Chapter 11                                 Qualitative                                  Research                          ...
Qualitative Research                 A systematic, subjective                 approach used to describe                 li...
Qualitative Research                 Useful in understanding                 such human experiences as                 pai...
The Logic of                   Qualitative Research           •     Focuses on understanding the whole           •     Con...
World View           •     Reality                   •    There is not a single reality.                   •    Reality is...
World View           •     Knowledge                   •     What we know has                        meaning only within a...
Reasoning Process in                   Qualitative Research           •     Involves perceptually putting pieces          ...
Frameworks For                   Qualitative Studies           •     Goal of qualitative research not                 theo...
Frameworks For                   Qualitative Studies           •     Philosophical base of a                 qualitative s...
Data From Qualitative Studies           •     Subjective           •     Incorporate the perceptions                 and b...
Findings From                   Qualitative Studies           •     Lead to understanding a                 phenomenon in ...
Findings From                   Qualitative Studies           •     Understanding the meanings of a                 phenom...
Approaches to                             Qualitative                              ResearchCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunder...
Phenomenology           •     Both a philosophy and                 a research method           •     Purpose is to descri...
Phenomenological Philosophy           •     The person is integral with the                 environment.           •     T...
Phenomenological Philosophy           •     Truth                   •    is an interpretation of some                     ...
Heideggarian Phenomenologist                   Beliefs           •     The person is a self within a body - thus          ...
Heideggarian Phenomenologist                   Beliefs           •     The person is situated - shaped by his or          ...
Heideggarian Phenomenologist                   Beliefs           •     The person has only situated freedom,              ...
Heideggarian Phenomenologist                   Beliefs           •     Being-in-time                   •    the person exp...
Phenomenology                   & Nursing Theory           •     Parse (1981) Theory of Man-                 Living-Health...
Phenomenology Methods           •     Broad question                   •    What is the meaning of one’s lived            ...
Grounded Theory           •     Based on symbolic interaction theory           •     Holds many views in common with      ...
Grounded Theory Philosophy           •     Reality                   •    Reality is created by attaching                 ...
Grounded Theory Philosophy           •     Symbolic Meaning                   •    Symbolic meanings are the basis for    ...
Grounded Theory Philosophy                   •    Social Groups                           • Symbolic meanings are shared  ...
Grounded Theory Philosophy                   • Social Groups                           • Interaction may lead to          ...
Grounded Theory Methods           •     Artinian’s Four Qualitative                 Modes of Nursing Inquiry              ...
Descriptive Mode           •     Provides rich detail           •     Must precede all other modes           •     Ideal f...
Descriptive Mode           •     Research Questions                   •    What is going on?                   •    How ar...
Discovery Mode                   •    Identification of patterns in life                        experiences of individuals...
Emergent Fit Mode           •     Used when substantive theory                 has been developed           •     Purpose ...
Emergent Fit Mode           •     Enables researcher to                   •    Focus on a selected portion                ...
Intervention Mode           •     Used to test the relationships                 in a substantive theory           •     R...
Ethnographic Research           •     Developed by anthropologists           •     Mechanism for studying cultures        ...
Ethnographic Philosophy           •     Culture                   •    A way of life belonging to a designated            ...
Ethnographic Philosophy           •     Material Culture                   •    All created objects           •     Nonmat...
Ethnographic Research           •     Purpose                   •    Describe a culture                   •    Study peopl...
Ethnonursing           •     Theory of Transcultural Nursing                 - Leininger           •     Focuses on how da...
Historical Research           •     Examines events of the past           •     Greatest value of historical              ...
Historical Philosophy           •     There is nothing new under                 the sun.           •     One can learn fr...
Historical Philosophy           •     Goal to identify a                 developmental scheme for                 history ...
Historical Research           •     Search throughout history for                 generalities.           •     Develop a ...
Historical Nursing Knowledge           •     How can we in nursing today possibly                 plan where we are going ...
Qualitative Research                   Methodology           •     Some methods similar to qualitative                 stu...
Qualitative Research                   Methodology           •     Some methods similar to qualitative                 stu...
Qualitative Research                   Methodology           •     Some methods unique to                 qualitative stud...
