Irene Dankelman_Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction are NOT Gender-Neutral
Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction are NOT gender neutral Heinrich Boell Foundation Second Regional Summer School ‘Climate Change Challenges in the Arab Middle East and North Africa’ Amman, 1 October 2012 Irene Dankelman IRDANA Advice Radboud University Nijmegen
Objectives of this sessionTo build common understanding of the linkagesbetween gender issues and climate change:concepts and analysis.To look into the diverse roles and responsibilitiesof women and men re. climate changeadaptation and disaster risk reductions.Give some guidance and ideas on the relevanceand steps to integrate a gender perspective.
ぷオォァゑィろ9:00 Presentation Irene: A. Why gender issues? B. Gender and climate change C. Gender in CC adaptation and DRM D. What can we do?09:45 Discussion based on presentation and on your own experiences10:30 BreakContinuation today+tomorrow: much more detail today+tomorrow:
A. Gender IssuesIn your work you experience:Not all people are the same, have the same position, control, rights or (decision- (decision- making) power.A gender lens helps to identify the differences between men and women, as individuals and as groups.And it encourages to act in such a way that inequality is prevented and countervailed and that equality is supported.
はろィれろェIs a dynamic concept that refers to the different roles, rights and responsibilities of women and men in society.It identifies the social relations betweenmen and women.Is generally associated with unequal powerand unequal access to and control overresources.Also other important of differentiators :class, caste, ethnicity, religion, welfare, age!
Gender is socially constructed; gender constructed; relations are context specific - influenced by historical, religious, cultural, economic, and environmental realities - and subject to change in response to altering circumstances.Constitute and are constructed by a range of institutions, e.g. family, educational, legal and market systems.
No gender-neutrality! gender-In many situations women in disadvantaged position:• Of the 1.3 billion people in poverty – 60-70% women 60-• Women work 2/3 of the world’s working hours• Produce half of the world’s food• Earn 10% of the world income• Own less than 1% of the world’s property• Are (generally) discriminated in education, training• Face gender-based violence. gender-
On the other hand women are crucialactors,actors, have a lot of potential andcapabilities (A. Sen, 1995/1999), such asknowlegde, experience, skills, and visions.
Opportunities “Given equal access to opportunities and resources, women like men have proven to be efficient, dynamic and indispensable partners in development. Together, on the farm, and at all levels of society, women and men constitute a formidable partnership to achieve food security in the 21st century.” (www.fao.org/gender) www.fao.org/gender)
Women or Gender?Talking about gender: we tend to focus onthe position of women.Reason: often – but not always – womenin disadvantaged position -> their positionneeds to be improved in order to advancegender equality.Do not forget it is about relationshipwomen-women-men!Involve men in our efforts!
B1. Gender aspects DevelopmentApart from their functions in the household (incl.gathering fuel, water, fodder, cleaning, cooking,child care),In many regions women are the important foodproducers and processors (for own consumptionand market).However: lack of decision-making power, decision-land-land- and waterrights,credit, extension services, resources,information.
B2. Gender aspects Energy use In many regions in the world: women main providers of energy for household, particularly biomass energy (fuel-wood, crop residues, cowdung), and land-users. This costs them lots of human energy (and health). Environmental degradation: costs more and more time and effort energy poverty (2 billion people) Use of energy: heating, cooking, lightning, transport, income generation, communication. Indoor air pollution: major health problems; 2 million deaths per year, and many disabilities
Energy choices climate change mitigationWomen and men have different roles:Household energy – mainly women;Energy sector – male dominated; women’s needs, priorities, visions neglected.Women tend to make consumption choices that are more sustainable (e.g. preference for renewable energy, public transport) and more healthy important consumption force.
B3. Climatic Changes and GenderIPCC (2007): poor communitiesesp. vulnerable.Vulnerability: …” the characteristicsof a person or group and theirsituation influencing their capacityto anticipate, cope with, resist andrecover from the impact of ahazard.” Vulnerability approach neededgender is a determining factor.
Gender and (natural) disastersStudy London School of Economics (2007), 141 natural disasters (1981- (1981-2002):(a) Natural disasters lower life expectancy of women more than that of men(b) The stronger the disaster, the greater the effect(c) The higher women’s socio- socio- economic status, the weaker the effect.
