ADDRESSING GENDER CONCERNS INCLIMATE CHANGE PROJECTS- SOUTHERN AFRICA EXPERIENCES Ms. Kulthoum Omari HBS Sustainable Development Programme Manager Southern Africa Second Regional Summer School- Arab Middle East and North Africa 30-04 October 2012, Amman Jordan
Presentation outline• Background• Regional circumstances and statistics• Gender and Climate change impacts- Southern Africa experience• Gender and governance• Example- Gender Mainstreaming in energy sector Botswana
Why does gender matter?• Poverty: at least 1.3 billion people are living in absolute poverty and 70% are women.• Transmission of HIV is two times higher in women than men. Teenage girls are 5 times more likely to be infected than boys• Literacy- 1970 and 1990, 54% to 74% literacy. 880 million who are still illiterate, 2/3rds are women and 1 out of every 3 adult women still cannot read or write.• Credit: women make 14% of borrowers from commercial banks. Most banks require that borrowers be wage earners or property owners who can provide acceptable collateral.• Political: 14% women ministers & 12.7% women in parliaments
Why does gender matter….cont• Number of FHH has increased drastically in the past 10 years. Region approx 25%, Botswana 46%• Poorer women reside in rural areas where its economically disadvantaged• Women have a closer relationship with the environment due to their activities and their role, therefore more vulnerable than men• Because of their roles, unequal access to natural resources and limited decision making position and deeply entrenched gender inequalities, women are more vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
Gender differentiated impacts- Southern Africa• Study conducted in Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Mozambique• Women farmers- 45-80% of all food production in developing countries. >90% of labour force engage in agriculture• because women are primarily responsible for food security and due to gender roles and responsibilities, reduced yields from rain fed agriculture impacts negatively on women• Access to agricultural inputs and micro credit is skewed towards men and richer households• Although not sufficient, women have developed strategies to cope with low rainfall- use of drought tolerant crops, diversify livelihoods etc
Biodiversity goods and service Ecosystem resources play an important role in shaping the livelihoodactivities. The collection of reeds, grass, making of baskets and fishing are four of the most important GENDERED activities
Biodiversity goods and service…contClimate change will negatively affect biodiversity goods and services– Fishing– Crafts e.g. basketry– Fuelwood– Water
General findingsAdaptation strategies and approaches will not be effective without addressing the existing inequality and equity. Women are still excluded from decision making on access to and use of NR. Women still lack land rights. Unequal power relations, etc. Need to ensure rights of women are ensured, non-discriminatory access to resources and equitable participation in decision making processes is ensured at local and national level.Climate change, magnifies existing inequalities, reinforcing the disparity between women and men in their vulnerability to and capability to cope with climate change. Impacts magnified due to poverty and marginalisation.
Gender and Governance• Women are often excluded from decision-making, from the household up to the highest levels of policymaking.• Governance institutions at global, national and local levels help to shape perceptions of the roles that women and men play in society, as well as determining their access to rights and resources• Even when women are involved, they are often kept on the margins of decision-making or are confined to ‘soft’ policy areas• Need effective governance, underpinned by the principles, at all levels• International, national and civil society organisations (CSOs) and citizens play a key role – putting pressure on governments to take action to challenge gender inequalities, and holding them accountable for the commitments they make.