Areas In Which Qualitative                   Research Methods Are Different                   •    Selection of subjects  ...
Selection of Subjects -                   Participants           •     Subjects referred to as participants           •   ...
Purposive Sampling                   Methods           •     May select individuals typical in                 relation to...
Sample Size           •     Decisions regarding sample size are                 different than in quantitative studies.   ...
Decision to Stop Seeking                   New Subjects           •     Informational redundancy                   •    Wh...
Researcher-Participant                   Relationships           •     Participants treated as colleagues                 ...
Researcher-Participant                   Relationships           •     In many studies, researcher observes               ...
Researcher-Participant                   Relationships           •     Participants often assist in                   •   ...
Researcher-Participant                   Relationships           •     Researcher’s personality is                 key fac...
The Qualitative Researcher             •    The researcher must become                  closely involved in the subject’s ...
Qualitative Values           •     The researcher’s aims and means                 need to be consistent with those of    ...
Data Collection Methods           •     Observation                   •    What is going on here                   •    Lo...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                   •    Open-ended format                   •    Researc...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                   •    Respondents encouraged to                       ...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                   •    Researcher and participant are                  ...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                   •    Focus of interview is on obtaining              ...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                   •    Continued dialogue over time                    ...
Data Collection Methods           •     Interviews                  • Strategies to record interview                    in...
Data Collection Methods           •     Text As A Source of                 Qualitative Data                 • Text may be...
Data Collection Methods           •     Text As A Source of Qualitative                 Data                 • Text develo...
Data Collection Methods           •     Text As A Source of Qualitative                 Data                   •    Publis...
Data Collection Methods           •     Text As A Source of Qualitative                 Data                 • Notes taken...
Data Management           •     Qualitative data analysis occurs                 concurrently with data collection        ...
Data Management           •     Data must be stored in organized                 manner.           •     Traditionally, da...
Qualitative Data Analysis           •     Because published qualitative                 studies tend not to describe      ...
Qualitative Data Analysis           •     “Many believe that qualitative analysis                 can be done in a spirit ...
Qualitative Data Analysis           •     Stages:                   • Description                   • Analysis            ...
Qualitative Data Analysis           •     Descriptive stage of qualitative                 analysis is more critical in   ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Become familiar with the data                   •    Read and reread notes and transc...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Focus of immersion is the                 question, “what is going on?”           •  ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     During the data analysis process,                 a dynamic interaction occurs       ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Reflexive Thought                   •    The researcher explores personal            ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Bracketing                   •    Used in some phenomenological research             ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Data Reduction                   •    Initial efforts at analysis focus on           ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Data Reduction                   •    Researcher discovers classes of things,        ...
Descriptive Analysis           •     Codes and Coding                   •    Essentially a way of indexing or identifying ...
Data Displays           •     Equivalent to the summary tables                 used in quantitative studies           •   ...
Data Analysis           •     Goes beyond description           •     Uses methods to transform                 the data  ...
Data Analysis           •     Researcher identifies essential                 features and describes                 inter...
Data Analysis           •     Coding, used earlier for                 description, can also be used                 to ex...
Data Analysis           •     Memoing                   •    Used to record insights or ideas related                     ...
Data Analysis           •     Storytelling                   •    “..an event or series of events, encompassed            ...
Data Analysis           •     Storytelling                   •    “People sharing a story                        (storytel...
Data Analysis           •     Storytelling                 • Can be instructive in                   understanding a pheno...
Data Analysis           •     Storytelling                 • In some qualitative studies,                   the focus of t...
Data Analysis           •     Storytelling                   •    Gathering of stories can enable                        h...
Data Analysis           •     Narrative Analysis                   •    A qualitative means of                        form...
Data Analysis      •      Narrative Analysis               •    Can be used to determine how people                    tel...
Narrative Analysis           •     Structure           Question           •     Abstract------      What is this about?   ...
Narrative Analysis           •     Abstract                   •    Initiates the narrative by                        summa...
Narrative Analysis           •     Orientation                   •    Provides an introduction to the major               ...
Narrative Analysis           •     Evaluation                   •    The point of the narrative           •     Result    ...
