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    24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology 24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Qualitative Research MethodologyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Research A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaningCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Research Useful in understanding such human experiences as pain, caring, powerlessness, and comfortCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • The Logic of Qualitative Research • Focuses on understanding the whole • Consistent with holistic philosophy of nursing • Provides means of exploring the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in phenomenaCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • World View • Reality • There is not a single reality. • Reality is based on perception and is different for each person. • A person’s perception of reality changes over time.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • World View • Knowledge • What we know has meaning only within a given situation or contextCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Reasoning Process in Qualitative Research • Involves perceptually putting pieces together to make wholes. • From this process, meaning is produced. • Because perception varies with the individual, including researchers, many meanings are possible.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Frameworks For Qualitative Studies • Goal of qualitative research not theory testing • Frameworks used in a different sense in qualitative research • Each type of qualitative research guided by a particular philosophical stanceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Frameworks For Qualitative Studies • Philosophical base of a qualitative study directs: • questions asked • observations that are made • approach to interpretation of dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data From Qualitative Studies • Subjective • Incorporate the perceptions and beliefs of the researcher and the participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Findings From Qualitative Studies • Lead to understanding a phenomenon in a particular situation • Not generalized in same way as those of quantitative studiesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Findings From Qualitative Studies • Understanding the meanings of a phenomenon in a particular situation gives insights that can be applied more broadly. • Guides nursing practice • Aids in the important process of theory development for building nursing knowledge.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Approaches to Qualitative ResearchCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Phenomenology • Both a philosophy and a research method • Purpose is to describe experiences as they are lived • to capture the “lived experience” of study participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Phenomenological Philosophy • The person is integral with the environment. • The world is shaped by and shapes the self. • Reality is subjective: thus, an experience is unique to the individual. • The researcher’s experiences are unique to him/her.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Phenomenological Philosophy • Truth • is an interpretation of some phenomenon. • is temporal. • is cultural. • May be a truth shared with others.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person is a self within a body - thus the person is referred to as embodied • The person has a world that they have by virtue of being born into a culture • meaningful relationships • meaningful practices • meaningful languageCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person is situated - shaped by his or her world. • The person is constrained in ability to establish meanings by • language • culture • history • purposes • valuesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person has only situated freedom, not total freedom • A person’s world is so pervasive that generally it is not noticed unless some disruption occurs. • The person can be understood only in the context of their unique body, world, and concerns.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • Being-in-time • the person experiences being within the framework of time. • The past and the future influence the now and are part of being-in-time.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Phenomenology & Nursing Theory • Parse (1981) Theory of Man- Living-Health • Paterson & Zderad (1976) Theory of Humanistic Nursing • Watson (1985) Theory of CaringCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Phenomenology Methods • Broad question • What is the meaning of one’s lived experience? • The only reliable source of information to answer this question is the person • Requires that the person interpret the action or experience for the researcher • The researcher must interpret the explanation provided by the person.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory • Based on symbolic interaction theory • Holds many views in common with phenomenology • Explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory Philosophy • Reality • Reality is created by attaching meanings to situations. • Meaning is expressed in terms of symbols such as words, religious objects, and clothingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory Philosophy • Symbolic Meaning • Symbolic meanings are the basis for actions and interactions. • Symbolic meanings are different for each individual. • We cannot completely know the symbolic meanings of another individual.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory Philosophy • Social Groups • Symbolic meanings are shared by groups and communicated to new members through socialization • Group life is based on consensus and shared meaningsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory Philosophy • Social Groups • Interaction may lead to redefinition and new meanings • Social redefinition can lead to redefinition of selfCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Grounded Theory Methods • Artinian’s Four Qualitative Modes of Nursing Inquiry • Descriptive mode • Discovery Mode • Emergent fit mode • Intervention modeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Mode • Provides rich detail • Must precede all other modes • Ideal for the beginning researcherCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Mode • Research Questions • What is going on? • How are activities organized? • What roles are evident? • What are the steps in a process? • What does a patient do in a particular setting?Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Discovery Mode • Identification of patterns in life experiences of individuals • Relates individual patterns to each other • Generates a theory of social process (substantive theory) that explains a particular social worldCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Emergent Fit Mode • Used when substantive theory has been developed • Purpose to extent or refine existing substantive theoryCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Emergent Fit Mode • Enables researcher to • Focus on a selected portion of the theory • Build on previous work • Establish a research program around a particular social processCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Intervention Mode • Used to test the relationships in a substantive theory • Research question: “How can I make something happen in such a way as to bring about new and desired states of affairs?” • Demands deep involvement on the part of the researcher/practitionerCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Ethnographic Research • Developed by anthropologists • Mechanism for studying cultures • Word means “portrait of a people” • Seeks to understand people - ways of living, believing, adaptingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Ethnographic Philosophy • Culture • A way of life belonging to a designated group of people • A blueprint for living which guides a particular group’s thoughts, actions, and sentiments • All the accumulated ways a group of people solve problems • Reflected in language, dress, food, traditions, customsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Ethnographic Philosophy • Material Culture • All created objects • Nonmaterial culture • Symbolic referents • Network of social relations • Beliefs • IdealsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Ethnographic Research • Purpose • Describe a culture • Study people’s origin, past ways of living, ways of surviving through time • Discover the many parts of a whole culture and how these parts are interrelated • Develop a picture of the wholeness of the cultureCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Ethnonursing • Theory of Transcultural Nursing - Leininger • Focuses on how daily life conditions and patterns influence human care, health, and nursing care practicesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Historical Research • Examines events of the past • Greatest value of historical knowledge is increased self- understanding • Increases nurses’ understanding of their professionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Historical Philosophy • There is nothing new under the sun. • One can learn from the past. • Search for wisdom in what has been, what is, and what ought to be.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Historical Philosophy • Goal to identify a developmental scheme for history to explain all events and structures as elements of the same social process.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Historical Research • Search throughout history for generalities. • Develop a theoretical explanation. • Based on a world view.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Historical Nursing Knowledge • How can we in nursing today possibly plan where we are going when we don’t know where we have been nor how we got here. • Criterion of a profession is that there is a knowledge of the history of the profession that is transmitted to those entering the profession.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods similar to qualitative studies • Select a topic • State problem or question • Justify the significance of the study • Design the study • Identify sources of data such as subjectsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods similar to qualitative studies • Gain access to sources of data • Select subjects for study • Gather data • Describe, analyze and interpret the data • Develop a written report of resultsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods unique to qualitative studies and sometimes to specific types of qualitative researchCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Areas In Which Qualitative Research Methods Are Different • Selection of subjects • Researcher-participant relationships • Data collection methods • Data management • Data analysis • InterpretationCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Selection of Subjects - Participants • Subjects referred to as participants • May volunteer to be involved in the study • May be selected by the researcher because of their particular knowledge, experience or views related to the studyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Purposive Sampling Methods • May select individuals typical in relation to the phenomenon under study • May seek out individuals that are different in some way from other participants in order to get diverse perspectives • Snowballing usedCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Sample Size • Decisions regarding sample size are different than in quantitative studies. • Based on needs related to study purpose • Usually number of subjects is small in comparison to quantitative studies • Case studies with one subject may be used • 6 - 10 subjects not unusualCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Decision to Stop Seeking New Subjects • Informational redundancy • When the researcher ceases learning new information • Theoretical Saturation • When theoretical ideas seem completeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Researcher-Participant Relationships • Participants treated as colleagues rather than as subjects • Researcher must have the support and confidence of participants in order to complete the study • Maintaining relationships of utmost importanceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Researcher-Participant Relationships • In many studies, researcher observes social behavior and may interact socially with the participants. • To varying degrees, the researcher influences the individuals being studied and, in turn, is influenced by them. • The researcher’s presence may alter behavior of participants.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Researcher-Participant Relationships • Participants often assist in • Determining research questions • Guiding data collection • Interpreting resultsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Researcher-Participant Relationships • Researcher’s personality is key factor • Skills in empathy • IntuitionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • The Qualitative Researcher • The researcher must become closely involved in the subject’s experience in order to interpret it. • The researcher must be open to the perceptions of the participants, rather than to attach his or her own meaning to the experience.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Values • The researcher’s aims and means need to be consistent with those of the participants • For example, if the researcher’s desire is to change the behavior of the participants, this must also be their desire.