FACTS: 1988-2010• 2007: there were 960 major disasters (the highest ever such figure)• 90% being the result of extreme weather-related events• Accounting for 95% of the reported fatalities• More people died in disasters during 2010, than in terrorist attacks in the past 40 years• 80% of the total $82 billion economic losses
HUMAN FACE Climate change impacts will be differently distributed amongdifferent regions, generations, age, classes, income groups, occupations and gendersThe poor, primarily but by no means exclusively in developing countries, willbe disproportionately affected. Their reliance on local ecological resources,coupled with existing stresses on health and well-being, and limited financial,institutional and human resources leave the poor most vulnerable and leastable to adapt to the impacts of climate change (IPCC 2001)
IN WHICH CONDITION DOES CLIMATE CHANGE FIND WOMEN?
London School of Economics analyzed disasters in 141 countries -decisiveevidence that gender differences in deaths from disasters are directly linked to women’s economic and social rights.
DRYER – HOTTER – LESS PREDICTABLEUnder moderate temperature increases,for example, some analysts anticipatethat the Euphrates River could shrink by30% and the Jordan River by 80% by theend of the centuryIISD/Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark) report “Rising Temperatures, Rising tensions– Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflict in the Middle East” (2009) presents ananalysis of the security threat of climate change in the region over the next 40 years (to2050)
TENSIONS1. Increased competition for scarce water resources – complicates peace agreements2. Intensified food insecurity – raises the stakes for the return or retention of occupied land3. Hindered economic growth - worsens poverty and social instability
SECURITY & POLITICAL UNREST- The Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and the occupied Palestinian territory) has experienced more than 60 years of bloody conflict- Climate change perhaps a secondary backdrop to other problems facing the region
TENSIONS4. Destabilized forced migration and increases tensions over existing refugee populations5. Perceptions of resources shrinking as a result of climate change could increase the militarization of strategic natural resources4. Inaction on climate change may lead to growing resentment and distrust of the West (and Israel) by Arab nations
ARE THE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OR PROGRAMS RESPONDS TO THESE FACTS?!
WEAKNESSES IN THE CC SYSTEM CC major decisions are in the hands of the environmental sector with limited capacity on social issues Technical-scientific Trying to reinvent the wheel
RELATED LANGUAGE FROM RIO CONVENTIONS UNCBD UNCCD• “Encourage, subject to national legislation and • “Stressing the important role played by women in consistent with the Convention on Biological regions affected by desertification and/or drought, Diversity, the effective protection and use of the particularly in rural areas of developing countries, knowledge, innovations and practices of women of and the importance of ensuring the full indigenous and local communities… participation of both men and women at all levels …in addition, safeguard the existing intellectual in programmes to combat desertification and property rights of these women as protected under mitigate the effects of drought” national and international law; “promote awareness and facilitate the …and encourage fair and equitable sharing of participation of local populations, particularly benefits arising from the utilization of such women and youth, with the support of non- knowledge, innovation and practices.” governmental organizations, in efforts to combat “Recognizing also the vital role that women play in desertification and mitigate the effects of drought” the conservation and sustainable use of biological “provide for effective participation at the local, diversity and affirming the need for the full national and regional levels of non- governmental participation of women at all levels of policy-making organizations and local populations, both women and implementation for biological diversity and men, particularly resource users, including conservation...” farmers and pastoralists and their representative “the COP welcomes the development of a Gender organizations, in policy planning, decision-making, Plan of Action under the CBD as presented in the and implementation and review of national action document UNEP/CBD/COP/9/L.4 and invites parties programmes” to support the Secretariat in its implementation.”
