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For physicists the final formula is the "formula of all formulas". Einstein, Heisenberg and many famous physicists have dreamed of this "equation for everything", in vain looking for it their whole lives. Modern science seeks for what holds together the world in the biggest and smallest parts. With the "theory of everything" it is possible to give a clear and unambiguous description of the observable phenomena in nature.

A World novelty

The "theory of everything" -a development of the Max Planck approaches- elegantly combines different phenomena of the microcosm and macrocosm in a plausible explanation. His knowledge of how to use a brief formula as physical "equation of everything" to explain the entire universe, the author wants to share in his ebook.

With the final formula the following fundamental constants and significant physical parameters were derived:

- Elementary charge

- Electron mass

- Proton mass

- Proton radius

- acceleration due to gravity

- Gravitational constant

- Fine structure constant

- Speed of Light

In this ebook, the author wants to share his knowledge of how to use a formula to explain the entire universe, in an easily understandable language. Based on equations derived from fundamental physical constants of nature that play a central role in physics, the author demonstrate that it is possible to explain the entire universe with a brief physical formula as equation of everything.

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- 1. Halit ErogluTheory ofThe elemental Force of the Universeeverything10=⋅ch
- 2. This e-Book contains bookmarks (table of contest).If you want to see a bookmarked page, click on the book-marks icon in the bookmark panel, and Adobe Reader willgo to that page.You can display PDF bookmarks by following steps:1. Click on "View" in Adobe Reader2. Click on "Navigation Panels."3. Click on "Bookmarks." The Bookmarks pane will open,showing all bookmarks for the document.ImprintThe Theory of everything- The elemental force of the universewww.hc10.euCoverbild © Sonja Janson - Fotolia.comCopyright: © 2012 Halit ErogluThis e-book is an English translation of the below work,which was published in Germany. ISBN 978-3-8442-3885-3"Die Weltformel - Die Urkraft des Universums"
- 3. Table of ContentsForeword...........................................................................11. Chapter........................................................................51.1. The Ether ................................................................71.2. The structure of the quantized space ....................111.3. The Final Formula................................................131.4. The Secrets of the universe...................................162. Chapter......................................................................192.1. The quantized magnetism.....................................202.2. The quantized charge............................................232.3. The quantized mass ..............................................252.4. The quantized energy ...........................................292.5. The modified Planck-Units...................................302.6. The units invariance of the final formula .............313. Chapter......................................................................393.1. Derivation of the electron mass............................413.2. Derivation of the proton mass ..............................433.3. The classical electron radius.................................443.4. Derivation of the proton radius.............................473.5. Derivation of the fine structure constant ..............563.6. Derivation of the acceleration due to gravity .......603.7. Derivation of the gravitational constant ...............62
- 4. 4. Chapter .....................................................................694.1. Derivation of the speed of light............................704.2. The origin of time.................................................754.3. The origin of spatial dimensions..........................784.4. The origin of ......................................................834.5. The origin of the relativistic effect.......................875. Chapter .....................................................................935.1. The Planck time....................................................945.2. The universal validity of the final formula ..........955.3. The time factor in the natural constants ...............986. Chapter ...................................................................1036.1. The structure of the universe..............................1046.2. The genesis of space...........................................1066.3. The expansion of the universe............................1126.4. The basic fundamental forces.............................1177. Chapter ...................................................................1217.1. The limits of mathematics..................................1227.2. The Metalogic ....................................................124Epilogue ........................................................................128Appendix.......................................................................130
- 5. " The most incomprehensible thing about theuniverse is basically that we understand it."Albert Einstein
- 6. 1ForewordThe fascinating thing about the universe is its space with theimmense micro- and macrocosm size. Not only in the macro-cosm between planets, solar systems and galaxies, but also inthe microcosm in the atoms and its components is the“empty space” is the decisive element. Therefore, one mustfirst of all understand the “empty” space of which it mainlyconsists in order to be able to understand the universe as awhole.It is known that the “empty” space in fact is not empty butcontains virtual particles, ominous dark matter and dark en-ergy.• However, what are the empty space and thus the entireuniverse?• What is energy, mass, charge? What do they consist of?• Why is the speed of light constant?• Is it possible to derive the constants of nature?• Does a Theory of everything exist?Inter aila, we will have a look on these questions and solvesome other mysteries of the universe. Thereby, new ques-tions and new mysteries will arise, but we will see that theuniverse, made up of space, time and energy is made up inan unprecedented form.The new world model is a theory which currently is in devel-opment, some of the results and the "final formula" hereby ispublished. In this edition, I am handling the key aspects ofthe new model of the world. Based on equations derived
- 7. 2from fundamental physical constants of nature that play acentral role in physics, I will demonstrate that it is possibleto explain the entire universe with a brief "final formula".With the aid of the final formula, we also will experiencehow time works and how the three-dimensional space is cre-ated.Many smart people have tried for a long time to derive allphysical properties of the universe from a single formula.However so far, all attempts have failed. It seems that thereason for this failure was the imperfection of the existingtheories. Viewing the universe from a different perspectiveand leaving the assigned paths of the previous theories, we atleast reach a world model with a final formula. With thisbook it is demonstrated how to explain the recent recogni-tions in physics also from another perspective. Accordingly,modern physics is completed and enhanced.I have not searched for the final formula, I discovered it bychance, just like Archimedes who discovered buoyancy forcein the bathtub or Newton, who discovered the gravitationalforce under an apple tree. Afterwards, I made some calcula-tions with the final formula and have seen with a great aston-ishment, that the entire universe can be explained with thisformula.Also some problems with previous theories will be high-lighted in this book:• Newton believed that it was gravity which holds togetherthe universe. Even today many people believe in this but
- 8. 3no one is able to explain what actually causes gravity.Thanks to the Final formula we are able to solve themystery of gravity and based on the derived gravitationalconstant we will be able to learn how it works.• Einstein could not exactly explain space and time al-though his famous theories were based on it. He summa-rized these as “Space-time” and assumed that the spacebended itself. With the final formula we now can revealthe great secrets of space and time.• Planck discovered the quantum of action and accord-ingly laid the foundation for quantum physics. However,his quantized quantities do include the gravitational con-stant and are therefore useless, as we shall see in the ap-propriate section.But, dealing with the universe, the more clearly one recog-nizes the outstanding achievements of the researchers at thattimes of period. They do not lose at any way authority, onthe contrary, only thanks to their intellectual achievements;we are now able to continue their scientific heritage. How-ever, every theory becomes outdated over time through newknowledge, and accordingly, science develops more andmore.The individual chapters and sections in this book are basedon each. We will first start with the smallest dimension in themicrocosm and, in the penultimate chapter will try to de-scribe some structures in the macrocosm. Since everything inthe universe depends on one another, it is inevitable that one
- 9. 4can understand much better the new world model and thefinal formula, after reading the whole book. Because, muchmore things will be more understandable in the overall con-text.Important note:No original Planck units and their numerical values wereused in this book. However, in honor of Max Planck, Ihave named after him the new quantized sizes. ThePlanck mass, the Planck length, etc. should therefore notto be confused with the original Planck units.
- 10. 51. ChapterIn this chapter we will discuss the basis of the new worldmodel. Based on the structure of the quantized space and thefinal formula, in later Chapters we will gradually exploresome features of the new model of the world.For a better understanding, I will therefore refer to the fol-lowing sections. The topics build on each other, and onlyafter discussing some principles, we will be able to deal withmore details in the later sections."Its not only about to see what everyone sees, but to thinkwith what everyone sees, what no one has yet thought of."Arthur Schopenhauer
- 11. 71.1. The EtherThe idea of an omnipresent ether as carrier of light, and thusof any electromagnetic wave comes from Aristotle and waslater taken up by Newton. Since Newton, the space has beenviewed as a "container" in which all physical processes takeplace. Even if it was not provable, Newton was convincedthat there is a substance that permeates the entire universeand connects it with each other. He called this invisible sub-stance "ether" and described it as a living, spiritual element.Also, James Clerk Maxwell, the founder of the electromag-netic theory believed in ether, calling it "a material sub-stance that is more subtle than the visible body, and whichexists in those areas of space, which appear to be empty."The notion of space, however, has changed dramatically inthe continued development of physics and at least was chal-lenged by Einstein. Since then, formal properties of mathe-matical spaces are used for its physical description.As a seemingly disused physical concept, the ether hardly istreated by a scientific theory today. Although it is still dis-cussed today if it is possible to quantize the space, howevereven in this matter the space considered as a mathematical orgeometric object.It was failed to prove ether around the turn of the century,and also in several later experiments. Albert Einstein couldthen solve the difficulty by banishing ether from his equa-
- 12. 8tions and replaced it by the speed of light as a universal con-stant. Thus, the failure of attempts to prove the ether gaveEinstein the impetus to develop the theory of relativity.In one of his speeches, Einstein summarized the former ideaof the ether, and he expressed his views in detail about thisissue:" Recapitulating: we may say that according to the generaltheory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities;in this sense, therefore, there exists ether.According to the general theory of relativity space withoutether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only wouldbe no propagation of light, but also no possibility of exis-tence for standards of measuring rods and clocks, nor there-fore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But thisether may not be thought of as endowed with the qualitycharacteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of partswhich may be tracked through time. The idea of motion maynot be applied to it."When talking about the subject of ether it is often assertedthat Einstein would have abolished it. But how one can seein his speech, he did not abolish the ether, but he has rede-fined it according to his theory. So, he has modernized theether concept during that period.It is interesting to experience what considerations are hiddenbehind the fact that at the beginning of the last century thedebate in relation to ether was brought to an end. Not justbecause the fact that it is not provable, but also because therewas no theory with which one could equally explain the
- 13. 9physical phenomena in the micro and macrocosm explainusing the properties of the space. In his speech, Einstein alsocalled attention to the following fact:"Of course it would be a great advance if we could succeedin comprehending the gravitational field and the electro-magnetic field together as one unified conformation. Thenfor the first time the epoch of theoretical physics founded byFaraday and Maxwell would reach a satisfactory conclu-sion. The contrast between ether and matter would fadeaway, and, through the general theory of relativity, thewhole of physics would become a complete system ofthought, like geometry, kinematics, and the theory of gravita-tion."The above quoted speech of Einstein is very interesting forthe subject of this book, and therefore it is included in theappendix of the book. In this speech, we get to know the realreasons why the former idea of “material" ether, was aban-doned in a justified way.