Narrative Analysis           • Can focus on social action             imbedded in the text           • Can examine the eff...
Narrative Analysis           •     Purposes of Stories                   •    May make a point or be moralistic           ...
Narrative Analysis           •     Purpose of analysis                 • Examine multiple stories of key life             ...
Narrative Analysis           •     Purposes of analysis                   •    May be used to examine issues              ...
Interpretation           •     The researcher offers his or                 her interpretation of what                 is ...
Interpretation           •     May focus on the usefulness                 of the findings for clinical                 pr...
Interpretation           •     As the study progresses,                 relationships among categories,                 pa...
Interpretation           •     The researcher gains increasing                 understanding of the dynamics              ...
Interpretation           •     The validity of predictions developed                 in the tentative theory must be teste...
Rigor in Qualitative Research           •     Rigor needs to be defined                 differently in qualitative        ...
Rigor in Qualitative Research           •     Characteristics of Rigor in Qualitative                 Studies             ...
Rigor in Qualitative Research           •     Evaluation of rigor is based,                 in part, on the logic of the  ...
Rigor in Qualitative Research           •     Causes of lack of rigor                   •    Inconsistency in adhering to ...
Rigor in Qualitative Research           •     Causes of lack of rigor                   •    Poor observations            ...
Decision Trails           •     Strategies by which other                 researchers, using the same                 data...
Decision Trails           •     Requires that the researcher                 establish decision rules for                 ...
Decision Trails           •     A record is kept of all decision rules used                 in the analysis of data.      ...
Decision Trails           •     Some qualitative researchers are opposed                 to the idea of decision trails.  ...
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24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Qualitative Research MethodologyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Qualitative Research A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaningCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Qualitative Research Useful in understanding such human experiences as pain, caring, powerlessness, and comfortCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. The Logic of Qualitative Research • Focuses on understanding the whole • Consistent with holistic philosophy of nursing • Provides means of exploring the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in phenomenaCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. World View • Reality • There is not a single reality. • Reality is based on perception and is different for each person. • A person’s perception of reality changes over time.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. World View • Knowledge • What we know has meaning only within a given situation or contextCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Reasoning Process in Qualitative Research • Involves perceptually putting pieces together to make wholes. • From this process, meaning is produced. • Because perception varies with the individual, including researchers, many meanings are possible.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Frameworks For Qualitative Studies • Goal of qualitative research not theory testing • Frameworks used in a different sense in qualitative research • Each type of qualitative research guided by a particular philosophical stanceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Frameworks For Qualitative Studies • Philosophical base of a qualitative study directs: • questions asked • observations that are made • approach to interpretation of dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Data From Qualitative Studies • Subjective • Incorporate the perceptions and beliefs of the researcher and the participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Findings From Qualitative Studies • Lead to understanding a phenomenon in a particular situation • Not generalized in same way as those of quantitative studiesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Findings From Qualitative Studies • Understanding the meanings of a phenomenon in a particular situation gives insights that can be applied more broadly. • Guides nursing practice • Aids in the important process of theory development for building nursing knowledge.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Approaches to Qualitative ResearchCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Phenomenology • Both a philosophy and a research method • Purpose is to describe experiences as they are lived • to capture the “lived experience” of study participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Phenomenological Philosophy • The person is integral with the environment. • The world is shaped by and shapes the self. • Reality is subjective: thus, an experience is unique to the individual. • The researcher’s experiences are unique to him/her.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Phenomenological Philosophy • Truth • is an interpretation of some phenomenon. • is temporal. • is cultural. • May be a truth shared with others.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person is a self within a body - thus the person is referred to as embodied • The person has a world that they have by virtue of being born into a culture • meaningful relationships • meaningful practices • meaningful languageCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person is situated - shaped by his or her world. • The person is constrained in ability to establish meanings by • language • culture • history • purposes • valuesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • The person has only situated freedom, not total freedom • A person’s world is so pervasive that generally it is not noticed unless some disruption occurs. • The person can be understood only in the context of their unique body, world, and concerns.