hard time) d. high communications- use of committees, task forces, crossfunctional teams and interdepartmental interactions. 1. Cultural Variables- encouragement of experimentation, rewarding both successes and failures, celebrate mistakes. 2. Human Resource Variables- training and development, high job security, and encourage employees to become champion of chage.
  14. 14. Creating Learning Organization Definition- An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. 1. Single-loop Learning- A process of correcting errors using past routines and present policies. 2. Double-loop Learning- A process of correcting errors by modifying the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines.
  15. 15. 5 Characteristics of Learning Organizations 1. Shared Vision- values everyone agree upon 2. Discarding old ways of thinking and standard routines to solve problems. 3. Thinking all processes, activities, functions, and interactions with environment as part of a system of interrelationships. 4. Openly communicate without fear of criticism or punishment. 5. Sublimating self-interests and watching organizational interests and goals.
  16. 16. Stress and its Management Definition of stress- A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, a demand, or a resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. More demands with less resources in shape of “big job with small workforce and in short span of time”.
  17. 17. Potential Sources of Stress There are 3 potential resources of stress: 1. Environmental Factors2. Organizational Factors3. Personal Factors-
  18. 18. Environmental Factors 1. Economic Uncertainty: lean economies create uncertainty for the people. 2. Political Factors: lack of consistency in policies and goals of the country. 3. Technological Change: computer, robotics, automation, and other similar types innovations.
  19. 19. Organizational Factors 1. Task Demands- design of job(autonomy, task variety, degree of automation), working conditions, physical work layout. 2. Role Demands- role ambiguity, more demand than the time permits and employee is not sure what to do. 3. Interpersonal Demands- lack of social support, poor interpersonal relationships can cause stress, especially among employees with high social need.
  20. 20. Personal Factors 1. Family Problems- marital difficulties, breaking relationships, discipline problems with children, that can not be left at the front door when arriving at work. 2. Economic Problems- spendthrift, loans overdue, demand more than resources generated. 3. Personality- negative affectivity ( taking the negative side of situation). Positive affectivity (taking positive side of situation). Basic disposition of – type A and B personality.
  21. 21. Individual Differences 1. Perception- people react in response to perception of reality rather than reality. 2. Job experiences- like used car how it was driven in what type of roads and how maintained. 3. Social support- relations with coworkers and superiors. 4. Belief in locus of control (internal and external). 5. Self-efficacy- how one copes with stress, style to act in crisis- some people thrive in hard situations 6. Hostility – Anger and strand relations with coworkers and colleagues.
  22. 22. Consequences of Stress 1. Physiological Symptoms2. Psychological Symptoms3. Behavioral symptoms-
  23. 23. Physiological Problems 1. Musculoskeletal problems-tension, headaches, and back pains. 2. Gastrointestinal problems-diarrhea, and constipation. 3. Cardiovascular problems- high blood pressure, and heart rates increase and respiratory problems. 4. Immune system problems- decreasing the ability to fight off illness and diseases like infection.
  24. 24. Psychological Problems due to Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Anger Anxiety Depression Nervousness Irritability Tension Boredom Procrastination Aggressive Actions- sabotage, interpersonal aggressions, hostility, and complaints.
  25. 25. Behavioral Problems due to Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Changes in productivity Absence Turnover Change in eating habits Increased smoking or consumption of alcohol Rapid speech Fidgeting Sleep disorders
  26. 26. Managing Stress 1. Individual Approaches2. Organizational Approaches-
  27. 27. Individual Approaches to cope Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. Time management Physical exercise Relaxation training Expanding the social support network
  28. 28. Organizational Approaches to cope Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Improved selection and job placement Training to manage stressful situations/crisis Use of realistic goal setting Redesigning the jobs Employees involvement Improved organizational communications Offering employees sabbaticals Establishing corporate wellness programsprograms that focus on employees physical and mental conditions.