- 14. 10Why can the ether not be measured?Since last century, the ether hypothesis is considered dead.In later experiments it also was not possible to prove theether. In the many discussions on ether at the beginning ofthe last century and even later, no one seems to have consid-ered that the one thing they were looking for was simply toosmall to be detected in experiments.Apparently ether is considered as an element, which is largeenough to be proven. However already at the beginning ofthe last century Max Planck -after the discovery of the quan-tum of action-, has derived the units which were named afterhim and has defined a tiny quantized quantity of the space asa Planck length mlP3510616199,1 −⋅= . Latest after this rec-ognition, the researchers should have actually been awarethat it is not possible to measure physical effects at thesesmall scales.For centuries, the ether was defined with different, some-times even bizarre theories. However, the new world modelis not based on the old ideas of space and the ether, so I willnot use that term.In the following chapters we will see that the "empty" spacehas a structure, which previously was unknown. Even if theproperties of the "empty" space can not be detected directly,there is enough evidence for the existence of a " substancethat permeates the entire universe and connects it with eachother " as Newton had described.
- 15. 111.2. The structure of the quantized spaceAs with any scientific model, also with the new world modelwe try to describe the reality with basic elements. In the pre-sented world model, the universe consists of simple compo-nents. However, this should not obscure the complexity ofreality. An analog clock also consists of simple components,such as of gears, screws, etc. Only the interaction of thesebasic components according to a specific system brings theclock running. In the universe it is the interactions of theindividual components that make the "clockwork" universerunning.In the new world model, the complete space in the universeso the vacuum in its smallest dimension consists of unified,densely interconnected spheres with a strictly periodic struc-ture which I have referred to as "Space Balls" in this book.Figure: Vacuum filled with space ballsThe sphere as a geometric body generally has special proper-ties and for the given volume has the smallest surface area ofall possible body. This property is very important in thequantization of the space. Therefore, the new world model is
- 16. 12based on these quantized space balls and not on other geo-metric shapes such as cubes or pyramids.In three-dimensional space, each space ball is directly con-nected to 10 adjacent spheres. For uniform structure with thesame diameter and the same gravitation between the spaceballs, there is an interaction with the factor 10 between thespace ball in the center and its adjacent spheres.Figure: Interaction between the space ballsThe space balls are magnetic monopoles, and they pull eachother. All physical phenomena are the consequences of thisprimal magnetism in the space balls. As we are going to see,the charge, mass, and thus the basic components of matter,atoms, stars, etc. arise from interactions between these spaceballs.For the present, this principle can describe as follows:Magnetism > Charge > Mass > Particles > Atoms > Stars12345678910View from aboveTwo-dimensional viewin a plane
- 17. 13I.e. the magnetism causes charges, and these generate mass,which then form particles that accumulate in atoms and thusproduce all macroscopic bodies and celestial objects in theuniverse.1.3. The Final FormulaMany physical phenomena can be explained with the funda-mental natural constants of speed of light and the reducedPlancks quantum of action. In the new world model the fol-lowing context constitutes the base of each physical event inthe universe, and it can therefore be defined as a "final for-mula".The Final Formula:261010 −⋅=⋅ch (1-1)Speed of light with c=299.792.458 m/sReduced Planck constant withπ2h=h .The reduced Planck quantum of action has been modified bytransforming the final formula with:34261079390548222864,11010 −−⋅=⋅=chPlancks quantum of action is determined experimentally,and physical measurements are always associated withmeasurement errors. Even the most accurate measurementcan not provide a precise value. The determination of
- 18. 14Plancks quantum of action depends on many factors, so withthe above reduced formula of the Planck constant was modi-fied. The absolute deviation from the CODATA value isminimal and amounts: 341043104920002505611,0 −⋅ .The final formula has the dimension of energy times lengthand thereby constitutes a universal relationship between en-ergy content and length scale. It describes the amount of en-ergy contained in the space balls and here, the quantizedlength amounts as modified Planck length mlP2610−= . Thedimension of the final formula with the general units eV innuclear physics is:⇒⋅=⋅Pleec 10h197, 39208802178700 MeVfmDespite to the above modified , the modified value from thenext Chapter was used for the elementary charge e.The final formula 261010 −⋅=⋅ch means that the spaceballs with the diameter of Pl contain a certain amount ofenergy 10 . The interaction between the space balls isdone with the time factor contained in the speed of lightand the smallest action .The constant speed of light is used as the time factor in thepulse transmission and therefore, also the quantized actionis constant. When asked which of the two existed at first(Hen-egg problem), we can say with certainty that the timefactor which is measured from the speed of light is given,
- 19. 15and that is directly dependent. In the Chapter "derivation ofthe speed of light," we will continue to discuss the phenome-non of the time factor.The attraction in the space balls in the form of energy with10 and the universal time factor with the speed of light,are the only basic elements with which the universe is built.The modified Planck quantum of action as the smallest effectalso plays a big role, but this quantity directly depends on thespeed of light and therefore can be derived from it.With the "final formula" it is possible to make a clear andunambiguous description of the phenomena observed in na-ture. The simple formula also allows predictions about newphenomena.The final formula is harmless and any concerns that zealousscientists could use it to play "God" with it and turn theworld upside down, are unfounded. The left side of the for-mula contains natural constants that have long been knownfor a long time and are used daily in nuclear physics. Mydiscovery relates to the right side of the formula, and it ex-plains to what the fundamental constants of nature, the speedof light and the Planck constant can be attributed to.According to the new world model, space and time is quan-tized in the universe. In addition to the elementary magni-tudes such as the Planck mass, the Planck charge etc., alsosome fundamental constants of nature, and even the speed oflight can be derived with the final formula. We also will gain
- 20. 16new insights on the nature of time and the three-dimensionality of space.1.4. The Secrets of the universeIn physics, there are some natural laws, but many scientifictheories. There are also rather interpretations, opinions andhypotheses on which these theories are based on.If we leave aside the theories and the various opinions andinterpretations as "mans work", then only the laws of naturewill remain. The empirically confirmed and universally validlaws of nature do explain the relationships and interrelation-ships of physical phenomena. However, there is a problem:they contain partially natural constants that only can be de-termined by measurement. While describing the processes ofnature, one will encounter physical constants, whose valuescan be measured, but so far no one knows what they are tobe attributed to.The secrets of the universe are thus hidden in the constantsof nature. Consequently, many well-known physicists hadthe desire to derive the number of fundamental constantsfrom a single constant.There are over a hundred fundamental constants, but onlyabout two dozen of them are elementary, and the rest can bederived from them. After the discovery of the final formula Ihave therefore derived the basic constants of nature, becauseit is possible to explain the entire universe with them. The
- 21. 17derived constants of nature have been selected after carefulconsideration, and as we shall see later, even these funda-mental constants of nature are based on a single number,namely the elementary constant.Einstein also was dissatisfied with the constants of nature,and he has described it as follows: "... I cannot compellinglythink of any reasonable and consistent theory that explicitlycontains one number which could also have been chosen asanother number by the whim of the Creator, where the worldqualitatively would have been represented in a different wayin its laws. "For Einstein, the most elementary constants of nature such asthe speed of light, gravitational constant and the Planckquantum of action were not really fundamental, because theirvalue still depends on "conventional" units. Only if it couldbe succeed to create one quantity from several constants thatis a pure numerical value without unit of measurement, thena universal constant would exist according to Einsteinsview. However the numerical value of this universal, abso-lute constant should be determined by the logical basis of thephysical theory.The number 10 in the final formula is the universal ele-mentary constant, and we will gradually learn their specialcharacteristics in the following chapters.The below listed nature constants and some important physi-cal quantities have been derived with the final formula. Aswe are going to see, all fundamental constants in physics can
- 22. 18be attributed to a single number 10 as the elementary con-stant.=c speed of light=h reduced Planck quantum=Pl Planck length=Pt Planck time=e elementary charge=em electron mass=PQ quantized charge=Pm quantized mass=G gravitationnel constant=otmPr proton mass=α fine structure constant=ekr classical electron radius=g acceleration of gravityPlchPteemPQPmGotmPrαekrg10=E
- 23. 192. ChapterStarting with the Planck length mlp2610−= , the enormousdimensions in the microcosm provide ample space for parti-cles, charges, photons. These elements, in fact are alreadyformed in the smallest plane in the Planck sphere. Therefore,the microcosm is like an ocean of microscopic particles andradiation.In the macroscopic length scale in the laboratory we only canstudy large concentrations of these elements. In experiments,indeed, we observe the existence of tiny particles or radiationseemingly to arise out of nowhere and disappear again.Therefore we call them virtual particles or vacuum fluctua-tions. However, also these particles are already large collec-tions of quantum objects, which we will discuss in the fol-lowing chapters.Note:In the following chapters, equations are derived to makecertain connections clear. Here, the Planck length wasntused in order to ensure clarity. The multiplication by thenumber one in the Planck length has no effect on thenumerical values. During the comparison of equationsderived with CODATA values, however, the Plancklength is included in the extension with the orders of ten.
