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The Money Market Graph and the 3 Policy Tools that Change the Money Supply Monetary Policy
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The M1 Money Supply is the  MOST  liq...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The Money Market graph is used to  Il...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The  FEDERAL FUNDS RATE  is  ONE  of ...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money i 1 Q 1 If the Federal Reserve  INCRE...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money First we are going to examine what sh...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money i 1 Q 1 First we are going to examine...
Monetary Policy and the Money Market Graph <ul><li>If the Economy is in a  Recession  the Federal Reserve would do the fol...
Monetary Policy and the Money Market Graph <ul><li>If the Economy is experiencing  Inflation  the Federal Reserve would do...
Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money
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Money Market Graph 2003

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Transcript of "Money Market Graph 2003"

  1. 1. The Money Market Graph and the 3 Policy Tools that Change the Money Supply Monetary Policy
  2. 2. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The M1 Money Supply is the MOST liquid form of The Money Supply (Cash, Checkable Deposits, Travelers Checks). IMPORTANT NOTE!!! When the Federal Reserve conducts a Monetary Policy It is changing, either INCREASING or DECREASING , The M1 Money Supply!! This graph is known as THE MONEY MARKET GRAPH When the Federal Reserve conducts a Monetary Policy this Is the FIRST market that is affected. Notice that the Money Supply (MS*) curve is VERTICAL This is because the Quantity of Money in circulation is FIXED At any given time. This measure of the Quantity of Money is The M1 Money Supply
  3. 3. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The Money Market graph is used to Illustrate SHORT-TERM Interest Rates. SHORT-TERM interest rates are established , well, in The short-term, so Inflation (in terms of the interest Rate) is not a factor. Hence, we call this Interest Rate the NOMINAL INTEREST RATE. There are MANY short-term interest rates in the financial system, but we will be concerned with only one: The FEDERAL FUNDS RATE
  4. 4. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money The FEDERAL FUNDS RATE is ONE of TWO interest rates that the Federal Reserve has DIRECT control over. It is defined as the Interest Rate Banks charge EACH OTHER to BORROW money from EACH OTHER . It is also know as the Overnight Lending Rate. For our purposes, equate the Nominal Interest Rate with the Federal Funds Rate: When The Nominal Interest Rate changes so does the Federal Funds Rate.
  5. 5. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine what shifts the </li></ul><ul><li>Money Supply Curve in the Money Market </li></ul><ul><li>ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Open Market Operations (OMO’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy Bonds – Federal Reserve buys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(purchases) bonds on the open market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This INCREASES the Money Supply </li></ul></ul>i 1 Q ms1 MS 1 The result of this OMO DECREASES the Nominal Interest Rate (Federal Funds Rate). Borrowing between banks is now Less expensive. More money in flowing into the financial System. This sends a POWERFUL signal to the financial System that the supply of money has INCREASED and they Should adjust their interest rates LOWER.
  6. 6. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine what shifts the </li></ul><ul><li>Money Supply Curve in the Money Market </li></ul><ul><li>ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Open Market Operations (OMO’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell Bonds – Federal Reserve sells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> bonds on the open market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This DECREASES the Money Supply </li></ul></ul>i 1 Q 1 MS 1 The result of this OMO INCREASES the Nominal Interest Rate (Federal Funds Rate). Borrowing between banks is now MORE expensive. More money in flowing OUT of the financial System. This sends a POWERFUL signal to the financial System that the supply of money has DE CREASED and they Should adjust their interest rates HIGHER.