Gender and Governance• UNFCCC- 30% women in delegation and 15 % of heads of delegations.• Install a gender machinery with sufficient resources and decision-making power• Gender ministry, gender desk, gender policy, gender framework• The Ugandan government -formulate a National Gender Policy as a tool for realising gender mainstreaming in their country• However, a single structure for gender mainstreaming is not always preferable. – Gender Ministry could be sidelined or marginalized. – could too easily be seen as the only body, which needs to consider gender issues. – Gender is a crosscutting issue and every policy area has a gender angle. Therefore every ministry and department to integrate gender into their policies.• Local and village level
Gender mainstreaming in Energy Sector• Gender audit of energy sector• Literature review• Institutional analysis• Gender disaggregated data in energy sector• National consultative process• Power utility- identification of gender champion• Gender Action Plan- resource allocation• Implementation of GAP
Gender Audits• Gender audits: An approach for identifying gender related gaps and creating energy policies and programmes that are more gender responsive.• Technical, personal and institutional biases that prevent gender equality objectives being taken forward. – Availability of gender-related energy statistics; – Gender organisational management and awareness, and mainstreaming in energy-related programmes; – Gender perspectives in national Energy Policy; – Resource mobilisation for gender and energy related policies and programmes; and – The role of gender and energy in achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
Gender mainstreaming in Energy Sector• Botswana; 15.2% MHHs, 7.7% FHHs connected to electricity in rural villages.• Women are compelled to use biomass based sources of energy because of lack of alternative cleaner, effective and affordable sources of energy• Women in southern Africa are defined as ‘energy poor’- lack of choice in accessing adequate, safe, reliable, sustainable energy source• WHO estimates- indoor air pollution as major public health issue- pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer• However, energy needs of women not considered in energy policy
Gender and energy poverty• Decision making on energy purchase- mostly lies with men. Eg Zim, men rejected use of solar cookers• Time gained from modern energy- used by women in local politics, education• Women remain unrecognized in energy policy, planning and in the development of new energy technologies.• Use of gender analysis in energy planning is virtually unknown- eg gender audits in energy sector in Botswana and Nigeria.
Why Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Programmes and Policies?• To improve quality of life, by reducing women’s drudgery in activities such as fuelwood collection and processing, water access, agricultural labour etc, and improving their health.• To increase women’s productivity and income, by providing them with the energy access needed to work more efficiently or for new opportunities for income generation.• To promote gender equality and to empower women, that is, to help them participate in activities and decision making which they have traditionally been excluded from, and to contribute strategically to the transformation of gender relations.• To ensure project efficiency and sustainability, because unless men’s and women’s needs are properly understood, project interventions may be wrongly targeted and thus fail.
Gender responsive energy policies• Major tools that are key to the achievement of sustainable development. – However, most of the energy policies are currently gender blind• Botswana- the energy policy had a main focus on electrification, which does not address the primary energy requirements for women• SA, there is more emphasis on providing electricity than any other energy sources. – Thermal energy needs, which are linked to the social roles of women, receive less attention and funding than those energy services traditionally associated with men’s roles.
Key findings and messages• Still a lot of resistance to gender- Strategic entry point and political commitment is key- gender champion• Understand the interlinkages between gender, energy and poverty must be understood from a sustainable development perspective- MDGs (although criticized)• The Ministry of energy to be involved and committed to the process of GM. Advocacy at the ministry of energy and mobilising the gender machinery in the country to support the ministries of energy. Understand the role of women in the informal sector and their contribution to the local economy. The potential benefits arising from the use of modern energy technologies.
…..cont Participation of women in the formulation of energy policies that reflects their energy demands. Participation of women in the design of energy efficient technologies Recognise women’s role in the energy provision and use and their energy needs and demands- eg charcoal making
…..cont Include a specific gender goal in the national energy policy. In Botswana, the objective: To facilitate gender equity was included in the draft energy policy A more balanced approach to energy services -takes women’s needs and traditional roles into account. In SA, increasing access to electricity will not alleviate cooking energy shortages as poor households do not use electricity for cooking Ensure that the different gender groups are specifically catered for through budgets and expenditure to cultivate, promote and support such policies and programmes at three levels: policy formulation, strategy and operations.
…..cont Gender-disaggregated data on male and female energy use is also required. This can be used as a tool to enlarge the knowledge on women’s energy use and demand. Income (men and women) Energy supply/use Energy needs/demand Employment in energy sector (men and women) While a lack of data is sometimes used as an excuse not to implement gender-responsive climate policies, it is the gender- responsive policies that are likely to provide the necessary data