ADVOCACY PROCESSESBonn-I Bonn-II Bonn-III Bangkok Copenhagen CancunIceland Iceland Iceland Bangladesh Iceland IcelandBangladesh Norway Bangladesh Ghana Ghana BangladeshGhana Bolivia Ghana Gambia Gambia GambiaGambia Nordic States Australia /UG Indonesia Sierra Leone DenmarkLesotho EU (which Marshall Cameroon EUSwitzerland Philippines includes Islands DRC PhilippinesCosta Rica Iceland and Costa Rica Switzerland HaitiGuatemala the US) Colombia Nordic States Sweden/EUBolivia Central Gabon EU TanzaniaNorway America, Tanzania U.S. Costa Rica Lesotho on League of Arab League of ArabCzech particularly State (Jordan,Republic/EU Ecuador behalf of the State + Jordan Oman, Syria,Japan LDCs +G77 Lebanon,Uganda Costa Rica Yemen(G77), Ecuador Egypt, Bahrain,South Africa Iraq, Palestine.Cook Islands
ADVOCACY PROCESSESThere has been significant progress in integrating climate change into UNFCCCprocesses. In 2007, the United Nations and 25 international organizations formed theGlobal Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA), which aims to ensure that globalclimate policies are gender-responsive. The IPCC now recognizes gender as one factor that shapes vulnerability toclimate change.In 2010, the Cancun Agreements recognized gender equality as integral toadaptation.At COP-17 in 2011, references to gender and women were strengthened in anumber of important areas Overall, however, advocates argue that gender concerns are not yet sufficiently addressed under the UNFCCC framework
ADVOCACY PROCESSES Recognizing gender equality and participation of women as important for effective action on all aspects of climate change Promoting gender sensitivity in enhanced action on adaptation Prioritization of vulnerable groups Enhancing capacity of women to act/be agents for change Strengthening participation of stakeholders, including women Consideration of gender in REDD actions
IN ARAB COUNTRIES Gender has begun to appear on the adaptation agenda. Gender-based vulnerabilities and the role of women in adaptation are acknowledged in the Arab Framework Action Plan51. At the national level, countries like Jordan, Egypt and Bahrain, have made efforts to mainstream gender into adaptation policy and several Arab countries have referenced it in national communications to the UNFCCC.
GENDER (IN)EQUALITY IN THE ARAB COUNTRIES UNDP Gender Population with at least Labor force Maternal mortality Inequality Index Seats in secondary education (% participation rate (maternal deaths 2008 parliament ages 25+) 2010 (%) 2008 per 100,000 live (%) 2008 AVERAGES births) 2003-2008 Female Male Female Male Rank ValueMaghreb 80 0.609 287.4 12.0 30.7 39.7 36.0 80.8Central region 107 0.711 606.0 9.1 28.1 39.7 50.5 70.5Mashreq 101 0.685 160.5 12.0 34.8 46.9 20.3 75.8Gulf region 84 0.616 85.3 7.0 51.0 55.5 34.1 84.6 There have been substantial improvements in gender equality in most of the Arab countries. Significant challenges remain, however. Gender inequalities vary hugely across the region. Generalizations are difficult + problematic. Inequality based on gender is the most pervasive type of equality. The effects of climate change have the potential to deepen existing inequalities.
…………2002 High rates of illiteracy among women persists in the majority of the Arab countries, indeed women today account for two thirds of the region’s illiterates. Between 1990 and 2000- 2004, six Arab countries ranked above the world average of 76.5%. Bahrain raised the female literacy rate from 74.6% to 84.2%, Jordan from 72.1% to 85.9%, Kuwait from 72.6% to 81%, Lebanon from 73.1% to 82%, Qatar from 76% to 82.3%, and the United Arab Emirates from 70% to 80.7%Source: Arab Human Development Report 2002
AS WOMEN, WHERE ARE WE? Lack of capacity and interest in the issue of climate change from the mechanisms of women in developing countries Groups of women with limited capacity on climate change Lack of participation of women in decision-making spaces WB/ MENA Development report2012
FOR EXAMPLE...?Drought in Al Badia, Syria Women majority of agriculture/animal husbandry ~74% of agricultural land is rain fed, but rainfall could decline > 20% over the next 50-70 years 2006 – present: serious drought increased poverty, then inability to subsist ~ 8 out of 10 families migration = adaptation response.Serious gendered implications. E.g.: Removal of women’s source of livelihood, with fewer alternatives + moreobstacles than men Health risks: for men + women, but nutritional deficiencies normally mostserious for girls/women + reproductive health risks Gains in girls’ education etc. threatened MENA Development Report/WB
CLIMATE – SMARTS !!!!!!!!!!!!!URGENT NEED FOR ADAPTIVE CAPACITY
CAUSES OF DIFFERENCE Avoid being simplistic and just seeing women (due to their sex) as the VICTIMS Women are not vulnerable because they are "naturally weaker": women and men face different vulnerabilities due to their gender condition. Many women live in conditions of social exclusion
CAUSES OF DIFFERENCE Vulnerability depends in large part on the assets (physical, financial, human, social, and natural) available: the more assets, the less vulnerable one person is Worldwide, compared to men, women tend to have more limited access to resources that would enhance their capacity to adapt to climate change—including land, credit, agricultural inputs, decision-making bodies, technology and training services
WHAT CAN BE DONE? Develop or incorporate gender considerations into regional and national CC strategies Ensure that projects that implement national CC strategies incorporate the needs of women Women EMPOWERMENT should be one of the priorities in adaptation and riskreduction strategies/initiatives