  7. 7. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money <ul><li>First we are going to examine what shifts the </li></ul><ul><li>Money Supply Curve in the Money Market </li></ul><ul><li>ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Change the DISCOUNT RATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Discount Rate is the Interest Rate the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve charges banks to BORROW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM the Federal Reserve. </li></ul></ul>i 1 MS 1 Q ms1 If the Federal Reserve DECREASES the Discount Rate then Banks will tend to BORROW MORE From the Federal Reserve. This money will Go into the banks EXCESS RESERVES to be loaned Out and the money supply will INCREASE. THE NOMINAL INTEREST RATE WILL DECREASE
  8. 8. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money i 1 Q 1 If the Federal Reserve INCREASES the Discount Rate then Banks will tend to BORROW LESS From the Federal Reserve. This money will DECREASE the money in the banking systems EXCESS RESERVES . There will be LESS money to Be loaned out. The money supply will DECREASE THE NOMINAL INTEREST RATE WILL INCREASE <ul><li>First we are going to examine what shifts the </li></ul><ul><li>Money Supply Curve in the Money Market </li></ul><ul><li>ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Change the DISCOUNT RATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Discount Rate is the Interest Rate the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve charges banks to BORROW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM the Federal Reserve. </li></ul></ul>MS 1
  9. 9. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money First we are going to examine what shifts the Money Supply Curve in the Money Market ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: 3. Change the Required Reserve Ratio The Required Reserve is the amount that banks are required to with-hold from EACH deposit they receive . Expressed as a percentage. i 1 Q ms1 MS 1 If the Federal Reserve DECREASES the Required Reserve Ratio then banks will have LESS in R.R . and MORE in EXCESS RESERVES. This money will go into the banks EXCESS RESERVES to be loaned out and the money supply will INCREASE. THE NOMINAL INTEREST RATE WILL DECREASE
  10. 10. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money i 1 Q 1 First we are going to examine what shifts the Money Supply Curve in the Money Market ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MONETARY POLICIES CAN SHIFT THE MONEY SUPPLY CURVE: 3. Change the Required Reserve Ratio The Required Reserve is the amount that banks are required to with-hold from EACH deposit they receive . Expressed as a percentage. MS 1 If the Federal Reserve INCREASES the Required Reserve Ratio then banks will have MORE in R.R . and LESS in EXCESS RESERVES. This will DECREASE the money in EXCESS RESERVES to be loaned out and the money supply will DECREASE. THE NOMINAL INTEREST RATE WILL INCREASE
  11. 11. Monetary Policy and the Money Market Graph <ul><li>If the Economy is in a Recession the Federal Reserve would do the following to DECREASE the Nominal Interest Rates (Federal Funds Rate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUY BONDS, DECREASE THE REQUIRED RESERVE RATIO, DECREASE THE DISCOUNT RATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These all serve to INCREASE the money supply in the banking system </li></ul></ul></ul>The Federal Reserve is pursuing an EXPANSIONARY MONETARY POLICY DECREASING the Nominal Interest Rate sends a powerful signal to the banking System that they should DECREASE their interest rates. This will encourage consumers to borrow money to buy houses, cars, other consumer goods, etc. It will encourage businesses to borrow money to buy or replace capital equipment, expand facilities, build new facilities, etc (thus ADDING to the Capital Stock It will DEPRECIATE the dollar in the FOREX, making EXPORTS LESS expensive for foreigners to buy. REAL GDP WILL INCREASE
  12. 12. Monetary Policy and the Money Market Graph <ul><li>If the Economy is experiencing Inflation the Federal Reserve would do the following to INCREASE the Nominal Interest Rates (Federal Funds Rate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELL BONDS, INCREASE THE REQUIRED RESERVE RATIO, INCREASE THE DISCOUNT RATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These all serve to DECREASE the money supply in the banking system </li></ul></ul></ul>The Federal Reserve is pursuing a CONTRACTIONARY MONETARY POLICY INCREASING the Nominal Interest Rate sends a powerful signal to the banking System that they should INCEASE their interest rates. This will DISCOURAGE consumers from borrowing money to buy houses, cars, other consumer goods, etc. It will DISCOURAGE Businesses from borrow money to buy or replace capital equipment, expand facilities, Build new facilities, etc (thus SUBTRACTING from the Capital Stock It will APPPRECIATE the dollar in the FOREX, making EXPORTS MORE expensive for foreigners to buy. REAL GDP WILL DECREASE
  13. 13. Money Market MS* i* Money Demand (MD*) Q* ms Nominal Interest Rate Quantity of Money
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