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What is Organizational Behavior? What is Organizational Behavior? Seven Foundation Competencies Managing Self Managing Communication Managing Diversity Managing Ethics Managing Across Cultures Managing Teams Managing Change Organizations as Open Systems
What is Organizational Behavior? Definition: The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance in organizations. Value of OB: Helps people attain the competencies needed to become effective employees, team leaders/members, or managers Competency = an interrelated set of abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge needed by an individual to be effective in most professional and managerial positions
Seven Foundation Competencies Logically integrated set of competencies required for managerial and professional effectiveness in the 21st century This model developed by Hellriegel, Slocum, and Woodman Other models of such competencies have been developed by other authors
1. Managing Self Competency Involves the ability to assess your own strengths and weaknesses set and pursue professional and personal goals balance work and personal life, and engage in new learning (including new or modified skills, behaviors, and attitudes)
Core Abilities of the Managing Self Competency Understand the personality and attitudes of yourself and others Perceive, appraise, and interpret accurately yourself, others, and the immediate environment Understand and act on your own and others work-related motivations and emotions Assess and establish developmental, personal/life-related, and work-related goals Take responsibility for managing yourself and your career
Career Development* A career is a sequence of work-related positions occupied by a person during a lifetime. Career development involves making decisions about an occupation and engaging in activities to attain career goals. A career plan is an individual’s choice of occupation, organization, and career path.
Five Aspects of a Career* Career success or failure is best determined by the individual, in terms of his/her personal goal achievement No absolute career evaluation standards exist Examine a career subjectively (e.g., values and personality fit) and objectively (e.g., job choices, competencies needed) Make decisions about occupation and pursue activities to attain career goals throughout your lifetime Consider cultural factors as they impact performance and career opportunities
2. Managing Communication Competency Involves the ability to use all the modes of transmitting understanding and receiving ideas, thoughts, and feelings, (verbal, listening, nonverbal, written, electronic, etc.) for accurately transferring and exchanging information and emotions
Core Abilities of theManaging Communication Competency Convey information, ideas, and emotions so they are received as intended Provide constructive feedback Engage in active listening Use and interpret nonverbal communication effectively Engage in effective verbal communication Engage in effective written communication Effectively use electronic communication resources
Filters to Communication Preoccupation Mind wandering Past experiences Self-esteem Status in a group Emotional state Bias / prejudice / stereotype
Filters to Communication Physical state Volume of voice Articulateness Charisma Language differences Amount of information Culture
3. Managing Diversity Competency Involves the ability to value unique individual and group characteristics embrace such characteristics as potential sources of organizational strength, and appreciate the uniqueness of each individual
Core Abilities of the Managing Diversity Competency Foster an environment of inclusion for all Learn from others with different characteristics, experiences, perspectives, and backgrounds Embrace and support diversity Work with others because of their talents and contributions, rather than personal attributes Provide leadership in addressing diversity-based conflicts Apply diversity laws, regulations, and organizational policies related to your position
Selected Categories of Diversity* Primary Categories: Genetic characteristics that affect a persons self-image and socialization, appear to be unlearned and are difficult to modify Age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities and qualities, and sexual and affectional orientation Secondary categories: Learned characteristics that a person acquires and modifies throughout life Education, work experience, income, marital status, religious beliefs, geographic location, parental status, behavioral style
4. Managing Ethics Competency Involves the ability to incorporate values and principles that distinguish right from wrong in making decisions and choosing behaviors
Ethics Definition: Values and principles that distinguish right from wrong. NOT IN TEXT: Ethics are often based upon laws, organizational policies, social norms, family, religion, and/or personal needs, and may be subject to differing interpretations with problems in proving “truth” Ethical Dilemma*: A situation in which an individual or team must make a decision that involves multiple values.
Core Abilities of the Managing Ethics Competency Identify and describe the principles of ethical decision making and behavior Assess the importance of ethical issues in actions Apply laws, regulations, and organizational rules in making decisions and taking action Demonstrate dignity and respect for others Demonstrate honest and open communication limited only by legal, privacy, and competitive considerations
Managing Anger What Does Not Work Verbal aggression that provokes the other Cathartic expression against a superior Reciting grievances to a 3rd party who encourages your anger Expression that makes a stressful situation worse Keeping the emotion in that allows a stressful situation to continue
Managing Anger What Works Physiological relaxation exercises Anger will simmer down if you wait long enough – count 1 to 10 Reinterpret a supposed provocation – disputation process Humor – transform “injustice” into absurdity Calm, non-aggressive feedback about your anger - use “I messages”
Managing Anger What Works Assertiveness training Ventilating anger is “cathartic” only if it Restores your “sense of control” Reduces your belief that you are “helpless,” “powerless’ Go for therapy to bring into consciousness psychological traumas, embedded in the unconscious, which makes one vulnerable to unproductive anger
5. Managing Across Cultures Competency Involves the ability to recognize and embrace similarities and differences among nations and cultures and then approach key organizational and strategic issues with an open and curious mind Culture = the dominant pattern of living, thinking, and believing that is developed and transmitted by people, consciously or unconsciously, to subsequent generations Cultural values = those consciously and subconsciously deeply held beliefs that specify general preferences, behaviors, and define what is right and wrong.
Core Abilities of theManaging Across Cultures Competency Understand, appreciate, and use cultural factors that can affect behavior Appreciate the influence of work-related values on decisions, preferences, and practices Understand and motivate employees with different values and attitudes Communicate in the local language Deal effectively with extreme conditions in foreign countries Utilize a global mindset (use a worldwide perspective to constantly assess threats or opportunities)
Individualism* as a Work-Related Value Individualism = the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family, which implies a loosely integrated society In cultures that emphasize individualism, people view themselves as independent, unique, and special; value individual goals over group goals; value personal identity, personal achievement, pleasure, and competition; accept interpersonal confrontation; and are less likely to conform to other’s expectations Such cultures include the United States, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom Example: “Stand on your own two feet!”
Collectivism* as a Work-Related Value Collectivism = the tendency of people to emphasize their belonging to groups and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty Cultures that emphasize collectivism are characterized by a tight social framework, concern for the common welfare, emotional dependence of individuals on larger social units, a sense of belonging, a desire for harmony, with group goals being viewed as more important than individual goals, and a concern for face-saving Such cultures include Japan, China, Venezuela, and Indonesia Example: “The nail that sticks up gets hammered down!”
6. Managing Teams Competency Involves the ability to develop support facilitate and lead groups to achieve organizational goals
Core Abilities of the Managing Teams Competency Determine when and how to use teams Set clear performance goals directly or participatively Define responsibilities and tasks directly or participatively Show accountability for goal achievement Use appropriate decision-making methods Effectively manage conflicts Assess performance and take corrective action as needed
7. Managing Change Competency Involves the ability to recognize and implement needed adaptations or entirely new transformations in the people, tasks strategies structures or technologies in a person’s area of responsibility
Core Abilities of the Managing Change Competency Apply the other six competencies in pursuit of needed changes Provide leadership in planned change Diagnose pressures for and resistance to change Use the systems model and relevant processes to facilitate change Seek out, learn, share, and apply new knowledge in the pursuit of constant improvement
Organizations as Open Systems Note that organizations are “open systems,” such that their long term effectiveness is determined by their ability to anticipate, manage, and respond to changes in their environment, with such changes resulting from external forces and/or stakeholders External forces include the labor force, the natural environment, the economy, and different cultures, while stakeholders include shareholders, customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, governmental agencies and their regulations Note the impact of these environmental influences on individual, interpersonal, team, and organizational processes; organizations that do not effectively adapt to environmental change will fail