Understanding theCognitive and Social Development of Children Dr Kanwal Kaisser
Important Factors ThatImpact the Developing Child•Biological Development•Environmental Influences
Biological Development A child’s abilities coincide with the development of his/her central nervous system (CNS), particularly the brain.
Environmental Influences Understand the balance between developmental limits and adult expectations (i.e. 2 year-old children cannot be taught how to read, but their language development can be enhanced by reading to them).
Four Major Stages ofCognitive Development1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years)2. Preoperational (2-7 years)3. Concrete Operations (7-11 years)4. Formal Operations (12+ years)
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years) Infant’s world consists of the immediate environment Interact and learn by sensory input (hearing, feeling, seeing) with motor capabilities. Gradually learn to control their own bodies and objects in the external world. The ultimate task at this stage is to achieve the sense that objects go on existing even when we cannot see them (Object Constancy/Permanence).
Preoperational Stage (2-6/7 years) Developing ability to manipulate images and symbols, especially language. Play becomes key in learning. Begin to see use of symbolism in pretend play (e.g. Use a broomstick as a “horsey”) Child’s view of the world is egocentric. Logical organization of thoughts remains undeveloped (e.g. unable to apply principles of conservation)
Concrete Operations (6/7-12 Years) Perform logical operations, but only in relation to concrete objects, not abstract ideas. Basic math skills developed (counting, addition, subtraction) as well as an understanding of conservation. Can sort items into categories, reverse the direction of their thinking, and think about two concepts simultaneously. Able to understand a situation from another person’s perspective.
Formal Operations (12+ years) Begin to think logically and abstractly, including speculations about what might happen in the future. Theoretical, philosophical, and scientific reasoning becomes possible Abstract concepts and moral values become as important as concrete objects. With these newly developed thinking abilities, adolescents begin to reinterpret and revise their knowledge base.
Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 Year) Description: Infants depend on others to meet their basic needs, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the caregivers to provide them. Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively, infants will learn to trust their environment and people in it. Negative outcome: If needs are not responsibly met, infant may view world as a dangerous and unreliable place.
Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (1-2 Years) Description: Toddlers learn to explore and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage. Positive outcome: If child is encouraged to explore and reassured when mistakes are made, he/she will develop confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence. Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective or extremely critical, child may feel ashamed of behaviors and doubt his/her abilities and.
Initiative Vs. Guilt (2-6 Years) Description: Children begin to interact with Description: Children begin to interact with environment in more “adult like” manner as motor and language skills develop. They learn to maintain an eagerness for adventure and play, while learning to control impulsive behavior. Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept concept of right/wrong without guilt, and not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in fantasy play. Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.
Competence/Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12 Years) Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to master basic social and academic skills. Peers become the key social agent and children begin to compare themselves with others outside of the family. Positive outcome: If children can find pleasure in learning, being productive, and seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence. Negative outcome: If not, they will develop feelings of inferiority.
Identity Vs. Role Confusion (12-20 Years) Description: This is the crossroad between childhood and maturity when adolescents ask "Who am I?" The key social agent is the person’s society of peers. Positive outcome: Adolescents who solve this conflict successfully will develop a strong identity, and will be ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices about his/her role in life.
Putting It All Together
Age Cognitive Psychosocial0-1 Sensorimotor Trust vs Mistrust Autonomy vs1-2 Sensorimotor Shame/Doubt2-6 Preoperational Initiative vs Guilt Preoperational6-7 Initiative vs Guilt /Concrete Concrete Competence/Industry vs7-12 Operations Inferiority12- Formal Identity vs Role20+ Operations Confusion
Ages 2-6/7 Preoperational Initiative Vs Guilt Language development Children begin to is prominent. interact with environment using motor Fantasy/imaginary play and language skills. becomes key in learning about and expressing Impulse control is their understanding of initiated by external the world. structure. Child’s view of the world Guilt can often stem is egocentric. from an egocentric understanding of the Formal logic is not a part world around them. of their thinking.
Ages 6/7-12 Concrete Operations Competence Vs InferiorityPerform logical operations (i.e. basic School is a central part math skills, of life at this stage. categorical, thinking), Children learn to but only in relation to master basic social concrete objects, not and academic skills. abstract ideas. Peers are the keyAble to understand a social agent and they situation from another begin to compare person’s perspective. themselves to other children.
Ages 12-20 Formal Operations Identity Vs Role ConfusionAbstract, theoretical, philosophical, and Adolescents begin to scientific reasoning ask the question, "Who becomes possible. am I?"Long term cause and The adolescent effect speculations typically relies on begin to occur. his/her society of peers to help resolve theAdolescents begin to inner conflicts. question, reinterpret and revise their previous knowledge base.
