Consider The Evidence Tpu Ti CsPresentation Transcript
Consider the Evidence Data analysis and evidence-driven decision making for TIC’s Teen Parent Units 27 August 2009 Naomi Kinnaird Centre for Educational Development Insert Pic
Evidence-driven decision making Today we aim to :
consider how we use data and other evidence to improve teaching, learning and student achievement
use evidence to support an inquiry based approach
improve our understanding, confidence and capability in using data to improve practice
set our own evidence-based goal for learning in our TPU
Consider 1. What data do you have/collect? 2. Why do you collect this data? 3. How do you use this data?
Evidence-driven decision making Just having data offers very little. For a skilled leader, however, data can be a compelling force for improving schools. The value associated with data come from being able to discern the quality of the data and to organise it, think about what it might mean and use it to make decisions. This is a human activity that requires capturing and organising ideas and turning the information into meaningful actions (Senge, 1990).
Evidence-driven eating You need to buy lunch. Before you decide what to buy you consider a number of factors:
how much money do you have?
what do you feel like eating?
what will you be having for dinner?
how far do you need to go to buy food?
how much time do you have?
where are you going to eat it?
Evidence-driven teaching I had a hunch that Ana wasn’t doing as well as she could in her research assignments, a major part of the history course. What made me think this? Ana’s general work (especially her writing) was fine. She made perceptive comments in class, contributed well in groups and had good results overall last year, especially in English. How did I decide what to do about it? I looked more closely at her other work. I watched her working in the library one day to see if it was her reading, her use of resources, her note taking, her planning, or what. At morning tea I asked one of Ana’s other teachers about Ana’s approach to similar tasks. I asked Ana if she knew why her research results weren’t as good as her other results, and what her plans were for the next assignment. I thought about all of this and planned a course of action. I gave her help with using indexes, searching, note taking and planning and linking the various stages of her research.
Any facts, circumstances or perceptions that can be used as an input for an analysis or decision
how classes are compiled, how classes are allocated to teachers, test results, teachers’ observations, attendance data, portfolios of work, student opinions…
Data are one form of evidence
Known facts or measurements, probably expressed in some systematic or symbolic way (e.g. as numbers)
Evidence-driven decision making We have more evidence about what students know and can do than ever before - their achievements, behaviours, environmental factors that influence learning We should draw on all our knowledge about the learning environment to improve student achievement explore what lies behind patterns of achievement decide what changes will make a difference
What evidence does a school have?
Demographics What data do we have now to provide a profile of our school? What other data could we create? School Students Staff Parents/caregivers and community
Student achievement What evidence do we have now about student achievement? What other evidence could we collect? National assessment results Standardised assessment results administered internally Other in-school assessments Student work
Perceptions What evidence do we have now about what students, staff and others think about the school? Are there other potential sources? Self appraisal Formal and informal observations made by teachers Structured interactions Externally generated reports Student voice Other informal sources
School processes What evidence do we have about how our school is organised and operates? Timetable Classes Resources Finance Staffing
Other practice How we can find out about what has worked in other schools? Documented research Experiences of other schools
The evidence-driven decision making cycle Trigger Clues found in data, hunches Explore Is there really an issue? Question What do you want to know? Assemble Get all useful evidence together Analyse Process data and other evidence Interpret What information do you have? Intervene Design and carry out action Evaluate What was the impact? Reflect What will we change?