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Observation • What is going on here • Look carefully as well as listen • Note routine activities • Focus on details • Note processes as well as discrete events • Note unexpected eventsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Open-ended format • Researcher defines the focus • There is no fixed sequence of questions • Questions asked tend to change as the researcher gains insights from previous interviews and/or observationsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Respondents encouraged to raise important issues not addressed by the researcher • May use focus groupsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Researcher and participant are actively engaged in constructing a version of the world • Goal is to achieve mutual understandingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Focus of interview is on obtaining an authentic insight into the participant’s experiences • Dialogue between researcher and participant may continue at intervals across weeks or monthsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Continued dialogue over time decreases the problem of fleeting relationships in which the respondent may have little commitment or may provide only information they believe the researcher wants to hear.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Strategies to record interview information • Writing detailed notes immediately after interview • Recording the interview on tapeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Text may be written by participants on a particular topic at the request of the researcher • Text narratives may be solicited by mail rather than in personCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Text developed for other purposes, such as patient records or procedure manuals, can be accessed for qualitative analysisCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Published text - books, newspapers, journal articles, Internet materials • Transcripts of recorded interviews • Text related to historical eventsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Notes taken while reading written documents will be important to the analysis process.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Management • Qualitative data analysis occurs concurrently with data collection rather than sequentially as is true in quantitative research. • The researcher is simultaneously gathering data, managing a growing bulk of collected data, and interpreting the meaning of data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Management • Data must be stored in organized manner. • Traditionally, data collection and analysis has been performed manually. • Some qualitative researchers are now using the computer to make management and analysis of qualitative data quicker and easier without losing touch with the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Data Analysis • Because published qualitative studies tend not to describe the methodology in detail, many believe that qualitative analysis is free-wheeling.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Data Analysis • “Many believe that qualitative analysis can be done in a spirit of careless rapture, with no principles or discipline whatsoever. . . They think they will know what to do with the data once those data are collected. . . When they begin analysis, they find that things are not quite so simple” (Coffey & Atkinson).Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Data Analysis • Stages: • Description • Analysis • InterpretationCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Data Analysis • Descriptive stage of qualitative analysis is more critical in qualitative studies • Researchers encouraged to remain in the descriptive mode for as long as possibleCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Become familiar with the data • Read and reread notes and transcripts • Recall observations and experiences • Listen to audiotapes • View videotapes • Become immersed in the dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Focus of immersion is the question, “what is going on?” • Grounded Theory Research - uses constant comparative process, in which every piece of data is compared with every other piece.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • During the data analysis process, a dynamic interaction occurs between the researcher’s self and the data, whether the data are communicated orally person-to-person or in writing.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Reflexive Thought • The researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study. • Requires conscious awareness of self.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Bracketing • Used in some phenomenological research to help the researcher avoid misinterpreting the phenomenon as it is being experienced by the participants. • Bracketing is suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Data Reduction • Initial efforts at analysis focus on reducing the large volume of data acquired in order to facilitate examination. • During data reduction, the researcher begins to attach meaning to elements of the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Data Reduction • Researcher discovers classes of things, persons, events, and properties • Notes regularities in the setting or the people • Classifies the elements of the data, by using an established classification system or developing a new oneCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Descriptive Analysis • Codes and Coding • Essentially a way of indexing or identifying categories in the data. • Codes may be placed in the data at the time of data collection, when entering data into the computer, and during later examination of the data. • Data segments can then be retrieved by coding category.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Displays • Equivalent to the summary tables used in quantitative studies • Allow the researcher to convey succinctly the main ideas of the study • Codes can be used to organize the displayCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Goes beyond description • Uses methods to transform the data • Extends the data beyond the descriptionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Researcher identifies essential features and describes interrelationships among them. • Emphasis is on identifying themes and patterns from the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Coding, used earlier for description, can also be used to expand, transform, and reconceptualize data, providing opportunities for more diverse analyses.