At 4 yrs…… Enjoys jokes and silly games and loves showing off Play still very important Can still demonstrate stubbornness, aggression, and blaming others A sense of past/future developing
You can help by encouraging…….. Teach them organized activities. Needs support and reassurance
At 5 yrs…… Becoming more independent and can be serious and realistic at times Friendly & talkative to strangers Becoming less frustrated and less angry
You can help by encouraging…….. Needs parent/teacher/carer to tell him what is right and wrong. How to handle their tantrums. Show patience. Teach in organized manner. Teach them organized activities. Needs support and reassuranceTeach them a balance of happiness and contentment Help learn in groups to learn to share. Distraction techniques still workTeach them organized activities. Needs support and reassurance
At 6yrs……•Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. Wants to bethe "best" and "first."•Grasp of logical concepts in some areas.•Concepts formed are crude and irreversible.•Perceptions dominate judgment.•In moral-ethical realm, only uses simple dos and dontsimposed by authority.•Has boundless energy.•May be oppositional, silly, brash, and critical.•Cries easily; shows a variety of tension-releasingbehavior.•Is attached to the teacher.•Has difficulty being flexible.
You can help by encouraging…….. Develops a positive, realistic self-concept. Learns to respect himself. Begins to understand his own uniqueness. Gains awareness of his feelings. Learns to express feelings. Learns how to participate in groups. Begins to learn from his mistakes.
At 7yrs……•Begin to calm down a bit.•Begin to reason and concentrate.•Worry, are self-critical, and may express a lack ofconfidence.•Demand more of their teachers time.•Dislike being singled out, even for praise.
You can help by encouraging…….. Develops a concept of herself. Begins to understand others. Gains respect for others. Builds relationships with others. Develops a sense of responsibility.
At 8 yrs……•Explosive, excitable, dramatic, and inquisitive.•Possesses a "know-it-all" attitude.•Is able to assume some responsibility for his actions.•Actively seeks praise.•May undertake more than he can handle successfully.•Is self-critical.•Recognizes the needs of others.
You can help by encouraging…….. Explores the relationship of feelings, goals, and behavior. Learns about choices and consequences. Begins setting goals. Becomes more responsible. Learns how to work with others.
At 9 yrs……•Time of general confusion.•Want to put some distance between themselves andadults, and may rebel against authority.•Need to be part of a group.•Seek independence.•Possess a high activity level.•Can express a wide range of emotions and verbalizeeasily.•Can empathize.•Can think independently and critically, but are tied topeer standards.•Begin to increase their sense of truthfulness.•Are typically not self-confident.
You can help by encouraging…….. Begins making decisions. Gains a greater sense of responsibility. Sets personal standards. Develops personal interests and abilities. Develops social skills. Learns to engage in group decision-making.
At 10 yrs……•Have a positive approach to life.•Tends to be obedient, good natured, and fun.•Possesses a surprising scope of interests.•Finds TV very important and identifies with TVcharacters.•Is capable of increasing independence.•Tends to be improving her self-concept and acceptance ofothers.•Forms good personal relationships with teachers.
You can help by encouraging…….. At ten-years-old, your child is developing communication skills and becoming more mature. Improves his listen and responding skills. Increases his problem-solving abilities. Begins to undergo maturational changes. Gains awareness of peer and adult expectations.
At 11 yrs……•Heading towards adolescence.•Shows more self-assertion and curiosity.•Is socially expansive and aware.•Is physically exuberant, restless, wiggly, and talks a lot.•Has a range and intensity of emotions.•Is moody and easily frustrated.•Can relate feelings.•Is competitive, wants to excel, and may put down "outgroup".•Exhibits "off-color" humor and silliness.•Teases and tussles.
You can help by encouraging…….. Making the transition to adolescence. Copes with changes. Transitions to adolescence. Works on her interpersonal skills. Handles peer groups/pressure. Develops personal interests and abilities. Takes on greater responsibility for her behavior and decisions.
3 Steps to Improve Childs Behavior1) Relationship: A loving, stable relationship. This is built on the words you say and the tone of your voice. Bonded by the values and skills you pass child every day.2) Planning: Watch your expectations so that you plan for good behavior rather than dread the bad. Planning involves knowing child, her temperament and skills, and knowing the challenges of her environment. Use direct instruction, guidance, and practice opportunities to teach the skills she will need to cope with new challenges in the journey of childhood.3) Response: Attentiveness and response are the tools for improving your childs behavior. It all comes down to actions and consequences. When a childs action elicits positive reinforcement, it will be repeated over time. When an action elicits punishment, it will eventually be extinguished.