The evidence-driven decision making cycle cycle SPECULATE A teacher has a hunch about a problem or a possible action TRIGGER Data indicate a possible issue that could impact on student achievement EXPLORE Check data and evidence to explore the issue REFLECT on what has been learned, how practice will change QUESTION Clarify the issue and ask a question ASSEMBLE Decide what data and evidence might be useful EVALUATE the impact on the intervention ACT Carry out the intervention ANALYSE data and evidence INTERVENE Plan action to improve student achievement INTERPRET Insights that answer your question
A teacher has a hunch - poor readers might spend little time on homework. Explore data Survey of students shows that this is only partially true Trigger Significant numbers not achieving well in reading. Reflect How will we teach reading in the future? Question What are the characteristics of students who are poor at reading? Evaluate Has reading improved? Analyse asTTLe reading (standardised) results. Intervene Create multiple opportunities for reading; include topics that can use sport as context; connect reading with curriculum areas. PD for staff. Assemble more data & other evidence: Probe reading, homework, extracurricular, attendance, etc. Interpret information Poor readers likely to play sport, read less, do little homework. Analyse non standardised data and evidence The evidence-driven decision making cycle
The length of the cycle will vary for different situations. We might wait a year to evaluate the effects of our actions - but sometimes we’ll be able to (and ought to) work to shorter (or maybe longer) cycles.It’s important that we reflect, evaluate and make professional judgements at each stage of this cycle.Now we will invent scenarios that might apply in our school (or department). Do this in groups. Draw up your scenario as a cycle as in this slide. The next slide provides a blank template for this exercise. You might like to photocopy this template for groups to fill in. A sample scenario is given in the following slide.The length of the cycle will vary for different situations. We might wait a year to evaluate the effects of our actions - but sometimes we’ll be able to (and ought to) work to shorter (or maybe longer) cycles.It’s important that we reflect, evaluate and make professional judgements at each stage of this cycle.Now we will invent scenarios that might apply in our school (or department). Do this in groups. Draw up your scenario as a cycle as in this slide. The next slide provides a blank template for this exercise. You might like to photocopy this template for groups to fill in. A sample scenario is given in the following slide. The evidence-driven decision making cycle SPECULATE TRIGGER EXPLORE REFLECT QUESTION ASSEMBLE EVALUATE ACT ANALYSE INTERVENE INTERPRET
Evaluate and reflect Summative evaluation – assess how successful the intervention was; decide how our practice will change; report to board Formative evaluation - at every stage in the cycle we reflect and evaluate Are we are on the right track? Do we need to fine-tune? Do we actually need to complete this?
Types of analysis We can compare achievement data by subject or across subjects for
an individual student
groups of students
The type of analysis we use depends on the question we want to answer
Trigger questions How good/poor is …? What aspects of … are good/poor? Is … actually changing? How is … changing? Is … better than last year? How can … be improved? Why is … good/poor? What targets are reasonable for …? What factors influence the situation for …? What would happen if we …? Formative or summative?
Questions from hunches I suspect this poor performance is being caused by … Is this true? We reckon results will improve if we put more effort into ... Is this likely? I think we’d get better results from this module if we added … Is there any evidence to support this idea?
Questions with purpose What do we know about attendance for TPU students? MAY BE BETTER AS Who has been absent? When? Why? Where have they been? How long? What are students telling us? What does pastoral care data tell us? Were some interventions more effective with some students / groups of students than others?
Professional decision making We have evidence-based information that we see as reliable and valid What do we do about it? If the information indicates a need for action, we use our collective experience to make a professional decision
Professionals making decisions You asked what factors are related to poor student performance in formal writing. The analysis suggested that poor homework habits have a significant impact on student writing. You make some professional judgements and decide Students who do little homework don’t write enough You could take action to improve homework habits - but you’ve tried that before and the success rate is low You have more control over other factors - like how much time you give students to write in class So you conclude - the real need is to get students to write more often
Deciding on an action Information will often suggest a number of options for action. How do we decide which action to choose? We need to consider what control we have over the action the likely impact of the action the resources needed
Planning for evaluation What evidence do we need to collect before we start? Do we need to collect evidence along the way, or just at the end? How can we be sure that any assessment at the end of the process will be comparable with assessment at the outset? How will we monitor any unintended effects? Don’t forget evidence such as timetables, student opinions, teacher observations …
Evaluate the impact of our action Did the intervention improve the situation that triggered the process? Was any change in student achievement significant? What else happened that we didn’t expect? How do our results compare with other similar studies we can find? Does the result give us the confidence to make the change permanent?
Future practice What aspects of the intervention will we build into future practice? What aspects of the intervention will have the greatest impact? What aspects of the intervention can we maintain over time? What changes can we build into the way we do things in our school? Would there be any side-effects?
What now? How can we apply this model in our TPU? Develop a specific task to review / implement (in regard to evidence / data) for learning in your TPU. What evidence already exists? How is this collected / recorded / analysed and used in the interests of improving student achievement?