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Memoing • Used to record insights or ideas related to notes, transcripts, or codes • Move the researcher toward theorizing and are conceptual rather than factual • May link pieces of data or use a specific piece of data as an example of a conceptual ideaCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Storytelling • “..an event or series of events, encompassed by temporal or spatial boundaries, that are shared with others using an oral medium or sign language” (Banks-Wallace, 1998) • Includes a sequence of events with a beginning, a middle and an end • Have their own logic and are temporalCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Storytelling • “People sharing a story (storytellers) and those listening to a story (storytakers) and the main elements of storytelling.” (Banks- Wallace, 1998)Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Storytelling • Can be instructive in understanding a phenomenon of interest. • Researcher may record stories shared by participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Storytelling • In some qualitative studies, the focus of the research may be the gathering of stories.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Storytelling • Gathering of stories can enable health care providers to develop storytelling as a powerful means to increase insight and facilitate health promotion behaviors of clients.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Narrative Analysis • A qualitative means of formally analyzing stories • Researcher unpacks the structure of the storyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Data Analysis • Narrative Analysis • Can be used to determine how people tell stories • how they give shape to the events they describe • how they make a point • how they “package” events and react to them • how they communicate their stories to audiencesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Structure Question • Abstract------ What is this about? • Orientation-- Who? What? When? Where? • Complication--- Then what happened? • Evaluation--- So what? • Result--------- What finally happened? • Coda---------- Finish narrativeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Abstract • Initiates the narrative by summarizing the point of the study or giving a statement of the proposition the narrative will illustrate.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Orientation • Provides an introduction to the major events central to the story • Complication • Continues the narrative, describing complications in the event that make it a story.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Evaluation • The point of the narrative • Result • Gives the outcome or resolution of events • Coda • Ends the story, and is the transition point at which talk may revert to other topicsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Can focus on social action imbedded in the text • Can examine the effect of the storyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Purposes of Stories • May make a point or be moralistic • May be success stories • May be a reminder of what not to do or how not to be with guidance in how to avoid the fate described in the study • May be used to understand cultural values, meanings, and personal experiencesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Purpose of analysis • Examine multiple stories of key life events and gain greater understanding of the impact of these key events • May assist in understanding the relationship between social processes and personal livesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Narrative Analysis • Purposes of analysis • May be used to examine issues related to power, dominance, and opposition • Through stories, silenced groups can be given voiceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Interpretation • The researcher offers his or her interpretation of what is going on. • The focus is on understanding and explanation beyond what can be stated with certainty.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Interpretation • May focus on the usefulness of the findings for clinical practice • May move toward theorizingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Interpretation • As the study progresses, relationships among categories, participants, actions, and events begin to emerge. • The researcher will develop hunches about relationships that can be used to formulate tentative propositions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Interpretation • The researcher gains increasing understanding of the dynamics involved in the process under study. • This understanding might be considered a tentative theory. • The tentative theory is often expressed as a map.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Interpretation • The validity of predictions developed in the tentative theory must be tested. • One strategy sometimes used is to predict outcomes expected to occur 6 months after completion of the study. These predictions are sent to informants who respond to the accuracy of the predictions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Rigor in Qualitative Research • Rigor needs to be defined differently in qualitative research because the desired outcome is different.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Rigor in Qualitative Research • Characteristics of Rigor in Qualitative Studies • Openness • Scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective • Thoroughness in collecting data • Consideration of all of the data in the subjective theory development phaseCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Rigor in Qualitative Research • Evaluation of rigor is based, in part, on the logic of the emerging theory and the clarity with which it sheds light on the phenomenon studies.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Rigor in Qualitative Research • Causes of lack of rigor • Inconsistency in adhering to the philosophy of the approach being used • Failure to get away from older ideas • Poorly developed methods • Inadequate time spent collecting dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Rigor in Qualitative Research • Causes of lack of rigor • Poor observations • Failure to give careful consideration to all the data obtained • Inadequacy of theoretical development from the dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Decision Trails • Strategies by which other researchers, using the same data, can follow the logic of the original researcher and arrive at the same conclusions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Decision Trails • Requires that the researcher establish decision rules for categorizing data, arriving at ratings, or making judgments.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Decision Trails • A record is kept of all decision rules used in the analysis of data. • All raw data are stored so that they are available for review if requested. • Thus, evidence is retained to support the study conclusions and the emerging theory and is made available on request.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
    • Decision Trails • Some qualitative researchers are opposed to the idea of decision trails. • Of concern is that data analysis would become too mechanistic. • Some qualitative researchers are opposed to the expectation that other researchers would come to the same conclusions since one would expect each researcher’s work to be unique.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.