GENDER AND CLIMATE CHANGE PROCESS Knowledge •Training manual on gender and CC •5 languagesdevelopment •ToTs -500 experts Capacity •ToD- 300 delegates building •61 interventions by Parties prior to COP 16 (2009 – 2010) Advocacy •WDF •3 national strategies National developed policies •25 requests Implementation
Programme for Mainstreaming Gender in Climate Change Efforts in Jordan D R A F T 1 June 2011 NATIONAL STRATEGY FORMAINSTREAMING GENDER IN CLIMATE CHANGE IN EGYPTProduced by the Gender Of fice of the International Union for Conservation of Natur e - IUCN Gender Mainstreaming in the Climate Change Efforts Jordan and Egypt
GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN JORDANWhere as Jordan Recognized that: Climate change affects everyone, everywhere, Climate change also has a differentiated impact on women and men. BUT existing climatic conditions( Water Scarcity) make women morevulnerable than their male counterparts, but they are not helpless victims. Due to their role in society, women have the potential to be powerfulagents of change – capable of providing solutions to several climatechange adaptation. The Government of Jordan is a signatory to and member of a number of key international agreements that already commit the country to gender mainstreaming
THE THIRD NATIONAL COMMUNICATION REPORT Recognizing the important role that women can play in this regard: The Government of Jordan requested the IUCN – ROWA based in Amman, to assist in the drafting of a gender sensitive Programme for mainstreaming gender in Jordan climate change adaptation strategy The Program furthermore outlines a framework for integrating a gender perspective in climate change efforts in Jordan over the period 2011–2016. It also establishes objectives, outlines substantive activities with reachable indicators within the ambit of the four priority sectors (Water, Agriculture, Energy and Waste) The program is a result of a series of inputs- field visits, stakeholder consultation The key stakeholder were attend he national workshop from related ministries in cooperation with Jordan National Commission for Women, women organizations and donor representatives
GENERAL OBJECTIVETo ensure that national climate change efforts in Jordanmainstream gender considerations so that women and men canhave access to, participate in, contribute to and hence optimallybenefit from climate change initiatives, programs, policies andfunds.
Objectives Action steps Indicators of success Responsible Expand the training Number of training activities undertaken by activities incorporating academic institutions a gender perspective. and civil society to include a gender Amount of gender perspective in research, disaggregated data MoPIC, MoE, To enhance the capacity planning, monitoring available for use. MoA, MWI, of women and men from and evaluation MoEnv, MOH, local communities to exercises. C.S. save water. Provide refresher Number of sessions courses on water and conducted at top gender issues at top management level. management level. Prepare short courses Number of courses for community conducted. environmental educators with women Percentage of women participation. participation in courses. Promote the Number of women development, participating in the validation, dissemination sessions. dissemination and transfer of Number of new technologies for the technologies being To build the capacity of efficient use/ low cost used by women and MoE, MoH, local communities on technologies at men. Universities water management. household level with particular focus on vulnerable populations. Database available.WATER Establish a disaggregated database. Value traditional Number of experience knowledge through the exchange nets created. creation of an experience exchange networks. Monitor the amount of Amount of resources funds made available allocated for women. MOPIC, MOF, To ensure gender for gender activities at MOA, MoEnv sensitive budgeting the local level. Number of projects targeting women. Revision of national To ensure that climate legislation related to change and gender are MWI, MOPIC, water to ensure than National policies include integrated in water MOEnv, MOH, gender and climate climate change and polices and -strategies & C.S. NGOs and change considerations gender considerations. adaptation measures INGOs are fully integrated. proposed.
INSTITUTIONAL IMPERATIVESIntergovernmental coordination for supporting the mainstreaming of gender inclimate change effortsEnsure that gender criteria (where relevant) are incorporated in thedevelopment of projects and programmes associated with climate change inJordanStrengthen capacity of implementers of the ProgrammeSecure on-going commitments from funders to support the Programme forMainstreaming Gender in Climate Change Efforts in Jordan
EGYPT NATIONAL STRATEGY 2011According to both the Initial National Communication (INC) and the Second NationalCommunication (SNC) by the Government of Egypt (GoE), the vulnerable sectors in thecountry to climate change are identified as: Water resources, Agriculture and Coastal zones.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN EGYPTEGYPT PROGRESS The Egyptian Constitution guarantees the same rights to all citizens, men and women The Government of Egypt is a signatory to, and member of, a number of key international agreements that already commit the country to gender mainstreaming Egypt ratified CEDAW in 1981 In 2004, the “National Strategy for Women Empowerment” was developed through a multi- stakeholder process convened by the National Council for Women (NCW). Gender equality is of primary concern to the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA). A Gender Unit was established in 2002 with the objective: “To mainstream gender issues, particularly the rights of women to access employment opportunities and get a proper education, through good governance and adopting democracy and popular participation”.