- 24. 202.1. The quantized magnetismMagnetism is usually a hidden power. According to the newworld model, it forms the elemental force in the universe,and therefore the entire universe is built up electromagneti-cally.The magnetic monopoles in the space balls form the originof electromagnetism. Thus, the electrodynamics observed byus has its origin in the quantized magnetism. Magnetism istherefore not a side-effect of electrodynamics, but it pro-duces the electromagnetic interactions. Magnetic fields arenot generated by the time-varying electric fields out of noth-ing. The effects of the elemental magnetism become appar-ent from the charge transport.The cause of electrodynamics is the magnetism, and it bringsout the charges as an effect. Until today, this fact has beeninterpreted in reverse order. Although physics calculationsdo not change by this order, we are able to better understandthe universe from a different perspective and thus gain manynew insights.So far, no magnetic monopoles have been observed. Asgravitation in the space balls, the magnetic monopoles showno physical events without external influence which onecould be observed. Physical events emerge from the interac-tions of dipoles which are formed by external influences.Therefore, it is not possible to directly observe magneticmonopoles.
- 25. 21According to the following illustrations we see how the po-larity from magnetic monopoles is produced in the spaceballs.When the ball rotates in the center, it brings the neighboringballs to rotate as well with its gravitation force. The ball inthe center, shown in the figure is able to rotate in any direc-tion in the three dimensional space and the directions of rota-tion of the adjacent balls are dependent on this due to theprevailing gravity.In the figure, the ball rotates in the center to the right, andtherefore, all the balls also rotate to the right. If the directionof rotation is defined as polarity, then the rotation to the rightside corresponds e.g. to the positive polarity. This globularcluster in the figure can only interact with other globularclusters with the same polarity, and with opposite polaritythey would push each other away.In the classical description of the polarity, it is assumed theattraction of opposite polarities. To date, however, the ques-tion remains, why there is different polarity in nature and
- 26. 22what the mutual attraction can be attributed to. Withoutknowing the cause of the polarity, this classical approachleads to an incorrect interpretation. Many physical phenom-ena are interpreted without knowledge of their underlyingprinciples. But nature does not depend on our human logicand our interpretations.With increasing distance from the center, the rotation energyof the globular clusters decreases. The different polarity be-comes interesting at the intersection between two globularclusters, as can be seen in the figure below.Figure: Two globular clusters with different polarity.At the intersection points there is interaction with the attrac-tive force between the balls on the one hand and on the otherhand, repulsion is seen due to different polarity.The macroscopic magnetism is the consequence of differentpolarities of the sub-atomic particles. In addition to the mag-netic polarity, there is also a polarity of charge. The relation-ship between magnetism and charge will be discussed in thefollowing chapter.The quantized magnetism in space balls has the valueof 10 , and with this elemental power other quantized sizescan be derived.
- 27. 232.2. The quantized chargeEach space ball exerts an attraction in the form of magnetismon the neighboring space balls. Through external factors, forexample by pulse power, the space balls can be brought intorotation, and as we saw in the last Chapter causes the polar-ity.The charge of the electron is defined as elementary charge.The electron only carries half the charge in an atom and theother half of the charge s carried by the proton. The correla-tion between the elementary charge e and the quantizedcharge PQ can formulate as follows:eQP 2= (2-1)⇒2PQe = (2-2)And this corresponds to the following relationship:21102⋅=πe (2-3)For the quantized charge of a space ball, we get:Pp lQ ⋅= 210π(2-4)
- 28. 24And this is equivalent to:2πcQP⋅=h(2-5)The charge of an electron as an elementary charge, accordingto CODATA is:C10602176565,1 19−⋅=e .With the above equation (2-5) we obtain the value for theelementary charge withCe 1910699106020285776,1 −⋅= .The deviation from the CODATA value isC1910300865310001479873,0 −⋅In the measurement of the electron elementary charge in thesmall length scales of up to 1910−, several factors have to beconsidered. In addition to the influence of the geomagneticfield, the local acceleration and the gravity, the influences ofthe measuring apparatus on the test object must also be con-sidered.The primary magnetism in the space balls with disturbanceproduced by external influences creates charges. Pictoriallythis can be thought as a dynamo. Every movement of thedynamo causes magnetic interaction with its environment. Arotating space ball makes adjacent balls rotate with its mag-netic field and thereby power is spent. This power transmis-sion and energy transfer between the space balls is calledPQ as quantized charge.
- 29. 25In actual fact, magnetism is transmitted in form of magneticforce. In our macroscopic dimension it is possible to movecharges with magnetism and the electric current from thewall outlet is due to this principle. Moving charges in turncause magnetism. Therefore, it is seen that charges are thetransport of magnetism.2.3. The quantized massAccording to the famous formula 2cmE ⋅= , the mass isequivalent to energy. And according to the new world modelwith the final formula 261010 −⋅=⋅ch is also a form of en-ergy. If we equate these two equations and use the Planckmass as rest mass, we obtain:PPlccmE⋅==⋅=h102(2-6)Obtained by reshaping the Planck mass Pm :Pplcm⋅=h(2-7)The Plancks rest mass has the valuekglcmPp171043455185084158,3 −⋅=⋅=hThe Plancks rest mass is thus the ratio between the smallesteffect and the speed of light in the time factor. We will dis-cuss this time factor later.
- 30. 26Usingc10=h in the above equation, we obtain addition-ally:210cmp = (2-8)However, there are still the following relationships:1012⋅=cmP (2-9)102h=Pm (2-10)22 10101hh=⋅== ccmP(2-11)The relationship with the quantized charge 2πcQP⋅=handcmPh= is:22πcmQ PP⋅= (2-12)And then we obtain for the Planck mass the following:22cQm PPπ⋅= (2-13)
- 31. 27The Planck mass in eV ( PeVm ) corresponds to22 π⋅=PeVm (2-14)Transforming the units from kilogram to energy eV, the fol-lowing factor is used (left site):Pmec 222π= (2-15)And this is equivalent with the following relation to Ein-stein’s Formula:PeVPPmeEecm==⋅=222 (2-16)⇒ 2210 π⋅== eEP (2-17)The relationship between the mass and the charge is of greatimportance for the structure of the universe. Many micro-scopic and macroscopic physical processes are founded uponthe interaction of charge and mass.One can imagine the quantized mass as follows: In case offailure of the magnetic attraction force by external factorsthe space balls rotate and they thereby use a force in order tomove the adjacent space balls. We have described this powertransmission in the previous section as “charge”. The resis-tance of the space balls as a counter force to this movementis the force of inertia, and thus it is the mass of the space
- 32. 28balls. The resistance of a body in relation to a change in itsrotational movement is generally referred to as the momentof inertia, and the mass of a rotating body is exactly the samemoment of inertia.The magnetic component of the kinetic energy is transmittedby charges and the inertia force is exerted against it withmass. All space balls are interconnected through magneticattraction and a change in their state by rotation calls forthcertain resistance, which appears in the form of mass as iner-tia.Thus, each particle with mass also contains a charge and viceversa. Mass and charge can only exist together, and theyform the basic properties of all particles. The impulse forcethat causes the disturbance of magnetism between the spaceballs and causes charges, also produces mass as a counterforce.Mass and charge are the two sides of the same medal just asthe speed of light and Plancks constant of action is interde-pendent and which represent two sides of the same medal.The reasons of physical processes are and c, and thereby,the charge and mass is produced as an effect. The magnetismin the space balls generates charge through rotating, which inturn generates a force of inertia mass. This process takesplace with the speed of light as time factor and the smallesteffect with reduced Plancks quantum .
- 33. 292cmE ⋅=2.4. The quantized energyThe energy can be defined from different aspects. Accordingto Planck energy is the smallest effect with a given fre-quency:And according to Einstein, energy and mass are equivalent:According to the new world model we obtain for the quan-tized energy the value with:10=PE (2-18)and it is equivalent to:102=⋅= cmE PP (2-19)Following relationship is obtained for the quantized energywith the charge power:2π⋅= PP QE (2-20)The quantized energy consists of the attraction force in thespace balls. It is noticeable on magnetism and thus holdstogether the whole universe. Therefore the quantized energyand the quantized magnetism are identical.fhE ⋅=
- 34. 302.5. The modified Planck-UnitsAfter the discovery of the quantum of action and based onthis smallest action element, the famous physicist MaxPlanck has tried to derive quantized magnitudes. All physicalquantities should be derived with the so-called Planck units.However, these Planck units were not applied until today andthey were almost forgotten. In fact, in terms of quantizedvalues Planck was on the right track. However, research inthe field of quantum physics only broke through a centuryago its groundbreaking discovery.The presented new world model is based on Max Plancksapproaches to the quantized values. However, we cannot usethe original Planck units, because they are based on gravita-tion as "primal force". Since Newton, gravity is regarded as auniversal force that holds together the entire universe. As wewill see later in the related Chapter, this is only half thestory. As with the other fundamental forces also Gravitationis only a modification of magnetism as a primal force, and itshows its effect in larger dimensions and only from a certainparticle density.The gravity only shows its effects in the presence of parti-cles, but the universe mainly consists of "empty" space andparticles only create "side effects" of the many dynamicprocesses in the smallest scales in space. Therefore it is notpossible to explain the entire universe with gravity, whichdescribes the interaction of particles with each other. In thenext chapters we will discuss this topic in more detail.
