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Highly competitive R&D activities and knowledge work will continue to be needed, but the capacity for digital technologies to enable businesses to ‘offshore’ all forms of work to the lowest cost environment, to produce many products and services at ever decreasing cost and by ever fewer people, and to standardise and manage diverse workforces, leads to the suggestion that highly rewarded, creative and autonomous work is likely to be restricted over the coming two decades to ever smaller global elites.
Troubling the assumptions... Towards a new horizon
A global mass market in unskilled labour is being quickly succeeded by a market in middle-class work... As supply increases, employers inevitably go to the cheapest source. ... Even teaching is not immune: last year a north London primary school hired mathematicians in India to provide one-to-one tutoring over the internet. Microsoft, Siemens, General Motors and Philips are among big firms that now do at least some of their research in China... Asia now produces more scientists and engineers than the EU and the US put together.
Education Guardian, 28.02.11
Troubling the assumptions... Towards a new horizon
Fitting learning around work and other responsibilities
Staying motivated and engaged (' is it worth it?' )
Step-up to independent study, especially around:
information skills, critical information literacy
use of technologies for learning (mobile vs located)
plagiarism, originality and authority
using feedback and understanding assessment requirements
confidence and graduate identity
Need for consistency and clarity around
access to information including course content
use of technologies (personal and course-related)
tutor skills and confidence with technology/teaching
expectations about study practice
Challenges for learners Towards a new horizon
What technologies should I use? Towards a new horizon
What do I want my college/university to provide? Towards a new horizon
Three stepping stones into the future 1. Whole-curriculum transformation www.jisc.ac.uk/curriculumdesign www.jisc.ac.uk/curriculumdelivery 2. Open learning www.jisc.ac.uk/oer 3. Digital literacy caledonianacademy.net/spaces/LLiDA Towards a new horizon
1. Transforming Curriculum Delivery: challenges addressed Towards a new horizon
1. Transforming Curriculum Delivery: challenges addressed Changing student demographics and diverse modes of study e.g. using e-portfolios to evidence diverse skills and achievements; improving experience of feedback and assessment; online writing lab. Building student learning communities e.g. peer feedback; pre-induction mentoring; online CoPs; social networks Employability e.g. supporting students on work placements; digital CPD; engaging employers in dialogue around a negotiated curriculum Practising skills in authentic situations e.g. virtual patient, oil rig in Second Life, Atelier experience Flexible/responsive curriculum e.g. dynamic learning maps; learner-centred curriculum representations Business processes and organisational efficiencies e.g. improving efficiency and interoperability of information systems such as timetabling, enrolment, assignment handling, production of learning materials Towards a new horizon Towards a more open (negotiated, flexible) curriculum
1. Transforming Curriculum Delivery: technologies used Towards a new horizon
Springboard TV www.springboardtv.com Towards a new horizon Creating an identity and branding has been a very powerful agent: learners now respond as professionals, working in a 'real life' production company. 88% of learners felt that being able to publish their work was a benefit, they saw it as a valuable motivational tool and said that it made them work harder and more effectively. 97% of learners valued the opportunities provided by the work experience. There is a significant increase in the attainment of Level 3 learners completing their programme. The percentage of students progressing to university has increased from 37% in 2009 to 77% in 2010. Springboard TV enabled us to reverse the decline in applications and enrolments, improve the engagement, retention, achievement and attainment of students in the media area. [It] has re-invigorated the department. Staff and students have embraced the changes it has offered. Senior management are engaged and are keen to develop the use of Springboard in other areas of the college.’
2. Open Learning Towards a new horizon Towards an expectation that content will be open = free, unattached to an institution, available...
2. Open Learning and UK OER Towards a new horizon
Open Educational Resources: “ digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research ” (OECD, 2007)
UK OER resources must be released under an open licence e.g. CC by/nc/sa that permits educational reuse and repurposing
Implied aspects of Open Educational Resources:
Designed for learning
Of repute (trustworthy, quality assured)
2. UK OER programme aims Towards a new horizon Release a significant body of high quality resources and collections Effect a change in culture towards open practices of content development, production and management Develop and support communities of practice including subject and special interest communities Build – and then cascade – capacity and expertise Explore alternatives to hosting and discoverability e.g. open repositories, community repositories, web 2.0. Raise global profile of institutions and of UK education generally
2. Why is OER (potentially) a game-changer? Towards a new horizon An alternative model for learning and accreditation (OER University) Changed relationships between learners, teachers and institutions Pressing the borders of the institution outwards (who are our students now?) New models of content production and distribution – from produce-publish to share-repurpose? Links with other 'open' agendas – open research, open institutions, open data, open source...? Return on investment and publicly funded assets Risks of a 'global curriculum' and 'cultural imperialism' by dominant, English-speaking global institutions ...
