4.2 heart.copeland.2010

3,473 views
3,176 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,473
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

4.2 heart.copeland.2010

  1. 1. Section 4.2 The Heart  Chapter 18, pp. 661-687  Keep an eye on the Forum over the next few days for a new questionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Heart Anatomy  Approximately the size of your fist  Two side-by-side pumps  Location  Superior surface of diaphragm  Left of the midline, from 2nd rib to 5th intercostal space  Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum  “mediastinum”Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Heart Anatomy Broad, flat base points to rt. shoulder Apex points to lt. hipCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.1
  4. 4. 3 layers of the heart  Pericardium  Outer sac  Myocardium  Muscle, bulk of mass  Endocardium  Inner liningCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Coverings of the Heart: Anatomy  Pericardium – a double-walled sac around the heart composed of:  A superficial fibrous pericardium  A deep two-layer serous pericardium  The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium  The visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart  They are separated by the fluid-filled pericardial cavityCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Coverings of the Heart: Physiology  The pericardium:  Protects and anchors the heart  Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood  Allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction- free environment  Epicardium – visceral layer of the serous pericardiumCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Pericardial Layers of the HeartCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.2
  8. 8. Heart Wall  Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart  Branching muscle cells arranged in bundles  Provides support for great vessels and valves  Directs spread of action potentials across heart  Fibrous skeleton of the heart – crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue, insulation, supports great vessels  Endocardium – endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface; continuous with vessels leaving and entering the heartCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Cardiac Muscle BundlesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.3
  10. 10. External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Anterior View)  Vessels returning blood to the heart include:  Superior and inferior venae cavae, meaning?  Right and left pulmonary veins  Vessels conveying blood away from the heart:  Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left pulmonary arteries  Ascending aorta (three branches) – brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and subclavian arteriesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. External Heart: Vessels that Supply/Drain the Heart (Anterior View)  Arteries – right and left coronary (in atrioventricular groove), marginal, circumflex, and anterior interventricular arteries  Veins – small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and great cardiac veinsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Brachiocephalic Left commontrunk carotid arterySuperior Leftvena cava subclavian artery Aortic archRight Ligamentumpulmonary artery arteriosumAscending Left pulmonary arteryaortaPulmonary trunk Left pulmonary veins Left atriumRightpulmonary veins AuricleRight atrium CircumflexRight coronary arteryartery (in coronary Left coronarysulcus) artery (in coronaryAnterior sulcus)cardiac vein Left ventricleRight ventricleMarginal artery Great cardiac veinSmall cardiac vein AnteriorInferior interventricular artery (in anteriorvena cava interventricular sulcus) ApexCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.4b
  13. 13. External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Posterior View)  Vessels returning blood to the heart include:  Right and left pulmonary veins  Superior and inferior venae cavae  Vessels conveying blood away from the heart include:  Aorta  Right and left pulmonary arteriesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. External Heart: Vessels that Supply/Drain the Heart (Posterior View)  Arteries – right coronary artery (in atrioventricular groove) and the posterior interventricular artery (in interventricular groove)  Veins – great cardiac vein, posterior vein to left ventricle, coronary sinus, and middle cardiac veinCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Aorta Superior vena cava Left Right pulmonary artery pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Right atrium Left atrium Inferior Great cardiac vein vena cava Right coronary Posterior vein artery (in coronary of left ventricle sulcus) Coronary sinus Posterior interventricular artery Left ventricle (in posterior interventricular sulcus) Apex Middle cardiac vein(d) Right ventricleCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.4d
  16. 16. Aorta Superior vena cava Left Right pulmonary artery pulmonary artery Left atrium Pulmonary trunk Left Right atrium pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Mitral Fossa (bicuspid-2 flaps) ovalis valveAortic Pectinate valve Pulmonary muscles valve Tricuspid Left ventricle Valve (3 flaps) Papillary Right ventricle muscle Chordae Interventricular tendineae septum Trabeculae Myocardium carneae Visceral Inferior pericardium vena cava Endocardium (e)Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.4e
  17. 17. Atria of the Heart  Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart  Each atrium has a protruding auricle  Pectinate muscles mark atrial walls  Blood enters right atria from superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus  Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veinsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Ventricles of the Heart  Ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart  Papillary muscles and trabeculae carneae muscles mark ventricular walls  Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk  Left ventricle pumps blood into the aortaCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Right and Left VentriclesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.6
  20. 20. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs  Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  Right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary arteries  lungs  Lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium  Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta  Aorta  systemic circulationCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Aorta Superior vena cava Left Right pulmonary artery pulmonary artery Left atrium Pulmonary trunk Left Right atrium pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Mitral Fossa (bicuspid) valve ovalis Aortic Pectinate valve Pulmonary muscles valve Tricuspid Left ventricle valve Papillary Right ventricle muscle Chordae Interventricular tendineae septum Trabeculae Myocardium carneae Visceral Inferior pericardium vena cava Endocardium (e)Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.4e
  22. 22. Pulmonary circuit: Shorter, low pressure Systemic circuit: Long pathway, 5x pressure (more resistance)Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.5
  23. 23. 2 side-by-side pumpsCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Coronary Circulation  Coronary circulation is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself  Collateral routes ensure blood delivery to heart even if major vessels are occluded Left coronary artery Right coronary artery anterior circumflex marginal posterior interventricular artery artery interventricular artery artery interventricular left atrium lateral right posterior right septum & & posterior side of ventricular anterior walls walls of left heart (incl walls of both ventricle right atrium ventriclesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Coronary Circulation: Arterial Supply Blockage results in: Angina pectoris Myocardial Infarction (MI)Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.7a
  26. 26. Coronary circulation• many anastomoses, which provide alternate routes for nourishment if a given artery begins to be occluded - but total occlusion means ???? (1) actively deliver blood when heart is relaxed (2) largely ineffective when ventricles contracting because??• heart ~1/200 of body but requires ~1/20 of blood supply (esp. left ventricle) Coronary venous supply: from capillaries → cardiac veins (great, middle & small) → coronary sinus → right atrium also some anterior cardiac veins → directly into right atrium anteriorlyCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. Coronary Circulation: Venous SupplyCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.7b
  28. 28. Aorta Superior vena cava Left Right pulmonary artery pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Right atrium Left atrium Inferior Great cardiac vein vena cava Right coronary Posterior vein artery (in coronary of left ventricle sulcus) Coronary sinus Posterior interventricular artery Left ventricle (in posterior interventricular sulcus) Apex Middle cardiac vein(d) Right ventricleCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.4d
  29. 29. Heart Valves  Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart  Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria and the ventricles  AV valves prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract  Chordae tendineae anchor AV valves to papillary musclesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  30. 30. Heart Valves  Aortic semilunar valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta  Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk  Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles  No valves for vena cavae and pulmonary veins!Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Heart ValvesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.8a, b
  32. 32. Heart ValvesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.8c, d
  33. 33. Atrioventricular Valve FunctionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.9
  34. 34. Semilunar Valve FunctionCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.10
  35. 35. Microscopic Anatomy of Heart Muscle  Cardiac muscle is striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected  The connective tissue endomysium acts as both tendon and insertion  Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions  Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Anatomy Review: The Heart, pages 3–7Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  36. 36. Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle •1 or 2 nuclei/cell •full of mitochondria (25% vs 2% skeletal) •Resist fatigueCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 18.11

×