- 35. 31At the end of this chapter the previously discussed quantizedvariables with the corresponding formulas are listed. Inhonor of Max Planck I have named these as modified Planckunits. The remaining physical units can be derived with thesequantized sizes as base units. The quantized time has a spe-cial shape, and we therefore will discuss these in the 4thchapter after we have analyzed the nature of time.Length: mlP2610−=Mass: kglcmPp171043455185084158,3 −⋅=⋅=hCharge: CoulomblQ Pp2721039832040571553,310 −⋅=⋅=πEnergy: JouleEP 68381622776601,310 ==2.6. The units invariance of the final formulaAccording to international definition all physical units can beattributed to seven base units (meter, kilogram, second, am-pere, kelvin, mole and candela.). All others are made up ofthese basic units.
- 36. 32The base unit of mass, the kilogram, is an arbitrary determi-nation, and for several years international committees aretrying to perform a redefinition. It is intended to determinethe units kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole based on thefundamental constants. For example, should ampere be de-fined by the flow a certain amount of particles of the electroncharge per unit time. And the unit of mass with the kilogramshall be defined on the natural constant “Plancks quantum ofaction”.The kilogram as the unit of mass is a "sub-unit" because it isbased on arbitrary determination and not to fundamentalconstants. While the mass of a body irrespective of its loca-tion is always the same, the force of gravity acting on it de-pends on the acceleration of gravity. In international deter-mination of the mass, however, the heaviness-property of themass, i.e. the weight is determined. The mass of the "primarykilogram" is defined by the weight force and not the mass ofthe particles contained in it. The current goal is to determinethe mass of the particle masses contained in the kilogramprototype (Avogadro project).The final formula is not only the basis of the nature constantsbut also on the physical units. With the elementary constant10 for the energy, besides the fundamental nature constantsc and h also the modified Planck sizes can be derived.The final formula is independent of our arbitrary defini-tion of units. This topic I will illustrate with two examples,the meter and kilogram.
- 37. 33Lets look first at the dependence of the units themselves:The meter, the kilogram and the second are included in thedefinition of the ampere.The final formula with units:261010 −⋅=⋅ch[ ] [ ] [ ]mJsmsJ ⋅=⋅⋅ ⋅=⋅⋅⋅2322smkgsmssmkgThe final formula at first glance appears to be depend on ourarbitrary definition of kilogram, meter and second. However,it must be remembered that the Planck constant quantum ofaction, meter and second are based on measurements in thequantum dimension. The masses of subatomic particles arenot "weighted" but derived through energy measurements. Inatomic physics, we therefore use the units of energy (eV),because physical units are interdependent and therefore canbe converted one into another.kgm sA
- 38. 34The base unit for energy is joules and can also be convertedinto the following units:22smkgsWmNJoule⋅=⋅=⋅=Example of changing the meterIf for example the definition of the meter changes, then sodoes the Joule because it also contains the meter. Thus forthe speed of light and reduced Planck’s quantum of energywe also would get a different value, but still the basis of thefinal formula with 10 would not change. The reducedPlancks quantum of action, with the final formula directlydependent on the determination of the speed of light with thefollowing equation:261010 −⋅=chExample of change of the kilogramSince for the arbitrary decision of the elementary kilogramthere is no defined unique physical property of the mass. Themass is converted in atomic physics on the principle ofequivalence of mass and energy through the following for-mula:22cEmcmE =⇒⋅= (2-21)
- 39. 35As the smallest unit of energy applies the elementary chargeand it is calculated the mass of the kilogram in eV to the fol-lowing:2eV)(inMasskg)(inMassce⋅= (2-22)ec2kg)Mass(ineV)(inMass⋅= (2-23)Masses in eV of the particles, electrons and protons derivedin the next Chapters are based on the conversion formula inatomic physics.The electron volt (eV) is defined as follows:2219smkgJoule10602176565,1eV1⋅→⋅= −kg1043937824971867,1ceV1 362−⋅="An electron volt is the amount of energy to which the kineticenergy of an electron is increased as it passes through anacceleration voltage of 1 volt."The Ampere is defined as follows:"1 ampere is the power of the time-constant electric currentwhich- in a vacuum between two parallel, infinitely long,straight conductors with negligible circular cross-sectionand the distance of 1 m between these conductors wouldcause a force of 7102 −⋅ Newtons per meter of length."
- 40. 36One ampere represents a flow of 1 coulomb per secondthrough the cross section:SecondCoulombAmpere ="A coulomb is defined as the electric charge, which is trans-ported in one second by the cross section of a wire, in whichan electric current of the strength of one ampere flows."The Volt as a derived unit is defined as follows:32Volt1sAmkgsAmNCJ⋅⋅=⋅⋅==As it can be seen in these units, they do depend on each otherand the change of the meter or the kilogram also leads to thechange of electrical quantities such as ampere or volt.If the definition of the kilogram is changed, which is indeedplanned for the future, then the ampere changes because itcontains kg. This would, however, also change the value ofthe electron volt (eV). The following relationships namelydepend on the reduced Plancks constant and the mass of thequantized electron charge:cemPeV ⋅=h (2-24)⇒ecmPeV⋅=h(2-25)( =PeVm Planck mass in eV)
- 41. 37The discrepancy at the Planck massHere, I would like to point to a discrepancy: the Planck massis greater than the mass of subatomic particles. The quan-tized units are the smallest physical units, but the originalPlanck mass and also the Planck mass modified with thefinal formula is greater by several powers of ten.For comparison with the powers of ten with kg:Original Planck mass: 810−Modified Planck mass: 1710−Electron mass: 3110−Proton mass: 2710−Note:This discrepancy does not affect the numerical values, butonly affects the powers of ten.I have not yet figured out the reason for this discrepancy.Perhaps something is wrong with the above mentioned con-version between kg and eV. I suppose its up to the defini-tion of the electric charge (Coulomb) and the electric current(Ampere). The factor in the strength of 710−in the definitionof ampere seems to lead to a discrepancy in the transforma-tion of the mass in kg.In atomic physics, the unit eV is used for the mass and there-fore the experiments and the theoretical calculations are cor-rect. But when compared to the quantized, smallest mass, i.e.the Planck mass, this difference appears.
- 42. 38Nevertheless, in the next chapter, I have derived the massesof subatomic particles in kg, because in this way the propertyof matter with gravity and inertia can be better analyzed thanby conversion to energy units.
- 43. 393. ChapterIn the last chapter we have discussed the quantized physicalquantities, the so-called modified Planck units that even dooccur in the smallest dimensions. The mass and charge ofwhich the particles exist in the universe, originate from thesmallest dimensions.In this chapter we will derive some selected important physi-cal parameters and constants of nature, which are based onthese quantized sizes, but which comparatively occur in lar-ger dimensions. With the approaches about the new worldmodel which are discussed here, it is also possible to derivemore fundamental physical constants and variables.These derivations demonstrate that the previous findings inphysics may also be explained from a different perspectivethanks to the new world model. The variables such as themass of protons, electrons, the gravitational constant etcwhich are determined in an experimental way can be derivedwith the new world model, and we will see that it is possibleto attribute the macroscopic magnitudes to the quantizedelementary elements. Various derivations were performed toobtain information on the internal structures of particles.The data of the internationally recognized organization CO-DATA were used as benchmarks for physical measurements.