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Heideggarian Phenomenologist Beliefs • Being-in-time • the person experiences being within the framework of time. • The past and the future influence the now and are part of being-in-time.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Phenomenology & Nursing Theory • Parse (1981) Theory of Man- Living-Health • Paterson & Zderad (1976) Theory of Humanistic Nursing • Watson (1985) Theory of CaringCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Phenomenology Methods • Broad question • What is the meaning of one’s lived experience? • The only reliable source of information to answer this question is the person • Requires that the person interpret the action or experience for the researcher • The researcher must interpret the explanation provided by the person.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Grounded Theory • Based on symbolic interaction theory • Holds many views in common with phenomenology • Explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Grounded Theory Philosophy • Reality • Reality is created by attaching meanings to situations. • Meaning is expressed in terms of symbols such as words, religious objects, and clothingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Grounded Theory Philosophy • Symbolic Meaning • Symbolic meanings are the basis for actions and interactions. • Symbolic meanings are different for each individual. • We cannot completely know the symbolic meanings of another individual.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Grounded Theory Philosophy • Social Groups • Symbolic meanings are shared by groups and communicated to new members through socialization • Group life is based on consensus and shared meaningsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Grounded Theory Philosophy • Social Groups • Interaction may lead to redefinition and new meanings • Social redefinition can lead to redefinition of selfCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Grounded Theory Methods • Artinian’s Four Qualitative Modes of Nursing Inquiry • Descriptive mode • Discovery Mode • Emergent fit mode • Intervention modeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Descriptive Mode • Provides rich detail • Must precede all other modes • Ideal for the beginning researcherCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Descriptive Mode • Research Questions • What is going on? • How are activities organized? • What roles are evident? • What are the steps in a process? • What does a patient do in a particular setting?Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Discovery Mode • Identification of patterns in life experiences of individuals • Relates individual patterns to each other • Generates a theory of social process (substantive theory) that explains a particular social worldCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Emergent Fit Mode • Used when substantive theory has been developed • Purpose to extent or refine existing substantive theoryCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Emergent Fit Mode • Enables researcher to • Focus on a selected portion of the theory • Build on previous work • Establish a research program around a particular social processCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Intervention Mode • Used to test the relationships in a substantive theory • Research question: “How can I make something happen in such a way as to bring about new and desired states of affairs?” • Demands deep involvement on the part of the researcher/practitionerCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Ethnographic Research • Developed by anthropologists • Mechanism for studying cultures • Word means “portrait of a people” • Seeks to understand people - ways of living, believing, adaptingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Ethnographic Philosophy • Culture • A way of life belonging to a designated group of people • A blueprint for living which guides a particular group’s thoughts, actions, and sentiments • All the accumulated ways a group of people solve problems • Reflected in language, dress, food, traditions, customsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Ethnographic Philosophy • Material Culture • All created objects • Nonmaterial culture • Symbolic referents • Network of social relations • Beliefs • IdealsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Ethnographic Research • Purpose • Describe a culture • Study people’s origin, past ways of living, ways of surviving through time • Discover the many parts of a whole culture and how these parts are interrelated • Develop a picture of the wholeness of the cultureCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Ethnonursing • Theory of Transcultural Nursing - Leininger • Focuses on how daily life conditions and patterns influence human care, health, and nursing care practicesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. Historical Research • Examines events of the past • Greatest value of historical knowledge is increased self- understanding • Increases nurses’ understanding of their professionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. Historical Philosophy • There is nothing new under the sun. • One can learn from the past. • Search for wisdom in what has been, what is, and what ought to be.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. Historical Philosophy • Goal to identify a developmental scheme for history to explain all events and structures as elements of the same social process.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. Historical Research • Search throughout history for generalities. • Develop a theoretical explanation. • Based on a world view.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. Historical Nursing Knowledge • How can we in nursing today possibly plan where we are going when we don’t know where we have been nor how we got here. • Criterion of a profession is that there is a knowledge of the history of the profession that is transmitted to those entering the profession.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods similar to qualitative studies • Select a topic • State problem or question • Justify the significance of the study • Design the study • Identify sources of data such as subjectsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods similar to qualitative studies • Gain access to sources of data • Select subjects for study • Gather data • Describe, analyze and interpret the data • Develop a written report of resultsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  47. 