THE THIRD NATIONAL COMMUNICATION REPORT Recognizing the important role that women can play in this regard: The Government of Egypt requested the IUCN to assist in the drafting of a gender -sensitive Strategy for mainstreaming gender in Egypt climate change adaptation strategy The TNC will become a key tool for decision-making and provide a framework for implementation at all levels. It will contribute to a deepened understanding of the value of incorporating gender in both the development and implementation of policies and measures relating to adaptation and mitigation. It also demonstrate the potential contribution to the sustainable development of the principal economic sectors in Egypt The program is a result of a series of inputs- field visits, stakeholder consultation TNC policy paper to inform decision-makers on integrating gender considerations in TNC and to integrate climate change into new national policies on women;
THE FRAMEWORK FOR INTEGRATING A GENDER PERSPECTIVE IN CLIMATE CHANGECOVERS THE PERIOD 2011–2016.It establishes objectives, outlines substantive activities with reachable indicators within the ambit ofeight priority sectors as identified by participants, Integrated coastal management, Agriculture,Water,Tourism,Health,Energy and transport, Urbanization, andWaste.
GENERAL OBJECTIVETo mainstream gender considerations into national climate change initiativesand policies, so that both men and women have equal opportunity tounderstand, participate, and decide effective measures to implement mitigationand adaptation activities and henceforth benefit from various climate changeprograms and-funds, contributing to the national economic, environmental andsocial sustainability. D R A F T 1 June 2011 NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN CLIMATE CHANGE IN EGYPT Produced by the Gender Of fice of the International Union for Conservation of Natur e - IUCN
SELECTED ACTION ON IMPLEMENTATION:INCLUDING GENDER IN IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT (ICM) Objectives Action steps Indicators of success Responsible Stocktaking of natural resource assets Gender disaggregated map indicating EEAA and SPA related to CZM disaggregated by sex economic and social value of resources To develop economic and social valuations of natural Analysis of economic and social valuation Report includes economic and social valuation resources and its impact of the natural resources disaggregated by of those resources and entry points for women EEAA, SPA, MOP and on women sex MOF Policies implemented to support women in CZM sector Analyze the current conflict patterns related Reduction of conflicts EEAA to resources use and to conservation, and development Number of potential entry points to identify EEAA/NGOs womens NGOs Conflict resolution process in place with women’s participation Number of awareness campaign conducted to women for CZM EEAA/NGOs To strength a gender Enhance womens participation in CZM NGOs perspective relating to CZM issues Number of women participating in CZM through establishing initiatives sustainable patterns of Establish networks of women NGOS and EEAA cooperation among women CBOs for the management of coastal zone Number of women trained in each in selected areas geographical area NGOs Number of families benefiting from women Private sector participation in CZM Number of networks established for management of CZ Restructure the ICZM national committee Number of women represented in the EEAA To establish a sustainable to include 1/3 of its members as women committee institutional and regulatory framework for CZM taking Conduct regular 3-4 committee meetings Mapping of women’s roles and responsibilities into account womens annually in the committees EEAA participation in the decision making process Number of decisions impacting positively on women in CZ Identify and make available financial Increase in funds access y women MOP mechanism that fund and support women’s projects and their participation in CZM SFD To develop a sustainable financial mechanism to Establish womens national fund for National fund established MOF fund gender projects in adaptation in CZM Number of projects successfully implemented CZM EEAA SPA Built awareness in coastal and Delta Number of people with knowledge in relation MOP communities on the impacts of climate to climate change and CZM change in the fishery industry and marine SFD ecosystems Adaptation strategies in place in the most vulnerable communities MOF Develop adaptation strategies with women
INSTITUTIONAL IMPERATIVESIntergovernmental coordination for supporting the mainstreaming of gender inclimate change effortsEnsure that gender criteria (where relevant) are incorporated in thedevelopment of projects and programmes associated with climate change inEgyptStrengthen capacity of implementers of the ProgrammeSecure on-going commitments from funders to support the Programme forMainstreaming Gender in Climate Change Efforts in Jordan
THE ARAB FRAMEWORK ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE (AFAPCC)2010-2020The content of the Arab Framework Action Plan fordealing with issues of climate change is based onthe Arab Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change,issued by the Council of Arab Ministers Responsiblefor the Environment at its nineteenth sessionCAMRE 2020 - 2010Where there are overlapping ecosystems, joint surface and ground water, and themobilization of human economic and institutional resources, which reduces the cost ofimplementation.