2. SPACE project www.space.fusedworks.com Towards a new horizon 3D interactive learning environment to support teaching and study of performing arts: all resources openly available Co-development with learners (graphic design and models for library) FE (6) and HE (9) institutions partnered with SSC Community repository model along lines of HumBox, building on lessons that: Release is part of a larger lifecycle of open content: ideally materials are produced with open sharing in mind Design of OERs is technically and educationally challenging when so little is known about users, their motivations and contexts OER projects have greatest impact where institutions and communities are already collaborating on content
3. What demands does 'open' make on learners? Towards a new horizon
3. What demands does 'open' make on learners? Towards a new horizon academic and learning capabilities information and media capabilities technical capabilities critical thinking problem solving reflection academic writing note-taking concept mapping time management analysis, synthesis evaluation creativity, innovation self-directed learning collaborative learning ... searching and retrieving analysing, interpreting critiquing evaluating managing resources navigating info spaces content creation editing, repurposing enriching resources referencing sharing content ... ICT skills web skills social networking using CMC using TELE using digital devices word processing using databases analysis tools assistive tech personalisation informed choice …
Learners' ICT skills are less advanced than educators and learners think (Nicholas et al. 2008, JISC 2008-09)
Characterisation of young people as 'digital natives' hides many contradictions in their experiences (Luckin et al. 2009)
Learners' engagement with digital media is complex and differentiated (Bennet et al 2008, Hargittai 2009).
Learners experience many difficulties transposing practices from social contexts into formal learning (Cranmer 2006)
Active knowledge building and sharing, e.g. writing wikis, tagging, reviewing, recommending, repurposing, are minority activities to which most learners are introduced by educators (Selwyn 2009).
Some aspects of learners' everyday practice with technology are at odds with practices valued in traditional academic teaching (Beetham 2009)
3. Against the 'digital natives' case Towards a new horizon It's harder for learners (even) than we think
3. Developing digital literacy Towards a new horizon Entitlement Foundational experiences without which individuals are significantly disadvantaged Ensuring all learners have functional access to core technologies, services and devices Developing core capabilities on which specialist/personal expertise can be grounded Beetham and Sharpe 2010 access skills practices attributes
3. Developing digital literacy Towards a new horizon Beetham and Sharpe 2010 Enhancement Specialised, situated experiences which qualify an individual in particular practices Enabling learners to choose, judge, personalise and integrate technologies Supporting self-development and self-expression Enabling learners to use ICT to achieve personal goals and ambitions access skills practices attributes
access skills practices attributes Enhancement Specialised, situated experiences which qualify an individual in particular practices Enabling learners to choose, judge, personalise and integrate technologies Supporting self-development and self-expression Enabling learners to use ICT to achieve personal goals and ambitions 3. Developing digital literacy Towards a new horizon
Supporting learners in a digital age Towards a new horizon 10 extended case studies on the SLIDA wiki, e.g. Abingdon and Witney college: 7-section Digital and Learning Literacy Induction (DALLI) process with online materials, for all arriving students 3 hr mandatory e-learning development for all staff, linked to appraisal New integrated learning space (LINK) for students and staff to work together: access to a range of technologies, e-learning champions, library infrastructure, access to student services, social areas and quiet areas. Mentors offer students get 'just in time' help with research and writing skills We wanted to test with the students…whether or not we were investing…money in the right places in relation to how they would use e-Learning because our perception may not be the same as theirs. Principal
What do learners really need? Towards a new horizon
What do learners really need? Towards a new horizon What horizons do we aspire to for our colleges and for our learners?
Learning, living and working are understood to take place in a digital society: there is no separate space of learning which is 'digital' Learners are blending their own learning environments and finding their own learning resources There is an entitlement to access and basic skills of learning in a digital age, plus a recognition of diverse personal goals and needs Literacies for learning are continually assessed and supported: the emphasis is on producing digitally capable lifelong learners The focus is on what higher education uniquely offers in a digital age