- 44. 40Since the universe is built up from fundamental componentswith 10 as an attraction force of the space balls and thespeed of light as a dynamic component macroscopicallymeasured quantities, such as the mass of sub-atomic parti-cles, can be attributed to these elementary elements. How-ever, in this case the differences in the size scale must beconsidered and the equations have to be expanded in powersof ten.This extension is similar to the following facts: The weightof an average apple is determined and then this is comparedwith one ton of apples of the same sort. Comparing themasses, the mass of an apple, which would be the quantizedvalues from the last chapter, must be expanded with ordersof magnitude to reach the mass of this one ton of apples.That would be the mass of the proton.The principles behind these expansions with powers of tenhave not yet been analyzed. But Im sure that even here yetunknown principles are hidden behind it. When developingthe new world model, this issue also must be analyzed.Mass describes the property of matter, and until today no oneknows what causes it. It is contained in many physical units,and with the length and time forms a fundamental quantity.The quantized Planck mass has been derived in the last chap-ter and the analysis of particle masses in this chapter is anattempt to explain how mass is formed. All derived equa-tions provide exactly the same result for the mass of parti-cles. Even if the particle mass was derived from several for-
- 45. 41mulas, the most equations only are transformations by sub-stituting other variables.For clarity reasons, the Planck length was also omitted in theequations primarily in this chapter.3.1. Derivation of the electron massIn the electron mass, we obtain the following connectionwith:PPemQm = (3-1)And by entering the quantized mass:hcQm Pe ⋅= (3-2)with the calculated value ofkgme3110295201062938514,9 −⋅= .According to CODATA, the measured mass of the electronis: kg311010938291,9 −⋅ . The absolute deviation for CO-DATA value is kg10704791900030890585,0 -31⋅ .In contrast to the proton mass, the mass of the electron con-sists from the ratio of the charge PQ and the quantizedPlanck mass pm . The electron is therefore not an independ-
- 46. 42ent particle with its own characteristics, but it is a part of theproton.The calculated electron mass is in compliance to the UnitseV used in the atom physics:MeV1797905108728316,0kg)(in 2=⋅=ecmm eeV (3-3)According to CODATA the electron mass in eV is2cMeV510998928,0Despite the electron mass em with the unit kg we will ana-lyze the relations of electron mass eVm with the units in eVin he following Chapters.In my analysis, I have found the following relationshipswhereby the Planck length has been omitted for clarity.22πcme = (3-4)⇒ π⋅= emc (3-5)222⋅⋅=cmm eVeπh(3-6)
- 47. 43PeVmcm22⋅= (3-7)⇒ eVP mmc ⋅=⋅ 22 (3-8)(Planck mass times Electron mass in eV)3.2. Derivation of the proton massFor protons as core components of atoms gives the mass isobtained through the radius protr with:protprot rhcm ⋅⋅= (3-9)Or by adding π2⋅= hh in this equation, we do obtain:protprot rcm ⋅⋅⋅= π2h (3-10)With 10=⋅ch it is obtainedprotprot rm ⋅⋅= π210 (3-11)With the quantized mass according to the equation102=⋅= cmE PP it is obtained the following:protPprot rcmm ⋅⋅⋅= π22(3-12)
- 48. 44And with the quantized charge 2πcQP⋅=hwe do obtain thefollowing relationship:protPprot rQm ⋅⋅= 32π (3-13)All equations shown above provide the same results for theproton mass.According to the experiments with muonic hydrogen at thePaul Scherrer Institute (Germany), the radius of the proton ismrprot18104184,8 −⋅=and for the proton mass with this radius we obtain the value:kgmprot2710355606726667571,1 −⋅=According to CODATA, the mass of the proton iskg2710672621777,1 −⋅ .The deviation from the experimental determined value there-fore is kg271035550000449801,0 −⋅− .In the next Chapter, we will derive the proton radius and thuscalculate the proton mass more accurate.3.3. The classical electron radiusThe "classical electron radius" arose from the analogy withcharged macroscopic hollow spheres, and it describes acharged hollow sphere with the distribution of the elemen-tary charge on the sphere surface. The classical electron ra-
- 49. 45dius is derived from the context of the capacity of a sphericalsurface and the rest energy of the electron.Here, we do not talk about a normal radius of a particle orthe electron, but it is described the relationship between thecharge distribution on a spherical surface and the self-energyof the electron. The designation of "electron radius" is mis-leading because it does not concern the actual radius of the"particle" electron.For the derivation of the proton radius and the proton massin the next section, we need the classical electron radius.The equation for the classical electron radius is:2024 cmekree⋅⋅⋅=επSince, for the Maxwells formula with 2041c=⋅επapplies,for the classical electron radius we obtain in abbreviatedform:eemekr2= (3-14)and this corresponds exactly to the following relationship:eePkrmQ⋅=22(3-15)
- 50. 46The classical electron radius thus describes the relationshipbetween the interactions of the elementary charge to themass of the electrons. When we replace the variables withtheir quantized sizes PQ and Pm , we do obtain the following:PPPPPee mQmQQmekr ⋅===41222(3-16)With this formula we can explain the interaction of thecharge distribution on a spherical surface instead of the elec-tron mass with the Planck mass.In this formula we add the modified elementary charge fromChapter 2.2, with the value Ce 1910699106020285776,1 −⋅=and the electron mass derives in the last Chapter is replacedwith kgme3110295201062938514,9 −⋅= and we do obtainthe classical electron radius ekr with the following value:mmekree15210766508183755164,2 −⋅== (3-17)Or with 2πcQP⋅=handcmph= we do obtain:224πh=ekr (3-18)
- 51. 47With the classical electron radius and the quantized sizes wecan also calculate the electron charge:10⋅⋅= ePPkrmQe (3-19)In my analysis, I have found the following relationshipswhereby the Planck length has been omitted for clarity.510 2 ekrce ⋅⋅= ⋅(3-20)cekre⋅⋅=2h(3-21)3.4. Derivation of the proton radiusA direct correlation between the charge distribution of theelectrons and the charge of the protons exists in the atoms.Therefore, the proton radius was derived with the classicalelectron radius in order to check this relation.A space ball has the characteristics of charge distribution,which is included in the classical electron radius. We con-sider the two radii and get the relation:4310 =⋅⋅ prote rkr (3-22)
- 52. 48Rearranging this equation, we obtain the proton radius with:1043⋅⋅=eprotkrr (3-23)Using PPe mQkr ⋅=41in the equation above, we do obtainthe relation between the proton radius and the quantizedcharge and mass with the following formula:103⋅⋅=PPprotmQr (3-24)We also are able to calculate the proton radius by using thefollowing relation to the quantized magnitudes with thePlanck mass and the Planck volume:π8,1⋅=PPprotmVr (3-25)The relationship between mass and volume generally showsthe proportion of the mass per unit volume as the density. Aswe shall see later, the reciprocal of the density also is ofgreat importance in physical processes as a specific volume.Other relations:ecrprot25,1 ⋅= (3-26)With the above derived equations for the modified protonradius we do obtain the value:
- 53. 49mrprot1810244104151605464,8 −⋅= .According to the experiments with muonic hydrogen at thePaul Scherrer Institute (Germany), the radius of the proton ismrprot18104184,8 −⋅= and with the equations derived we doobtain a slight deviation.For the proton mass with the modified radius, we finallyobtain the value kgmprot2710859606720231043,1 −⋅= .Even from the other now following contexts, it is obtainedexactly this value for the proton mass.Calculation of the Proton MassWith the classical electron radius, we calculate a sphericalvolume, which is the interaction of the electron charge tomass of the electron as a distribution in a spherical volume.I.e. instead of the usual hollow sphere, consider a ball filledwith the volume:334ee krV ⋅= πWith the proton radius we calculate a spherical volume,which contains constituents of the proton in the nucleus:334protprot rV ⋅= π .The Planck volume with half the Planck length as the radiuswe do obtain without powers of ten:62343ππ =⋅= PPlV
- 54. 50eVPVWith this sphere volume for the density of the proton in thenucleus we obtain the following relationship with the Planckmagnitudes:PPeprotprotmVVVm ⋅= 48 (3-27)The density of protons in the atomic nucleus as the ratio ofits mass to its volume is equivalent to the Planck volume PVand the volume according to the classical electron radius eVand the ratio to the Planck mass Pm . The factor 48 exists be-tween the proton density and the spatial distribution of thePlanck mass with the quantized volume.Pictorially this can be imagined as follows: The 48-fold ratioof the smallest volume with the most small-mass, which isincluded in the volume of the classical electron radius, givesthe density of the proton. The density of the proton massmultiplied by the quantized mass results in a ball with themagnitude eV according to the classical electron radius with48 Planck- globules.Figure: Relation of the proton density and Planck volume
- 55. 51We also can derive the proton mass independently from itsradius. We use the equation (Equation 3-11)protprot rm ⋅⋅= π210the Radius of (Equation 3-25) with 92 ⋅⋅= πPPprotmVr andobtain the mass of the proton with the quantized magnitudeas:1094 2⋅⋅⋅= πPPprotmVm (3-28)Here, the redenominated equation shows us with1094 2⋅⋅⋅=⋅ πPPprot Vmm (3-29)that the proton mass gives a particular Planck volume inunits of Planck mass.Since a close relationship is present between the protons andelectrons, and their masses are contained in a certain quan-tized volume, we obtain the following relation:361010 2PPprotemVmm=⋅⋅ (3-30)The first two terms stand for the rate of the Planck mass forthe electron and proton per space ball in the Planck vol-ume PV . After transformation of this equation we do obtain:
- 56. 52PPprote Vmmm ⋅=⋅⋅ 3602(3-31)I.e. the mass of the proton and the electron in proportions ofPlanck mass results in 360 times the Planck volume.If we use quantized sizes in the above equation instead of themasses of the proton and electrons then we do obtain withprotPprot rQm ⋅⋅= 32π andPPemQm = :PPprotPmVrQ 3602 32=⋅⋅ π (3-32)By rearranging we do obtain the proton radius with:PPprotmVr ⋅= π8,1 (3-33)I.e. the proton radius is derived from a certain ratio betweenthe Planck volume and the Planck mass, which can be de-fined as a specific density of the proton.Other relations:8,1Pr =⋅⋅PPotVmem (3-34)ePotkrVm =⋅ ...111111,1Pr (3-35)2Pr 36PPeotmVmm ⋅=⋅ (3-36)
- 57. 53eotkrmπ⋅=5,1Pr (3-37)2Pr6Peotmmm⋅⋅=π(3-38)With the Planck mass in eV ( PeVm ) we obtain the followingrelation:2Pr 3 cmm PeVot ⋅⋅= π (3-39)The mass oft he proton according to the derived equation ineV is:2PrcMeV8900228573825,938=otVmAccording to CODATA value is: 938,272046 MeV/ 2c .With the proton mass in eV ( otVmPr ) we obtain the followingrelation:prototVotrmm PrPr 5,1 ⋅= (3-40)otVototmVmPrPrPr 2 π⋅= (3-41)ePotVVmm⋅=4Pr (3-42)oteotV Vkrm PrPr311 ⋅⋅= (3-43)
- 58. 54Summary of the results so farBased on the quantized sizes we can derive the proton radiusand the mass of the proton and electron with the previousequations and directly calculate them from the new Planckunits. This way we obtain previously unknown relationshipsthat will be analyzed further in future projects.The derived equations are fundamental relations, becausethey are based on quantized values. For example the relationof the electron mass as the ratio between the quantizedcharge and the quantized mass is even included in the small-est dimension. The expansion factor as a power of ten be-tween the smallest dimension and the dimension in whichthe value has been determined experimentally shows us thatthis correlation is noticeable only from certain spatial dimen-sion in our measurements. However, its components and therelations of which it exists do already exist in the smallestdimension. In other words, the experimentally measuredsubatomic particles are aggregations of smaller particles, andtheir properties are based on the same context.The connection between mass and volume, which we call thedensity for example, exists for an apple just like for theEarth, but in different size dimensions. This fundamentalrelation of the density does not arise only when the apple hasreached a certain size. The apple itself is made of such a con-text.The minimal differences in the microscopic size scales be-tween the values measured in the laboratory and the theo-
