You know what refugees are, but now you need to know, not the history refugees but rather the historical theories of migration. Use this as
Refugees: Ethics and Rights
United Nations policies and definitions Australian Policy Theories Asylum Seekers Ethical Discussion
Who is anAustralian human rights commission According to asylum seeker? Asylum seeker is a person who has fled their own country and applied for protection as a refugee. This policy violets Human right!
Australian policy Mandatory detention Australian federal government policy for unauthorised arrivals by the Paul Keating Labor government in 1992.
They must be detained regardless of circumstance and there will be no consideration of, age, sex or other factors. there was a limitation of detaining period which is 273days
However, that same government introduced anotherlegislation called Migration Reform Act 1992 after two years Which lead to indefinite detention According to Australian human rights commission,Australia has responsibilities to protect the human rights of all asylum seekers and refugees who arrive in Australia
Mandatory detention is unethical as well because theyare detained for long periods and they suffer physicaland mental health problems, including self-harm andsuicide.
Article 14 Everyone has rights to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution “Turn the boats around”
As a party to the Refugee Convention, Australia hasagreed to ensure that people who meet the UnitedNations definition of refugee are not sent back to acountry where their life or freedom would bethreatened
An Iraqi whose application for asylum in Australia wasrejected. After waiting for the decision for 5 years, on aTemporary Protection Visa, he was returned to Iraq, As aresult, he was murdered on suspicion of being a spy for theAustralian government. By mandatory detention 2007 written by Sue Fleet
Facts about asylum seekers.. Illegal migrants?? Australians are humanitarian nation, Australia is a signatory to the Refugee Convention of 1951 which means that a person is able to seek asylum in Australia by boat or plane, with documents or undocumented.
Considerable?? ABC news reported on 18th may 2001 that In June 2009, it was estimated that there were about 48,700 over stayers in Australia. In 09 to 10 there have been only 5,267 of asylum seekers arrived on boat
Greedy people?UNHCR, 43.3 million People were forcibly displacedworldwide at the end of 2009, Queue jumpers?
A refugee is someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion (UN convention,1951).
Why people are being compelled to leave their own country and seek refuge asa asylum seekers or refugee? War Serious persecution of government Denial of citizenship Traditional life style Lands confiscated by the Military regimes No right to health, education or other human service Fleeing from political regimes Religious discrimination No freedom of movement No freedom of expression Child abuse, sexual harassment and rape Arbitrary arrest
International law Convention (1951) Declaration of Human rights(1948) Protocol
UNHCR Mandate Lead and coordinate international support for refugees Protect and support refugees at the request of a Government or the UN Safe guard the rights and well being of Refugees Ensure that people can exercise the right to seek asylum, and find safe refuge in another state Assist in return home or voluntary repatriation , local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Emergency Stage Assistance policies that ensure that single refugee women , children and other vulnerable refugees gain access to food, primary education, shelter, health care, clean water, firewood, etc. Prevention of attacks on refugee in crossing the border physical attacks, sexual harassment, rape, abduction, sexual abuse, other.
Australias Immigration Detention Policy and Practice “Australian law requires the detention of all non- citizens who are in Australia without a valid visa (unlawful non-citizens). This means that immigration officials have no choice but to detain persons who arrive without a visa (unauthorised arrivals), or persons who arrive with a visa and subsequently become unlawful because their visa has expired or been cancelled (authorised arrivals). Australian law makes no distinction between the detention of adults and children.”
MYTH: Asylum seekers are “illegals” or “Queue jumpers” UN Convention relating to status of refugee, and Australian law make clear that it is legal for people seeking asylum to do so in another country Over 85% of boat people who came to Australia fulfil refugee criteria (more on appeal) No queue: No UNHCR in Iraq and Afghanistan In Sri Lanka UNHCR inaccessible and dangerous
Ethical response: Negative and positive1. Asylum seekers need to be locked up in detention centres- They could beDANGEROUS!! They are a security threat to Australia! = 1. “85- 90% of asylum seekers coming to Australia by boat have beenfounded to be genuine refugees. Asylum seekers often escaped difficult anddangerous places and care and support”
Ethical response: Negative andpositive2. Boat people are illegal immigrants. They have no right to come toAustralia. They don’t even have visa! =2. “It is not illegal for asylum seekers to come by boat- It is allowed by theRefugee convention which recognised that it really often hard to get a visa orpassport. In Australia most asylum seekers come by plane. There is morethan 50,000 illegal migrants in Australia but most of are U.S.A, N.Z and theU.K.”
Ethical response: Negative andpositive3 . “Australia is being SWAMPED by asylum seekers” =3. “There are only 21000 refugees living in Australia. That’s small numbercompared to Pakistan (1.8 million) Germany (583,000) Canada (113,000)and U.K (292,000). Most refugees live in the poorest and most dangerouscountries In the World. Countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh- not inAustralia”
Ethical response: Negative and positive4. If boat people can pay money to people smugglers in order to gethere…Then they are not refugee =4.“A refugee is someone who faced persecution or is in danger because oftheir race, religion, or political opinion. Just because you have money doesnot mean your life at risk. In many causes, it is the educated people whospeak out against governments… and so become targets for persecution”.
Ethical response: Negative and positive5. We consider Australia receives more refugees than its fair share . We aregoing to be flooded with refugees if we do not stop them coming. =5.“In 2009, the largest number of asylums claims made to anindustrialised country was to the U.S.A. - 49,000 claims. France was nextwith 42,000, then Canada with 33, 000 claims. In compare, Australia gotonly 6, 170 applicants.”
Types of RefugeesVoluntary Forced No decision is made by the Make the decision to migrate refugee Aren’t faced with an Usually faced with a threat immediate threat such as military command, May be looking at other famine, poverty or unrested motives political events In some cases, voluntary In most cases, forced refugees refugees have more choice in are sent to refugee camps attaining other forms of asylum rather than just refugee camps
Theories: Breakdown Most migration (refugee) theories have these things in common: Migration stream consideration Demographic consideration Economic consideration And whether forced or voluntary*Almost ALL theories are addressed to voluntarymigration
Types of Theories Micro Socio-psychological factors Focuses on Motivation, Decision Making, Satisfaction and Identification Macro Immigrant adaption process Economic and social integration Assimilation
TheoriesLaws of Migration (Revenstein,1885, 1889) Stouffer Most migrations are over a Mobility/Distance Ration short distance Incorporated intervening Generate counter streams opportunities Related to technological advances Urban less migratory than rural. Females migrate shorter distances
References Amnesty, I. (2011). The facts on refugees and asylum seekers Retrieved 21 May, 2012, from http://www.amnesty.org.au/refugees/comments/24506/ Grundy, R. (Producer). (2009). Asylum Seekers, Refugees, People Smugglers, Migrants, Trafficking in Humans. [PowerPoint Presentation] Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/dsubs/asylum-seekers-australia Hawkes, E. (Producer). (2011). An Australian Refugee Story. [PowerPoint] Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/emilyhawes/australian-refugee-intro Richmond, A. H. (1988). Sociological Theories of International Migration: The Case of Refugees. Current Sociology, 36(2), 7-25. doi: 10.1177/001139288036002004 UNHCR(2012) Australians supporting the UN Refugee Agency. Retrieved from http://www.unrefugees.org.au/ United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, (1994-2003). Social and Human Science, FOOD FOR THOUGHT, THOUGHT FOR ACTION: Convention relating to the Status of Refugees http://www.unesco.org/most/rr4ref.htm UNHCR. (2010). Convention and Protocol: Relating to the Status of Refugees (pp. 1-56). Geneva: United Nations.
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