47. Qualitative Research Methodology • Some methods unique to qualitative studies and sometimes to specific types of qualitative researchCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. Areas In Which Qualitative Research Methods Are Different • Selection of subjects • Researcher-participant relationships • Data collection methods • Data management • Data analysis • InterpretationCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  49. 49. Selection of Subjects - Participants • Subjects referred to as participants • May volunteer to be involved in the study • May be selected by the researcher because of their particular knowledge, experience or views related to the studyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. Purposive Sampling Methods • May select individuals typical in relation to the phenomenon under study • May seek out individuals that are different in some way from other participants in order to get diverse perspectives • Snowballing usedCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  51. 51. Sample Size • Decisions regarding sample size are different than in quantitative studies. • Based on needs related to study purpose • Usually number of subjects is small in comparison to quantitative studies • Case studies with one subject may be used • 6 - 10 subjects not unusualCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  52. 52. Decision to Stop Seeking New Subjects • Informational redundancy • When the researcher ceases learning new information • Theoretical Saturation • When theoretical ideas seem completeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. Researcher-Participant Relationships • Participants treated as colleagues rather than as subjects • Researcher must have the support and confidence of participants in order to complete the study • Maintaining relationships of utmost importanceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. Researcher-Participant Relationships • In many studies, researcher observes social behavior and may interact socially with the participants. • To varying degrees, the researcher influences the individuals being studied and, in turn, is influenced by them. • The researcher’s presence may alter behavior of participants.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  55. 55. Researcher-Participant Relationships • Participants often assist in • Determining research questions • Guiding data collection • Interpreting resultsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. Researcher-Participant Relationships • Researcher’s personality is key factor • Skills in empathy • IntuitionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  57. 57. The Qualitative Researcher • The researcher must become closely involved in the subject’s experience in order to interpret it. • The researcher must be open to the perceptions of the participants, rather than to attach his or her own meaning to the experience.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  58. 58. Qualitative Values • The researcher’s aims and means need to be consistent with those of the participants • For example, if the researcher’s desire is to change the behavior of the participants, this must also be their desire.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  59. 59. Data Collection Methods • Observation • What is going on here • Look carefully as well as listen • Note routine activities • Focus on details • Note processes as well as discrete events • Note unexpected eventsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  60. 60. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Open-ended format • Researcher defines the focus • There is no fixed sequence of questions • Questions asked tend to change as the researcher gains insights from previous interviews and/or observationsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  61. 61. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Respondents encouraged to raise important issues not addressed by the researcher • May use focus groupsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  62. 62. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Researcher and participant are actively engaged in constructing a version of the world • Goal is to achieve mutual understandingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  63. 63. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Focus of interview is on obtaining an authentic insight into the participant’s experiences • Dialogue between researcher and participant may continue at intervals across weeks or monthsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  64. 64. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Continued dialogue over time decreases the problem of fleeting relationships in which the respondent may have little commitment or may provide only information they believe the researcher wants to hear.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  65. 65. Data Collection Methods • Interviews • Strategies to record interview information • Writing detailed notes immediately after interview • Recording the interview on tapeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  66. 66. Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Text may be written by participants on a particular topic at the request of the researcher • Text narratives may be solicited by mail rather than in personCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  67. 67. Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Text developed for other purposes, such as patient records or procedure manuals, can be accessed for qualitative analysisCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  68. 68. Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Published text - books, newspapers, journal articles, Internet materials • Transcripts of recorded interviews • Text related to historical eventsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  69. 69. Data Collection Methods • Text As A Source of Qualitative Data • Notes taken while reading written documents will be important to the analysis process.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  70. 