- 59. 55retical values of the derivations in addition to technicalmeasurement inaccuracies also are based on even the small-est influence of gravity and the acceleration of gravity,which add up over several size scales.The measured mass, or to be more specifically, the weight ofa particle, and accordingly of the proton, depends on the lo-cation. On Earth, gravity and gravitation are not the same atdifferent areas and places. On the earth, depend on the geo-graphic location we would read different values for a mass.Therefore, in terms of the mass, it must be distinguished be-tween the empirical values under the action of gravity andthe actual values. It could be possible to add additional influ-encing factors to the calculated values, but these influencefactors, such as the acceleration of gravity, are also depend-ent on the location themselves and therefore variable, too. Itwould be better to indicate the local dependent gravitationalacceleration in mass measurements. In the later Chapter wewill discuss the direct connection between the proton massand the acceleration due to gravity.The components of atoms can be explained by the new worldmodel, but since we only have analyzed the mass and radius,we do not receive sufficient information about the structureand the internal structure of these particles. For a new nu-clear model, all the other properties of the atoms also mustbe taken into account. If we trace back more experimentalfindings about atoms on the quantized size, we also can get abetter picture of the internal structure of atoms. In futureprojects, we will analyze further correlations using the quan-
- 60. 56tized sizes, it will be possible to obtain a better picture of theinternal structure of the atoms.3.5. Derivation of the fine structure constantThe Sommerfeld fine structure constant α as coupling con-stant describes the strength of the electromagnetic force be-tween two elementary charges. The formula of the fine struc-ture constant is:ce⋅⋅⋅⋅=h2041επα (3-44)With the CODATA-value:0,00729735253594845000 or03599971,1371.The fine structure constant can also be shown with the quan-tized quantities. The first term is replaced with c² from theMaxwell Formula:0002411επεµ ⋅⋅=⋅=cHaving 10=⋅ch we use21102⋅=πe for the elementarycharge and obtain:22221010 ⋅⋅=παc(3-45)By transforming, we will obtain:
- 61. 574410²πα ⋅= c (3-46)And since it is given c⋅= h10 , we at least obtain:441πα ⋅=hc(3-47)Accordingly, it is seen that the fine structure constant insteadon the elementary charge only depends on the natural con-stants c and h and has the dimensional value of933249600072942714,0=α or1900938826331,1371.The absolute deviation from the CODATA value is only:0,00000308104262349701.According to the new world model, the electromagneticforce ( ) between electrons and protons is caused by the in-verse ratio of the Planck masscmPh= and the geometricgeneric component.4411πα ⋅=Pm(3-48)With the quantized charge, we also can formulate the finestructure constant as follows:
- 62. 58PPmQ⋅=42α (3-49)With the quantized charge and the electron mass, we obtainthe following relationship:eP mQ ⋅=41α (3-50)This relationship is quite similar to the derived formula(3-16) for the classical electron radius from the last Chapter,with the only change in masses:PPe mQkr ⋅=41In the above formula (3-50) it can also been seen similaritiesin the fine structure constant with the gravitational force. Atthe end of this Chapter we will derive the gravitational con-stant, and a comparison of the two forces shows that the finestructure constant describes a kind of "gravitational force" inthe atoms. The strength of the electromagnetic force betweenprotons and electrons is based on quantized charge just likethe gravitational force.I have found the following relations in analyses I made:2eme ⋅=α (3-51)With the electron mass in eV:πα ⋅⋅= eVotmm43Pr (3-52)
- 63. 603.6. Derivation of the acceleration due to gravityWith the spherical volume eV of the classical electron radiusfrom the Chapter 3.3, which shows the connection of thecharge distribution of the elementary charge in a sphericalvolume, we can derive the acceleration of gravity as a spe-cial density function of the proton::eprotVmg ⋅=...06060,6...33333,3(3-53)The acceleration of gravity results from the relation betweenthe proton mass and the spherical charge distribution in anatom. Moreover, the equation contains a time factor as a co-efficient. In Chapter 4 we will discuss the phenomenon withthe time factor in the Chapter "The Origin of the time."The acceleration of gravity or the gravitational accelerationis independent of the mass of the falling body, and thereforeall bodies fall equally fast in a vacuum.The acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration of fallare independent of the mass of the falling body, and there-fore all bodies fall equally fast in vacuum. However, the ac-celeration of fall depends on the density of the attractingmatter. On any celestial body there are therefore differentgravitational accelerations, and the above derivation relatesto the specific density of the attractive matter.
- 64. 61The above equation is equivalent to:eprotVmg ⋅⋅=...01010,1...11111,163(3-54)And it also can be written as follows:eprotVmg ⋅=...181818181,01(3-55)In abbreviated form, we finally obtain:eprotVmg ⋅= 5,5 (3-56)The numerical value for the acceleration due to gravity is6358066298275,9=g and according to CODATA is deter-mined with 80665,9=g .Transforming the above equation, the proton mass can alsobe calculated over the gravity of fall with the following for-mula:5,5eprotVgm ⋅= (3-57)Here it can be seen the direct relation between the protonmass and the acceleration due to gravity, which we have dis-cussed in the derivation of the particle masses.
- 65. 623.7. Derivation of the gravitational constantIn the previous Chapters we have dealt with the particles inthe microcosm. The universe is dominated by gravity in themacrocosm, in the solar systems and galaxies. In contrast tothe other fundamental forces the gravitation can not beshielded and only acts attractive.The gravity is noticeable from certain magnitude dimensionsand it is only a modified form of elementary magnetism. Itapplies since its discovery by Newton as a universal attrac-tion that holds together the entire universe. Here, the mag-netism in the space balls is the actual universal force thatholds the universe together. Gravitation explains the attrac-tion of mass, and it is not possible to explain the entire uni-verse with it because the universe mainly consists of "empty"space and the observable mass only accounts for 4 percentaccording to current researches.In the 2ndChapter, we have already learned that mass andcharge belong together and each particle with mass also in-cludes a charge. This relationship between mass and chargebecomes noticeable as of a certain size dimension of thegravitational force. The interaction of charge and mass canbe calculated with the following gravitational constant.041313µπ ⋅⋅⋅⋅= cG h (3-58)
- 66. 63The gravitational constant G is the ratio between the attrac-tion force c⋅h in the space balls and the magnetic factorwith the vacuum permeability factor on a spherical sur-face041µπ ⋅in the form of04 µπ ⋅⋅ ch.With the quantized charge 2πcQP⋅=hand the induction con-stant πµ 40 = , it is possible to formulate this context as fol-lows:16313 PQG ⋅= (3-59)The coefficient of 3.333 ...in gravitational constant is a timefactor and this topic, we will discuss in the next Chapter.In summary form we finally obtain the gravitational constantwith:48PQG = (3-60)With the calculated Value of:11102464006751190736,6 −⋅=G .According to CODATA, the gravitational constant is:111067384,6 −⋅=G .The deviation from the CODATA value is1110246376300012790736,0 −⋅ .
- 67. 64The measurement of the gravitational constant in differentlaboratories showed the following values and the averagevalue is very consistent with our calculation:Laboratory G · 1011New Zealand MSL 6,6742000Zürich 6,6749000Wuppertal 6,6735000BIPM 6,6830000Karagioz (Russia) 6,6729000Luther/Towler 1982 6,6726000Average 6,6751833In macroscopic length scales, the relation between the quan-tized charge and the special proton density, makes itself no-ticeable according to the gravitational acceleration whichwas derived in the last Chapter. The density as the ratio be-tween the mass and volume knowingly describes how theparticulate mass is dispersed in a particular space. The bond-ing force between the particles ensures the cohesion of theparticles, and this is caused by the charge. Accordingly, thereis a direct relationship between the gravity of charge and themass of particles.The gravitational force between two objects at a distance of ris defined as:221rmmGFG⋅⋅=
- 68. 65We use the derived gravitational constant, and obtain therelationship between the mass and the quantized charge inthe gravitational force with:22148 rmmQF PG⋅⋅= (3-61)The gravitational force thus describes the interaction of thecharges and masses between the particles. The charges of themicroscopic particles and the resulting mass as inertial forcecause a mutual attraction between the particles and ulti-mately also between the macroscopic bodies.The gravitational force is created at the smallest dimensions,but due to their low strength and low particle density otherforces do dominate. The quantized charge with their interac-tions namely dominates the smallest dimension. Only withlarge dimensions, the immense force of gravity is noticeable,because the volume increases with the material it contains.The gravity makes itself noticeable in the presence of massand charge. Like any other power this not an infinite range aspreviously thought, but it is limited. Nevertheless, its cover-age in the macrocosm is enormous. Even the gravitationalattraction between the Earth and the Sun over a distance ofabout 150 million kilometers alone shows its immense mac-roscopic effect.The gravity, like all other physical phenomena also has itsorigin in the Planck level. The principle of the summationcauses that even the smallest forces in the smallest dimen-
- 69. 66sion do reach unbelievable levels in larger dimensions bysummation. However, this only works because the otherforces lose their effect as of certain scales because of theirshort reach.The magnetism in the space balls that produces charge byinteraction with other space balls and brings them into foreas counterforce mass, simultaneously causes gravitation.Intuitively this can be imagined as follows: Due to thecharges and the resulting mass smallest particles are created;and between these particles the gravitations acts as a gravita-tional attraction. Thus, infinitely many tiny particles in avacuum do exist between the earth and the sun in the small-est dimensions, which combine the particles of earth with theparticles of the sun like a pearl necklace by the mutual at-traction in the form of gravity.It is possible to describe these tiny particles as "dark mat-ter". Due to their small size, they show little interaction withthe macroscopic particles. However, they continue to trans-mit the gravitational force over long distances. With increas-ing distance from the Sun in the interstellar medium, theparticle density of the "dark matter" becomes smaller in thequantized level and thus, the gravity force increasingly losesits influence.The futile search for gravitational waves and the principle ofaction at a distance for the gravity can thus be explained bythe new world model. In the later Chapter on the expansionof the universe, we will discuss the limited reach of the grav-ity.