THE OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE PLAN"Increasing the capacity of Arab countries to take appropriate measures todeal with the issues of climate change in a way that reduces the political,economic, social reactions and consistent with the requirements of sustainabledevelopment in the Arab region, through enabling the social and institutionalstructures as well as economic sectors to assess the implications of climatechange, and to develop policies and programs of mitigation of emissions andadaptation to the potential impacts of climate change. "
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES1. Reduce the risks of climate change and the readiness to confront its potential impactsthrough programs of mitigation and adaptation.2. Preservation of the natural and human resources and to ensure a decent standard ofliving for Arab citizens.3. Enhancement of the pace of sustainable development in the Arab states, includingachieving MDGs.4. Strengthening and building the national and regional institutional capacities to deal withissues of climate change and cope with disasters.5. Establishment of favorable conditions to stimulate regional and internationalcooperation necessary to support national programs.
THE TIME FRAME AND THE MECHANISM OF IMPLEMENTATION National Level: Forming national commissions for climate change in the Arab States, made up of various national parties with participation of governmental experts, the private sector and relevant civil society organizations, and the National Committee will follow the progress in the implementation of sectoral action plans and the extent of development in national policies on climate change issues. The Regional level: Forming an Arab coordination council to cope with climate change, consists of the heads of national committees, experts, representatives of relevant Arab, regional and international organizations, representatives of private sector and civil society organizations. Constituting a sub-advisory committee of experts at the level of the Arab States: Affiliated to the Arab Council concerned with scientific, technical and technological advice, shouldering the task of coordinating the plans and programs of implementing national and regional activities, and preparation joint projects for the purpose of financing, and assessing and following-up the achieved progress in the development of national and regional policies and implementing working programs
AFAPCC RECOMMENDATIONSRegional cooperation in adaptation efforts should be fostered through the adoption ofregional strategies and action plans that address CC concerns, and through the developmentof a regional early warning system for forecasts, risk assessment and monitoring of extremeevents.An enhanced cooperation, development & implementation of integrated regional watermanagement between countries sharing water sources - both surface and groundwaterEmpowerment of communities,– particularly women and other vulnerable groupsInvolving civil societies and private sector
AN INTEGRATED CLIMATE AND GENDER STRATEGY LEADS TO SUSTAINABLE AND EFFECTIVE ADAPTATION Lose – Win Scenario Win-Win Scenario Climate insensitive gender strategy Integrated climate and gender strategy -High community accountability for -High community accountability for NRM NRM -Reduced vulnerability and inequalityGender Strategy -Reduced gender inequality -Growing resilience of environment and -Declining environmental resilience communities => Unsustainable development => Sustainable and transformative development Lose – Lose Scenario Win-Lose Scenario No climate or gender strategy Gender insensitive climate strategy -Declining resilience of environment -Low community accountability for NRM and communities -Increased gender inequality -Increasing vulnerability and poverty -Declining community resilience => Highly unsustainable development => Unsustainable development Adaptation Strategy
POLICY OPTIONS At the institutional level: • Build the capacity of institutions to integrate gender considerations in adaptation planning and management at all levels, e.g. through a gender mainstreaming project led by a national gender focal point. • Develop targeted social safety nets to build the resilience of vulnerable groups. At the household and community level: • Empower and train women in particular to diversify their livelihoods through income-generating activities, for greater resilience. • Empower communities to participate in adaptation-related decision-making to build on men’s and women’s specific knowledge and skills. Improve the collection and use of sex disaggregated data
GENDER-SENSITIVE ADAPTATION CHECKLIST Access, control and distribution of benefits Levels of vulnerability, resilience, and autonomy of women and men when confronted with threats Importance of local knowledge and existing coping strategies Learn from DRR strategies
SUMMARY Adaptation measures reveal the human dimensions of climate change Both women and men are affected by CC but existing inequalities determine who is most impacted by natural disasters Men and women have different needs and interests in adaptation efforts Women are important agents of change: their unique knowledge is essential for adaptation measures and policies Full and effective participation of women is essential in order to make best use of their knowledge and experience
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