70. Data Management • Qualitative data analysis occurs concurrently with data collection rather than sequentially as is true in quantitative research. • The researcher is simultaneously gathering data, managing a growing bulk of collected data, and interpreting the meaning of data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  71. 71. Data Management • Data must be stored in organized manner. • Traditionally, data collection and analysis has been performed manually. • Some qualitative researchers are now using the computer to make management and analysis of qualitative data quicker and easier without losing touch with the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  72. 72. Qualitative Data Analysis • Because published qualitative studies tend not to describe the methodology in detail, many believe that qualitative analysis is free-wheeling.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  73. 73. Qualitative Data Analysis • “Many believe that qualitative analysis can be done in a spirit of careless rapture, with no principles or discipline whatsoever. . . They think they will know what to do with the data once those data are collected. . . When they begin analysis, they find that things are not quite so simple” (Coffey & Atkinson).Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  74. 74. Qualitative Data Analysis • Stages: • Description • Analysis • InterpretationCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  75. 75. Qualitative Data Analysis • Descriptive stage of qualitative analysis is more critical in qualitative studies • Researchers encouraged to remain in the descriptive mode for as long as possibleCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  76. 76. Descriptive Analysis • Become familiar with the data • Read and reread notes and transcripts • Recall observations and experiences • Listen to audiotapes • View videotapes • Become immersed in the dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  77. 77. Descriptive Analysis • Focus of immersion is the question, “what is going on?” • Grounded Theory Research - uses constant comparative process, in which every piece of data is compared with every other piece.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  78. 78. Descriptive Analysis • During the data analysis process, a dynamic interaction occurs between the researcher’s self and the data, whether the data are communicated orally person-to-person or in writing.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  79. 79. Descriptive Analysis • Reflexive Thought • The researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study. • Requires conscious awareness of self.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  80. 80. Descriptive Analysis • Bracketing • Used in some phenomenological research to help the researcher avoid misinterpreting the phenomenon as it is being experienced by the participants. • Bracketing is suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  81. 81. Descriptive Analysis • Data Reduction • Initial efforts at analysis focus on reducing the large volume of data acquired in order to facilitate examination. • During data reduction, the researcher begins to attach meaning to elements of the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  82. 82. Descriptive Analysis • Data Reduction • Researcher discovers classes of things, persons, events, and properties • Notes regularities in the setting or the people • Classifies the elements of the data, by using an established classification system or developing a new oneCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  83. 83. Descriptive Analysis • Codes and Coding • Essentially a way of indexing or identifying categories in the data. • Codes may be placed in the data at the time of data collection, when entering data into the computer, and during later examination of the data. • Data segments can then be retrieved by coding category.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  84. 84. Data Displays • Equivalent to the summary tables used in quantitative studies • Allow the researcher to convey succinctly the main ideas of the study • Codes can be used to organize the displayCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  85. 85. Data Analysis • Goes beyond description • Uses methods to transform the data • Extends the data beyond the descriptionCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  86. 86. Data Analysis • Researcher identifies essential features and describes interrelationships among them. • Emphasis is on identifying themes and patterns from the data.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  87. 87. Data Analysis • Coding, used earlier for description, can also be used to expand, transform, and reconceptualize data, providing opportunities for more diverse analyses.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  88. 88. Data Analysis • Memoing • Used to record insights or ideas related to notes, transcripts, or codes • Move the researcher toward theorizing and are conceptual rather than factual • May link pieces of data or use a specific piece of data as an example of a conceptual ideaCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  89. 89. Data Analysis • Storytelling • “..an event or series of events, encompassed by temporal or spatial boundaries, that are shared with others using an oral medium or sign language” (Banks-Wallace, 1998) • Includes a sequence of events with a beginning, a middle and an end • Have their own logic and are temporalCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  90. 90. Data Analysis • Storytelling • “People sharing a story (storytellers) and those listening to a story (storytakers) and the main elements of storytelling.” (Banks- Wallace, 1998)Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  91. 91. Data Analysis • Storytelling • Can be instructive in understanding a phenomenon of interest. • Researcher may record stories shared by participantsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  92. 92. Data Analysis • Storytelling • In some qualitative studies, the focus of the research may be the gathering of stories.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  93. 93. Data Analysis • Storytelling • Gathering of stories can enable health care providers to develop storytelling as a powerful means to increase insight and facilitate health promotion behaviors of clients.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  94. 94. Data Analysis • Narrative Analysis • A qualitative means of formally analyzing stories • Researcher unpacks the structure of the storyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  95. 