Remediation, Social Media, and  Collective Intelligence
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Remediation, Social Media, and Collective Intelligence



Social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are becoming incorporated into ...

Social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are becoming incorporated into
today’s culture and economy changing the way many individuals communicate. Using
insights from Lévy’s (1997) theory of collective intelligence as a lens to understand how
a participatory culture has become empowered through social media is displayed
throughout this study. Bolter and Grusin’s (2000) concept of remediation also serves as
part of the theoretical framework presenting clarity to how social media are changing and
reconfiguring the way communication is enacted and exhibited through different realms
of media. Because social networking sites are still very new in today’s society, there has
been little empirical research published. I have formulated a study using a mixed
qualitative and quantitative methodological approach in order to understand how
nonprofit and for-profit organizations create participation among the users within social
networking sites as well as analyze the remediation effects from utilizing these networks.
This study incorporates focus groups, an in-depth interview, participant observations, a
survey, and t-tests in order to establish connections and triangulate the data to
comprehend how companies find social media effective and useful in their respective



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    Remediation, Social Media, and  Collective Intelligence Remediation, Social Media, and Collective Intelligence Presentation Transcript

    • Remediating Communication through Social Media and Forming a Collective Intelligence for Companies and Nonprofits
      By: Heather Burchfield
      This project is part of a larger study.
    • Rationale
      Popularity of social networking sites
      Formation of a global village
      SNS creating a participatory culture
      Noticed business use of social media
      Possibility of refashioning traditional communication
    • Collective Intelligence
      Theoretical Framework
    • Theoretical Framework
      Collective Intelligence
      Pierre Lévy (1997)
      Intelligence shared by a group that is constantly enhancing and contributing to the community
      Simultaneously enrich individuals
      SNS wouldn’t be able to exist without interaction
      Participatory Culture
      The participants are the most vital element of a CI because without them, the aggregation of information wouldn’t be possible.
    • Theoretical Framework Continued
      Bolter and Grusin (2000)
      Refashioning media
      Multiple representations of media in SNS
      Replicates human experience (YouTube)
      Sought through transparency
      Reproduction of reality, remediates the real
      Contact point between medium and what it represents
      Social media’s contact point is emitted messages or media which generates interaction forming a conversation.
    • Literature Review
      Facebook grew 58.9% from June 18, 2008, to January 4, 2009 (Corbett, 2009)
      Banks and Humphreys (2008) noted that many companies feel uneasy giving their consumers more power because the idea of user co-creator and participatory culture is foreign to the customary way business is conducted.
      One of the main aspects of a participatory culture is that the participants must actually produce and not simply consume (Jenkins, 2006).
      Social networking sites have become verbal playgrounds to converse and discuss contributing to an immanent collective intelligence (Frohmann, 2000).
    • Research Questions
      How has the utilization of social networking sites in nonprofit organizations formed a participatory culture, and does that culture establish a collective intelligence?
      How has remediation been depicted through social media by businesses, and have the implemented social media strategies been effective?
    • Methods
      Participant Observation
      Child and family-focused nonprofit
      Before focus group
      Focus Groups
      Both nonprofits
      Volunteer nonprofit
      Before focus group
      Triangulating Methods
    • Participant Observation
      Child and Family-focused Nonprofit
      Spent six-month period
      (June-Nov. 2009)
      Administered and maintained Facebook Fan Page, Cause, and Twitter account
      Promoted organization to virtual community
      Events, volunteers, staff changes, awards
      Formed an analysis about responses, participation & effectiveness of SNS
    • Focus Group
      Both Nonprofits
      Wanted to understand the utilization, participation, and remediation effects seen through social media
      Snowball samples
      Child and Family nonprofit consisted of board and staff members
      Volunteer nonprofit consisted of organization members and officers
    • Survey
      Volunteer Nonprofit
      92 female participants
      Nine-question survey
      Largest general membership meeting
      Women ranging in ages from 24 to 50 participated in the survey.
      Median age was 33
      89.2% had personal Facebook profiles
      9.7% did not have Facebook profiles
    • Findings
      Lack of familiarity and understanding of social media
      Lack of communication
      Saw potential with social media to reach a new donor/member demographic
      Language barrier
      Like being able to stay connected and reconnect with those in their social circles
      Filter information
      Have become self publicists
      Complement traditional media
    • Findings continued
      Volunteer Nonprofit Survey Results
      Cross tabulation
      The first test did not identify evidence of a relationship between having a Facebook profile and awareness of the organization’s Facebook Group (x2=1.16, df=1, p>.05). The members do not have to have a personal Facebook profile in order to be aware of their organization’s Facebook Group.
    • Findings continued
      Volunteer Nonprofit Survey Results
      Pearson’s Correlation
      Individuals who found the Facebook group more personally useful also tended to think that it was relatively more useful to other members of the organization (r=434, p<.05). If a member feels the Facebook Group is useful for them, they are going to think the group is useful to other members.
      Individuals who heard other members mention the Facebook Group more often also tended to find it relatively more personally useful (r=.578, p<.05). The women who did not find the Facebook Group useful did not hear the group mentioned frequently.
      The last correlation showed a significant relationship between how often members heard other members mention the Facebook Group and how useful the women thought other members found the Facebook Group (r=.390, p<.05). Since this relationship is positive, the members who heard others mention the Facebook Group more frequently also felt that those members found the Facebook Group more useful, but the members who did not hear the Facebook Group mentioned as regularly surmised that the group was not as useful to others.
    • Findings continued
      Volunteer Nonprofit Survey Results
      There showed to be a significance among those who were aware of the Facebook Group and the frequency in which members heard others mention the Facebook Group (t=-9.013, df=43.49, p<.05).
      There showed to be significance among those who were a part of the Facebook Group and how often someone heard other members mention the volunteer organization’s Facebook Group (t=-3.45, df=66.68, p<.05).
      There was no perceived significance among those who were members of the Facebook Group and how useful the organization’s members thought the Facebook Group was to others (t=.150, df=61.27, p>.05).
    • Discussion
      While a complete collective intelligence may not be apparent among the nonprofits, they understand and are aware of the potential social media could have for their organizations.
      Networks like Facebook are rapidly building community and establishing relationships.
      These nonprofits realized that there was a significant audience using these online tools that they would want to reach, but in order for the groups to be effective with their social media efforts, learning to listen, communicate, and be transparent about their organization is a must.
      The two organizations are also aware that social media have complemented and are even remediating other forms of media, but they feel that social networking sites have not replaced mainstream communication outlets at this point.
      Just because someone is aware of a nonprofit’s social media presence doesn’t mean they are engaged and interact with them in the virtual realm.
    • Future Research
      To complement this research, t-tests should have been performed to compare Web site traffic before social media efforts were in place and six months after they were in place.
      More research needs to be done on this topic
      Study larger nonprofit organizations with more resources
      Research for-profit companies