- 70. 67
- 71. 694. ChapterIn the previous chapters we have determined quantized sizes,the modified Planck units with the new world model, andwith the help of these have derived experimentally measuredquantities such as the proton mass and the gravitational con-stant with equations. They were lead back to the quantizedsizes with 10 and the speed of light. In this chapter, we willnow analyze these two fundamental elements of the uni-verse.“I want to know how God created this world. I am not inter-ested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this orthat element. I want to know His thoughts; the rest are de-tails.”Albert Einstein
- 72. 704.1. Derivation of the speed of lightThe final formula 261010 −⋅=⋅ch consists of a few ele-ments. The modified Planck constant can be derived fromthe speed of light, and the attraction of the space balls, whichholds together the entire universe, is static. Thus, the speedof light as a time factor is the basic dynamic element in theuniverse.In the universe a universal quantized time is ticking at a con-stant time rate. This time factor is hidden in the constantspeed of light and all physical quantum events follow thistime factor. There is no absolute time in the universe, butevery event in the smallest dimension occurs with the speedof light and thus follows the time factor in this fundamentalconstant of nature. This time factor is somewhat of a pa-rameter, which allows to adjust the distribution of the quan-tized energy and the dynamics of the universe.All physical processes in the universe are energy conver-sions, and the laws of nature do explain the underlying dy-namics. Changing the value of the speed of light produces auniverse with different physical laws, even with the sameattraction force in the space balls.The laws of nature are therefore based on this universal timefactor. In the universe, the time factor is adjusted with thespeed of light in order to generate the quantized action .And all physical processes are based on the transmission ofthis action in the space.
- 73. 71The speed of light is defined as a natural constant, and itserves as a time factor in quantum occurrences. However,the light itself is not the universal time in form of a "lightclock", but the speed of light is formed from a timer, andincludes the universal time factor in itself.How does the time factor work with the speed of light?Therefore, we do break down the value of c to its constitu-ents and obtain the following equation (4-1):With the following terms:Quantized charge, which we already know:210π=pQTiming Cycle (explanation follows in the next Chapter:Space dimensionand time factorChargeinteractionSum of the charge interactionbetween 2 charges and timefactor∑=⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅+⋅+⋅=261362810110299,910109101091099,9103nnPP QQc
- 74. 72...001001001,199,910=Interaction of the space balls per space dimension:....111111111,11109=We add the individual members of the equation (4-1) for thespeed of light and receive the following values:299.700.000,000000000000000 1. term92.393,840292159000000 2. termn1 57,730759555672500 Sum2 5,7730759555672503 0,5773075955567254 0,0577307595556735 0,0057730759555676 0,0005773075955577 0,000057730759556+299.792.457,98557400000Difference to the literature value:0,014425933361054For the speed of light we do obtain with an n = 1 to 7, afairly exact match with the literature value. And as it can beseen, also the light is not able to ever reach the speed oflight, but it converges to the value of literature as a limit.
- 75. 73To derive the speed of light with an equation has a profoundimpact on our physical world system.All physical quantum events strongly depend on this funda-mental constant of nature as a dynamic element. Accordingto this derivation; the physical events in the universe, andthus the universe as a whole, is based on charge interactionsand a universal time cycle.This equation shows us how electromagnetic waves propa-gate in space and how the interaction of the charges doestake place. Here, the equation must be considered fromright:The 3rdTerm: The interaction of the quantized charge be-tween two space balls takes place in a given quantized tim-ing.The 2ndTerm: Here, an interaction between the quantizedcharges and the space balls takes place.The 1stTerm: During these interactions a certain time passesin quantized timing cycle.What information can we also gather from this equation?- The equation describes the factors on which the speed oflight depends namely on the interaction between the chargesand the quantized time factor. So, it depends on the spacewith its three-dimensionality, including charges and from thequantized timing cycle.
- 76. 74- The value of the speed of light converges to the literature asa limit value, because of the infinite sequence of time factorand the sum term. All physical events, which are based onthe speed of light, therefore also do converge against a par-ticular value, and have their origin in the smallest level.- Even though for the speed of light, the distance made isenormous with about 300 million meters, as compared to thetime of only 1 second which it requires this distance, it canbe seen in this equation that the time factor in the speed oflight is actually plays a larger role. The high value of thespeed of light occurs because -compared to the quantizedtime- our second lasts very long.- The speed of light is based on factors that take place in thesmallest dimensions and that sum up, up to our macroscopiclevel.- The derived equation confirms the fact which is well-known since two centuries that electromagnetic waves arecaused by charge interactions. With light or electromagneticwaves, pulse is transmitted in space, and these are chargeinteractions as in the atoms caused by electrons. A photon isthus the little brother of the electron.- With the derivation of these fundamental constants of na-ture, it is possible to analyze the nature of time.
- 77. 754.2. The origin of timeWhen defining the time as the period between two events,then the time, or more specifically, a certain timing cycle, isthe actual cause of the events. Without time, physical proc-esses cannot take place, because there would be no "pulse",which could be addressed by the events. The events in thesmallest dimensions do namely not take place itself, whiletime is running alongside, but it is the quantized timing cyclewhich causes the events with its cycle sequence.All physical processes depend on a universal timing cycle,whose sum we measure as an ordinary time, describe it as aTime Arrow and on which also the Cause-effect principle isbased.Each dynamic element which provides movement in thespace, and thus causes events, therefore also contains a uni-versal timing cycle. Also any kind of force and momentumtransfer contains this timing cycle and weve already seen itin the derivation of the acceleration of gravity, the gravita-tional constant, and finally in the speed of light.The time occurs in the smallest dimension and develops intothe higher dimensions through the summation. Our secondson a macroscopic scale, is the sum of the quantized timingcycles in the Planck dimension. In the Planck sphere theresplenty of time for the quantum events.The measured time is therefore dependent on the size scale,and this principle can also be transferred to the macrocosm.
- 78. 76While on earth millions of years pass according to our timemeasurement, for an observer in the quantity of several mil-lion light years only some seconds would pass according tohis clock.If an even larger observer would consider the entire universein the size of a marble, then a ray of light needs several bil-lion years on the way to us in our time measuring, for thegreat observer only last some fractions of a second accordingto his time measurement.As we have seen in the derivation of the speed of light, themotion of the light in space depends on a certain time cycle.The first term in the equation for the speed of light also con-tains a time factor as an impulse generator:....00010010010,199,910==Ct (4-2)This term for the time cycle can also be written as follows:....00010010010,111,13102==Ct (4-3)By rearranging we get:...1111,111,1...00100100,13102=⋅=(4-4)
- 79. 77The interaction of the space balls in the three-dimensionalspace (left side of the equation 4-4) is equal to the quantizedtiming cycle by a factor of 1.11.With further transformations we get:11,1...00100100,1310 ⋅⋅= (4-5)2311,1...00100100,110 ⋅⋅= (4-6)From this equation, we again obtain without root terms theoriginal equation (4-2) for the universal timing cycle with....00010010010,199,91011,13102==⋅=Ct , which is also con-tained in the speed of light.The energy in the space balls in the form of attractive forcewith the value of 10 consists of three-dimensionality ofthe space with 23 and the universal Space-Time-Quantumwith 1.11, which finally brings into fore the quantized timingcycle with 1.00100100100….The origin of time is thus associated with the emergence ofthe three-dimensionality of space, which we will now dis-cuss in the next section.
- 80. 784.3. The origin of spatial dimensionsWe live in a three dimensional world, and also the spaceballs on which our physical world are based on, are three-dimensional. But how does the three-dimensionality of spaceoccur?In the previous Chapters we have discussed the interactionsbetween space balls and have derived various correlations.To analyze the structure of time and the three-dimensionalityof space, now lets look more closely at the space balls.Geometrically, a point has only one dimension. Several adja-cent points at one level provide a surface with two dimen-sions. Several areas stacked finally create a three dimen-sional space. The geometric dimensionality is thus based onthe addition of points in space.According to the equation (4-6), the three dimensions of thequantized space are created from the last Chapter by the fol-lowing relation:2311,1...00010010010,110 ⋅⋅=with the factor 23 , i.e. from the square of our familiar threedimensions.We describe the three-dimensional space in a general coor-dinate system with three spatial axes. But with the emer-gence of the three dimensions by the space balls, from the
- 81. 79center there are formed squared spatial axes. In the picturebelow left, they are shown with dashed and solid lines. Ap-parently, negative numbers and zero, on which our three-dimensional coordinate system is based, does not exist innature.The origin of time is associated with the formation of thethree-dimensionality of the space. The energy in the spaceballs is spread spherical in the room at its formation with thedimension factor of 23 (picture above right).This process does not occur suddenly, but after a certain pre-determined quantized unit of 1.11. The universal timing cy-cle with 1.001001001 ... describes how the energy during theformation of dimension in units of 1.11 is distributed in thethree-dimensional space balls....00010010010,111,1...111111,1=The product of 1.11 x 1.00100100100 ... = 1.11111 ... resultsin an infinite magical, transcendent number, which repre-sents the infinity of time and energy.