95. Data Analysis • Narrative Analysis • Can be used to determine how people tell stories • how they give shape to the events they describe • how they make a point • how they “package” events and react to them • how they communicate their stories to audiencesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  96. 96. Narrative Analysis • Structure Question • Abstract------ What is this about? • Orientation-- Who? What? When? Where? • Complication--- Then what happened? • Evaluation--- So what? • Result--------- What finally happened? • Coda---------- Finish narrativeCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  97. 97. Narrative Analysis • Abstract • Initiates the narrative by summarizing the point of the study or giving a statement of the proposition the narrative will illustrate.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  98. 98. Narrative Analysis • Orientation • Provides an introduction to the major events central to the story • Complication • Continues the narrative, describing complications in the event that make it a story.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  99. 99. Narrative Analysis • Evaluation • The point of the narrative • Result • Gives the outcome or resolution of events • Coda • Ends the story, and is the transition point at which talk may revert to other topicsCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  100. 100. Narrative Analysis • Can focus on social action imbedded in the text • Can examine the effect of the storyCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  101. 101. Narrative Analysis • Purposes of Stories • May make a point or be moralistic • May be success stories • May be a reminder of what not to do or how not to be with guidance in how to avoid the fate described in the study • May be used to understand cultural values, meanings, and personal experiencesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  102. 102. Narrative Analysis • Purpose of analysis • Examine multiple stories of key life events and gain greater understanding of the impact of these key events • May assist in understanding the relationship between social processes and personal livesCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  103. 103. Narrative Analysis • Purposes of analysis • May be used to examine issues related to power, dominance, and opposition • Through stories, silenced groups can be given voiceCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  104. 104. Interpretation • The researcher offers his or her interpretation of what is going on. • The focus is on understanding and explanation beyond what can be stated with certainty.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  105. 105. Interpretation • May focus on the usefulness of the findings for clinical practice • May move toward theorizingCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  106. 106. Interpretation • As the study progresses, relationships among categories, participants, actions, and events begin to emerge. • The researcher will develop hunches about relationships that can be used to formulate tentative propositions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  107. 107. Interpretation • The researcher gains increasing understanding of the dynamics involved in the process under study. • This understanding might be considered a tentative theory. • The tentative theory is often expressed as a map.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  108. 108. Interpretation • The validity of predictions developed in the tentative theory must be tested. • One strategy sometimes used is to predict outcomes expected to occur 6 months after completion of the study. These predictions are sent to informants who respond to the accuracy of the predictions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  109. 109. Rigor in Qualitative Research • Rigor needs to be defined differently in qualitative research because the desired outcome is different.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  110. 110. Rigor in Qualitative Research • Characteristics of Rigor in Qualitative Studies • Openness • Scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective • Thoroughness in collecting data • Consideration of all of the data in the subjective theory development phaseCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  111. 111. Rigor in Qualitative Research • Evaluation of rigor is based, in part, on the logic of the emerging theory and the clarity with which it sheds light on the phenomenon studies.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  112. 112. Rigor in Qualitative Research • Causes of lack of rigor • Inconsistency in adhering to the philosophy of the approach being used • Failure to get away from older ideas • Poorly developed methods • Inadequate time spent collecting dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  113. 113. Rigor in Qualitative Research • Causes of lack of rigor • Poor observations • Failure to give careful consideration to all the data obtained • Inadequacy of theoretical development from the dataCopyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  114. 114. Decision Trails • Strategies by which other researchers, using the same data, can follow the logic of the original researcher and arrive at the same conclusions.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  115. 115. Decision Trails • Requires that the researcher establish decision rules for categorizing data, arriving at ratings, or making judgments.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  116. 116. Decision Trails • A record is kept of all decision rules used in the analysis of data. • All raw data are stored so that they are available for review if requested. • Thus, evidence is retained to support the study conclusions and the emerging theory and is made available on request.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  117. 117. Decision Trails • Some qualitative researchers are opposed to the idea of decision trails. • Of concern is that data analysis would become too mechanistic. • Some qualitative researchers are opposed to the expectation that other researchers would come to the same conclusions since one would expect each researcher’s work to be unique.Copyright © 1999 by W.B.Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

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