Ibnu Khaldun
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Ibnu Khaldun

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  • 1. IBNU KHALDUN ابو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي A PHILOSOPHER, SOCIOLOGIST AND SOCIAL SCIENTIST Juffri Supa’at & Nurhazman Abdul Aziz
  • 2. Scope
    • As An Individual A Muslim Scholar
    • The Community Structure, Norms and Development
    • Nature of the Information Sources Orthodox, Philosophy & Intellectual Sciences
    • Conclusion What can we learnt
  • 3.
    • As An Individual
    • A Muslim Scholar
    Ibnu Khaldun
  • 4. Biography Arab Scholar Medieval era Name Ibn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī] Birth 27 May, 1332/732 AH Death 19 March, 1406/808 AH School / Tradition Ash'ari [It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic theology, separating its development radically from that of theology in the Christian world.] Main Interests Sociology, History, Historiography, Demography, Economics, Philosophy of History, Notable Ideas Asabiyah Influences Al-Razi [a fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science.] Influenced Al-Maqrizi, Social sciences [remarkable in this context for his unusually keen interest in the Ismaili Fatimid dynasty and its role in Egyptian history]
  • 5. Quotation attributed to Ibn Khaldun
    • "He who finds a new path is a pathfinder, even if the trail has to be found again by others; and he who walks far ahead of his contemporaries is a leader, even though centuries pass before he is recognized as such."
  • 6. About Ibnu Khaldun
    • Abu Zayd 'Abd al-Rahman Ibnu Khaldun
    • received a good education.
    • served as assistant and secretary to several government officials.
    • career was dependent on the good will of his superiors,
    • changed jobs frequently when political winds shifted.
    • led an extremely eventful life, traveling to, among other places, Mecca, Damascus. Palestine and Seville, and occasionally finding enough leisure time to teach, study, and write.
    • Among the notable personalities Ibn Khaldun encountered in his adventures were King Pedro I of Castile and Timur.
  • 7. Education & Early Years
    • Family social and political activist
    • received a classical Arabic education,
    • studying the Qur'an and Arabic linguistics, the basis for an understanding of the Qur'an, Hadith [1] and Fiqh [2]
    • mathematics, logic and philosophy
    • lost both his parents to an epidemic of the plague which hit Tunis, when he was 17 years old
    • In a typical Muslim family, follow family tradition is common, that is where he strove for a political career
    • And he life adventure begin, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile.
    • [1] Hadith relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad.
    • [2] Fiqh is an expansion of Islamic law, complemented by the rulings of Islamic jurists to direct the lives of Muslim
  • 8. His writing
    • most significant work is the Muqaddimah.
    • "introduction" to history, he discussed historical method and provided the necessary criteria for distinguishing historical truth from error.
    • considered one of the most phenomenal works on the philosophy of history ever written where he related the social impact of a community or event.
    • In this action, this play a big impact to the Muslim society, where we are going to share about the Muqaddimah and the sociological view.
  • 9. His Adventure
    • continued education, social and political began
    • play an important role in the political leadership of Sevilla
    • Become a judge and held post in may courts of the Maghrib & Andalunisa (Spain)
    • one reasons why he have travel because he to find that scholar from that institution in order to fulfill his knowledge desire
  • 10.
    • The Community
    • Structure, Norms and Development
    Ibnu Khaldun
  • 11. Muqaddimah
    • What is Muqaddima?
      • Teaching is a Craft
      • An important role in providing conceptual and paradigmatic frameworks as well as an epistemological foundation of the study of human society.
  • 12. THE MAGNUM OPUS "AL-MUQADDIMAH"
    • This impressive document is a gist of his wisdom and hard earned experience.
    • use his political and first had knowledge of the people of Maghrib to formulate many of his ideas.
    • discussion of Tribal societies and social forces would be the most interesting part of his thesis.
    • His theories of the science of Umran (sociology) are all pearls of wisdom
  • 13. The Structure of Muqaddimah
    • Chap 1 : Human civilization in general
    • Chap 2 : Bedouin civilization, savage nation and tribes and their condition of life, including several basic and explanatory statements
    • Chap 3 : On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks and all the goes with these things (basic & supplementary propositions)
  • 14. The Structure of Muqaddimah
    • Chap 4 : Countries & cities and all forms sedentary civilization. The conditions occuring there. Primary and secondary considerations in this connection
    • Chap 5 : On the various aspects of making a living, such as profit and the crafts. The conditions that occur in this connection. A number of problems are connected with this subject.
    • Chap 6 : The various kinds of sciences. The methods of instruction. The conditions that obtain in these condition
  • 15. The Norms
    • Sedentary cultural is the goal of civilisation.
      • The end of its life span and brings about it corruption
    • Cities that are the seats of royal authority fall into ruin when ruling dynasty crumbles and falls into ruin
    • Certain Cities have crafts that others lack
  • 16. The Norms
    • The existence of group feeling in cities and the superiority of the inhabitants over others
    • The dialects of the urban population
  • 17. The Community
    • Nomadic (al-’umran al-badawi)
    • Sedentary societies (al-’umran al-hadari)
  • 18. Relevance to Contemporary Sociology
    • Ibnu Khaldun and Auguste Comte
      • Both emphasized a historical method & did not propose statistical methods
      • Both distinguished their sciences from what proceeded them
      • Both believed human nature in the same everywhere
      • Both recognised the importance of social change
  • 19.
    • Nature of the Information Sources
    Ibnu Khaldun
  • 20. Orthodox & Philosophy
    • Orthodox
      • Believe the ultimate truth about man and society must referred to the
        • Quran,
        • the prophetic tradition (hadith) and (fiqih)
    • Philosophy
      • Primary of rational inquiry over revelation in both the theoretical & practical sciences
  • 21. The Various Kinds of Intellectual Sciences
    • Logic
    • Metaphysical & Spiritual Matters
    • Physics
    • Mathematical Sciences
      • Geometry
      • Arithmetic
      • Music
      • Astronomy
  • 22.
    • Conclusion & Discussion
    • What can we learnt
    Ibnu Kaldun