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Leadership 101 - Part 1
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Leadership 101 - Part 1 Leadership 101 - Part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Developed by Dr. David Hays
    • Part One of this course contains answers to these questions:
      • What is your definition of leadership?
      • Which variables determine leadership effectiveness?
      • What are differences between leadership and management?
      • Which should be most important to a leader: employees, customers, or profits?
    • There are many definitions of leadership. However, there is consensus that leadership is a process used by an individual to influence group members toward the achievement of group goals, where the group members view the influence as legitimate.
    • To summarize, leaders seek the voluntary participation of subordinates and superiors in an effort to reach organizational goals
    • Disagreement about the definition of leadership stems from the fact that it involves a complex interaction among the leader, the followers, and the situation.
  • CORE CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP Actions focus on influencing behavior Systematic and continuous series of actions Influence is directed toward achieving group goals A single individual usually fulfills the role for a group Influence is viewed by followers as reasonable & justified
    • Tom Peters, co-author of “A Passion for Excellence” describe leadership in broader terms:
    • “ Leadership means vision, cheerleading, enthusiasm, love, trust, passion, obsession, consistency, the use of symbols, paying attention, creating heroes at all levels, coaching, effectively wandering around, and numerous other things”
    • What is your definition of leadership?
    • Leadership: “Doing the right thing”
    • Management: “Doing things right”
    • Leaders
    • Focus on the future
    • Create change
    • Create a culture based on shared values
    • Establish emotional link with followers
    • Use personal power
    • Managers
    • Focus on the present
    • Maintain status quo
    • Implement policies and procedures
    • Remain aloof and maintain objectivity
    • Use position power
    Leaders and Managers
    • Describe differences between leadership and management in your organization.
    • Do you believe that leadership or management is more important?
    • Does your organization place more importance on leadership or management?
    • Researchers have been trying to answer these questions for years:
      • What does it take to be a successful leader?
      • What is the most effective leadership style?
    • Early studies were based on two theories:
      • Trait Theory (focuses on leader qualities )
      • Behavior Theory (focuses on leader actions )
    • Sir Francis Galton
      • One of the earliest leadership theorists
      • Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869
      • Believed leadership qualities were genetic
    • This theory assumes physical and psychological characteristics account for effective leadership
      • Basic intelligence
      • Clear and strong values
      • High personal energy
    • Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for effective leadership:
      • Need for achievement
      • Intelligence
      • Decisiveness
      • Self-confidence
      • Initiative
      • Supervisory ability
    • In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved researchers in the direction of leadership behavior
      • Kurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles:
        • Autocratic: tight control of group activities, decisions made by the leader
        • Democratic: group participation, majority rule
        • Laissez-faire: little activity of any type by the leader
    • Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan conducted leadership studies
      • Studied leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance
      • Identified two dimensions of behavior:
        • Job centered (initiating structure)
        • Employee centered (showing consideration)
    • Showing consideration means… taking action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates
    • Measures of consideration:
      • Being helpful
      • Treating all people as equals
      • Willing to make changes
      • Standing behind subordinates
      • Doing things to make group membership pleasant
    1-
  • 1-
    • Findings of a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) study:
      • The Democratic style was more beneficial for group performance
      • The leader’s behavior impacted the performance of followers
    • Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations
      • By the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer
    • Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the:
      • Leader
      • Followers
      • Situational factors
    • Holds that the there is no universal answer to leadership. The appropriate leader/leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
    • Fred Fiedler developed a situational model of leadership. It is the oldest and one of the most widely known models of leadership.
    • Fiedler believes that leaders are either task motivated or relationship motivated, similar to the managerial grid concern for production/people.
  • Representation of Fiedler’s Contingency Model Situational Control High Control Situations Moderate Control Situations Low Control Situations Leader-member relations Task Structure Position Power Good Good Good High High High Strong Weak Strong Good Poor Poor Low High High Weak Strong Strong Poor Poor Low Low Strong Weak Situation I II III IV V VI VII VIII Optimal Leadership Style Task Motivated Leadership Relationship Motivated Leadership Task Motivated Leadership
    • Leadership results when… the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the follower in a particular situation
    • Examples:
      • Gen. George Patton
      • Nelson Mandela
    • For leadership to take place, the leader, followers, and situation must match
    • “ In the end, all business operations can be reduced to three words; people, product and profits.  Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with the other two" - Lee Iacocca
    • Who comes first: customers, employees, or stockholders?
    • Drawing from your own values and leadership philosophy, rank the three groups in terms of managerial priority
    • Watch Herb Kelleher discuss his opinion about who should come first. Video is located to the left.
    • Proceed to Tab 2.