- 82. 80The factor 1.11 ensures the distribution of infinite energy1.1111 .. in the space balls according to the same portions,and it accordingly creates the universal timing cycle. Thisfactor of 1.11 is a universal space-time-quantum and has anabsolute magnitude as the fundamental importance. Theother fundamental constants of nature, like the speed of lightor Plancks quantum of action are merely the products of thisspace-time-quantum.Outside the space balls it is possible to explain the physicalworld with the basic elements of the speed of light, Planck’squantum of action and the energy in the space balls. But aswe have seen now, these basic elements arise from the uni-versal timing cycle in the formation of dimension to thespace time quantum 1.11 in accordance universal formula(without Pl ):2311,1...00010010010,110 ⋅⋅==⋅ chThe origin of everything in the universe, and thus the spaceand the time is connected to the three-dimensionality ofspace. The summation of quantum events, and the quantizedtiming cycle over several size scales finally brings forth ourphysical, three-dimensional world.In the universe there are only three observable space dimen-sions. The black holes are proof for this. Three-dimensionalspace is in fact destroyed by them and converted into itsoriginal shape. Without these black holes it would be other-wise possible to assume that our three-dimensional world
- 83. 81transfers on greater length scales in additional spatial dimen-sions.With the speed of light, we are able to explain the universevery well, because, in addition to the space as length unit italso contains the universal timing cycle as a dynamic com-ponent. The speed of light contains indeed the universal tim-ing scale in a certain form, as we have seen it in the deriva-tion of the speed of light.The grand unified theory is based on the universal timingcycle, which is included in the speed of light. With the finalformula Plc ⋅=⋅ 10h we have derived the fundamentalquantized elements with which the universe is structured,and they all contain the speed of light as a time factor. Thespeed of light is the ubiquitous parameter in the equations,and therefore we can describe the overall dynamics of theuniverse with it (without Planck length):Quantized energy: cEP ⋅= hQuantized charge: 2πcQP⋅=hQuantized Mass:cmPh=The attraction in the space balls follows like any otherpower, the universal timing cycle. The h and c are not thecause of the attraction force in the space balls, but they are
- 84. 82formed in the dimension formation with the universal space-time-quantum.It exceeds our imagination to try to explain the contents ofthe space balls. They are made of energy, but what does thisenergy look like?The space balls are not like solids, such as Metal balls, nordo they consist of some fields. The energy is neither solidnor liquid, most likely it is similar to a gas cloud. Gases con-sist of tiny atoms and the energy cloud in the space ballsconsists of one element that exceeds our imagination. Thecontents of the space balls, so the energy in its original formwill keep us busy for a long time.Even the space with its three dimensions as a medium inwhich there is the primordial energy exceeds our imaginationand with our analogies and logic we can only explain it ap-proximately. But we know that the space and energy are pre-sent, just as we know that we do exist. Being is no illusion,but when we try to describe it, we make our human imagina-tion illusionsTo understand the reality and to approach the absolute truthhas always been a desire for knowledge of mankind. As longas we are aware of our limited mental capacities, we canavoid fatal illusions and develop ourselves culturally.We have called the energy in the space balls as an elemen-tary force, which shows itself in the form of attraction. Theconsequences and the relationships of the attraction force
- 85. 83have been explained in the previous Chapters. But it is notpossible to physically or philosophically explain; why thisattraction exists and shapes our physical world.4.4. The origin ofFor centuries, people are thinking about the mysterious circlenumber . Meanwhile, the computer calculations reach withbillion decimal places and in this way it is tried to bleed thesecret of this numerical value.The number is inter alia defined as the circumference of acircle with the diameter of one.DiameternceCircumfere=πWith the circle diameter of 1 it results nceCircumfere=π .The circle number e.g. gives the route of which is covered ina circle when you are connected to the center circle with arope. The value of is obtained from a certain attractionforce to the center of the circle.Without this attraction, the value of would not have theknown value. If for example you connected to the circle cen-ter with a rubber rope, you will not obtain the value of forthe circumference of a circle. The elementary principle ofattraction in the universe gives the circle number the valueit has. Without this elementary principle this -value wouldnot exist and there would also be no balls, atoms, planets,
- 86. 84stars, galaxies etc. The attraction force as elemental force;shapes the entire universe, and it is reflected in the circlenumber .With the final formula it is possible to physically explain theenergy and their distribution in the three-dimensional spaceballs, but in this process also the circular number isformed, which is necessary for the space geometry. The cir-cle number is important for the construction of the universeand its numerical value is based on similar principles, as de-scribed in the previous Chapters.The circle number is a "natural constant" of mathematicsand geometry, and we will analyze its origin. Since naturedoes not make calculations itself nor looks up the -valuefrom a table, the circle number must be a product of a par-ticular physical process.There are different mathematical methods of approximationfor , but we want to analyze the physical process and notmathematically derive the value.In a famous mathematical problem known as the “Baselproblem" because it were first especially Basel mathemati-cian who dealt with it, the question was whether or not thesum of the reciprocal squares do converge and against whichvalue. The great mathematician Leonhard Euler finally de-livered with the solution with:61.....312111 222212π=++++∑∞= nn
- 87. 85Through this conversion formula we obtain:222122 1.....3121116nn++++⋅= ∑∞=πThe circle number consists of the sum of the reciprocalsquare numbers each in six space axes and this formula ofEuler describes very well the formation of .This result is obtained also with the spherical geometry. Thespace balls have a diameter of Pl , and for the surface area ofthe space balls we obtain without powers of ten:πππ =⋅=⋅⋅= 22214 PPP llOand the volume of space balls is:662134 33πππ =⋅=⋅⋅= PPP llVThe product of volume and surface area of the space ballsgives the limit value of the reciprocal square numbers de-rived by Euler:662πππ=⋅=⋅ PP OVThe three-dimensional space develops in this geometric ap-proach as the product of volume and surface area. Severalsuperimposed areas geometrically result in a three-dimensional body. The contents of the space balls as a
- 88. 86spherically symmetric body, physically describes the finalformula, and the geometrical structure is described by thecircular constant . During the physical origin of the three-dimensional space balls the circle number is formed too,but it is not the number which brings forth the three-dimensionality, but it is a product of a physical process. Thespace-time quantum, which we discussed in the last Chapter,describes the physical process leading to the three-dimensionality of space, and describes the resulting geo-metric component.The universe is electromagnetically structured and all physi-cal phenomena are caused by the interactions of the charge.The quantized charge therefore contains the energy and thecircle number in the following form:210π=pQThe physical constants of nature are the result of the funda-mental, physical relations, and the circle number occurs asa result of three-dimensionality. The circle number thereforeis the result of a physical process, and not the cause, just likethe speed of light and the Planck quantum of action are notthe cause of the final formula, but their product.Since antiquity, it is philosophized about the order and har-mony in nature. Whether or not this order is based onmathematical principles, all things consist of numbers oremerge, have also always been subject to philosophical de-bates.
- 89. 87At the final formula and the circular constant it can be seenthat the numbers are not the cause but merely the result ofphysical processes. With mathematical formalism it is triedto represent reality but therefore, reality actually must existinitially. I.e. without real existing balls there is no , andwithout real existing bodies, there are no numbers to countthe bodies.4.5. The origin of the relativistic effectAt high speeds and in the vicinity of gravity it comes to rela-tivistic effects, which are described in the theory of relativityand calculated with the Lorentz transformation.Lorentz factor:21 −=cvk (4-7)The Lorentz transformation is based on space geometry andthe constant of speed of light. The theory of relativity isbased on the constancy of the speed of light, and accordingto this theory, there is no absolute space. In the general the-ory of relativity it is even explained the gravity as a geomet-ric property of space.
- 90. 88We will not discuss this comprehensive theory in individualitems and will only explain the relativistic effects with thenew world model in this Chapter.The new world model is based on the worlds absolute space,and the first signs of Max Planck, to create a basis for thebase units with quantized sizes, was implemented with thenew world model.As we have seen in the previous Chapters, the universe iscomposed of space, time and energy and, if you look at itfrom a different perspective is built up in an unprecedentedform.According to the new world model, dynamic physical proc-esses depend directly on the time, or more precisely on theuniversal timing cycle. The time is thus not a neutral meas-ure magnitude that is measured outside the process, but itmakes additions itself for the sequence of events accordingto a determined timing cycle. Besides space, time is also afundamental quantity. This could be recognized quiet well inthe derivation of the speed of light at the beginning of thisChapter. How much space points the light passes during itsmovement in space is namely defined by a timing cycle.The origin of the relativistic effects is based on the three-dimensional absolute space and universal timing cycle. Thetheory of relativity also shows that space and time are verysimilar. Relativistic effects are directly caused by quantizedtiming cycle which occurring at high speeds, and which arealso included in the gravitational constant.
- 91. 89In the new world model the relativistic effects are based onabsolute space and time and the proper time is variable.Speeds are movements in space, and therefore in absolutespace, time is variable.TimeWaySpeed =Since the space and therefore the route is an absolute quan-tity, the relativistic effects occur at high speeds, because thechange of the relations between distance and time only oc-curs through the proper time variable, which consists ofquantized timing cycles.high speed:------------> ------------> ------------> Way---> ---> ---> Timing cycles sumslow speed:------------> ------------> ------------> Way-----> -----> -----> Timing cycles sumsAs you can see from this diagram, the space is absolute, andthus the distance is constant. However, depending on thespeed the sum of the quantized timing scales do change, thatare shown in the picture with different arrow lengths.The relativistic effects are a consequence of the quantizedtime cycles, the sum of which results in the measured propertime. Thus, at every event, anywhere in the space there is its

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