WHY ARE WOMEN OFTEN MORE VULNERABLEWomen often more vulnerable through:• socially constructed roles, incl. reproductive roles• poverty – female headed households• less access to/control over resources, e.g. land• dependent on/work in informal sector• less mobile• lack information• lack education and training• less decision-making power• violence against women increases in stress situations.> Women are not vulnerable because they arewomen, but because they are made vulnerable. 17
Climate change impactson human securityClimate change: in many ways not differentfrom other slow-onset and rapid disasters.Loss of livelihoods and basic resources:Often women slip deeper into poverty,workload increases, health impacted,increased migration.Climatic changes: tend to amplify existinginequalities.Not only women’s vulnerabilities, but also theircapacities and capabilities challenged.
Human security =security of survival, security of livelihood, and dignity.Climate change = impacts ondifferently on men’s and particularly women’s security.Women and men = affected + crucial actors in coping, adapting and countervailing and mitigation.(Potential) Policy Responses andProjects should build on that.
People’s coping strategies – strengthening securityIn many communities not only men, but certainly also women> Important agents of change – not just victims!> Contributors to livelihood adaptations, e.g. moving to saferplaces, saving their assets, dietary adaptations, energy saving,adapting agriculture, earning an income, ecological restoration,alternative health care etc. etc.> Mobilizing community in disaster preparedness, adaptationand mitigation.Voicing their priorities policy lessons.
(Inter)national Policy-frameworks Policy-* Convention on the Eradication of all formsof Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)* Sustainable Development: Agenda 21, conventions, Rio+20* MDGs SDGs* United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)* Kyoto Protocol and beyond* Mechanisms: Clean DevelopmentMechanisms, Adaptation Funds*National Adaptation Plans*National Energy Plans.
Lessons learned: Climate change is not gender neutral. Gender important determinant (determining factor) in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Women/men face specific risks, challenges and vulnerabilities.
Gender differences – not just in terms ofdifferential vulnerability, but also asdifferential capacity.Women play key roles in protecting,managing and recovering theirhousehold and assets before,during/after disaster and climatic changes.Policy level and organizational level: need tofully recognize gender-specific gender-characteristics of vulnerability and adaptivecapacity.
Greater inclusion of women and inclusionof gender-specific approaches may gender-reverse climate change impacts.Wide range of (policy) opportunities foradaptive measures that address women’spriorities in times of climate change.
C. Strategies and actions Gender Mainstreaming = strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral part of design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, societal, economic and environmental spheres, so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated. (see adaptation plans Jordan, Egypt)
Five Argumentsfor GM in CCA(1) Capitalize on the talents, capacities and contributions of both women and men: policies more successful, efficient, effective.(2) Avoid increasing (unintended) effects of CCA policies and action on gender (in)equality and poverty
(3) Be mutually benefiting: CCA policies benefiting: can empower women and improve living conditions of women, their families and whole communities.(4) Ensure more coherence with existing social/gender policies and existing gender/HR obligations(5) Working from a gender perspective = ‘eye-opener’ for social dimensions of eye-opener’ CCA.
Gender mainstreaming involves Understanding gender-differences in gender- access to and control over resources, labour, water uses, water rights, and distribution of benefits and production (research/study/train). Gender (CC) expertise. Apply gender analysis: looks at relations analysis: between women and men and how these are negotiated. Use of sex-disaggregated data. sex- data.
• Gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation. evaluation.• Use gender-specific indicators. gender- indicators.• Gender responsive budgeting. budgeting.• Involve women and men: participatory approaches (e.g. CBA El Moudda project, Morocco)• Understand gender dimensions that facilitate or hinder gender equality in our own organisations.
D. What can we do? Recognize, research and integrate gender aspects of energy use (access and choices), climate change, and disaster risk management. Recognize, research and integrate gender aspects in our CC and DRM policies and actions. Apply a gender analysis in climate change and DRM policies, mechanisms and actions.
Advocacy to ensure global and national energy, climatechange and DRM policies, programs and budgetsbenefit vulnerable groups and make use of the capacitiesof all ‘knowledge carriers’, in particular women.Reduce drudgery of women in communities and increasetheir access to clean technologies, training and toresources (incl. land, water, agricultural inputs).Funds (incl. GEF, adaptation funds) should prioritize GEF,women’s needs and promote their rights.
Empowerment women alongside men inall sectors is crucial: in our organizations,through community participation,awareness raising and training, controlover resources and decision-making at all decision-levels.Make these efforts common responsibilityof women and men.
Cooperate with existing networks: HBF, HBF,WEDO (Women’s Environment andDevelopment Organisation), gender-cc Organisation), gender-Women for Climate Justice, IUCN, IUCN,ENERGIA etc.Cooperate as organizations andinstitutions focusing on human/women’srights and those focusing onenvironmental/CC issues and DRM. DRM.