Murrin ch26

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Murrin ch26

  1. 1. Chapter 26 America during the Second World War© 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved.
  2. 2. The Road to War: Aggression and Response • International political instability arose from: – Built-up resentments from WWI – Worldwide depression of the 1930s – Ultra-nationalist movements in Japan, Italy, Germany(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  3. 3. The Rise of Aggressor States • Manchuria (1931) – Manchukuo • Hoover-Stimson Doctrine • National Socialist (Nazi) Party – Adolf Hitler • Benito Mussolini(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  4. 4. Isolationist Sentiment and American Neutrality • Nye committee – Gerald P. Nye – “Merchants of Death” • Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937) • “Cash and carry” • Spanish Civil War(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  5. 5. Growing Interventionist Sentiment • Spanish Civil War precipitated a debate over foreign policy – General Francisco Franco – “Abraham Lincoln Battalion” • Americans increasingly separated into interventionists or isolationists • Roosevelt tilts cautiously toward intervention(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  6. 6. The Mounting Crisis • Marco Polo Bridge incident • East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere • Panay (1937) • Nanjing • Axis Powers • Sudetenland(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  7. 7. The Outbreak of War in Europe • Munich Conference (1938) • Germany annexes Czechoslovakia • Stalin-Hitler Pact • World War II – Occupation of Poland (1939) – sitzkrieg • Blitzkrieg: Hitler moves to take Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France – Dunkirk(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  8. 8. America’s Response to War in Europe • Roosevelt tries to mold American opinion against Axis • “Cash and carry" • Selective Training and Service Act (1940) • Destroyers for bases deal • Robert Wood and the America First Committee • American Anti-Semitism • White Committee • Election of 1940: Roosevelt vs. Wendell Willkie(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  9. 9. An “Arsenal of Democracy” • Lend-Lease Act (1941) • Germany attacks Soviet Union • U.S. occupies Greenland and Iceland • Atlantic Charter (1941) • Undeclared naval war vs. German “Wolf Packs” – Reuben James(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  10. 10. The Attack at Pearl Harbor • U.S. begins trade embargo against Japan (1940) • Japanese assets in U.S. frozen (1941) – Petroleum issue • Pearl Harbor: Japan’s gamble (December 7, 1941) • MAGIC • December 8, 1941: U.S. declares war on Japan • December 11, Germany and Italy declare war on the United States(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  11. 11. Fighting the War in Europe • Axis doing well in 1942 • Joint Chiefs of Staff • Pentagon • ENIGMA and Ultra – Ultra precursor to computers(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  12. 12. Campaigns in North Africa and Italy • Europe first • Soviets and “second front” • Casablanca Conference • North African operation (1942) – TORCH – Dwight D. Eisenhower • Stalingrad • The Italian Campaign(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  13. 13. Operation Overlord • D-Day (June 6, 1944) – Normandy • Liberation of Paris • Elbe River • Holocaust • Hitler’s suicide • Europe split – Eastern Europe Soviet – Germany and Austria Divided – Western Europe British and American(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  14. 14. The Pacific Theatre • Fall of the Philippines • Bataan Death March(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  15. 15. Seizing the Initiative in the Pacific • Coral Sea (1942) • Midway Island (1942) • Guadalcanal • “War without mercy”(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  16. 16. China Policy • Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) • Mao Zedong • "China lobby"(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  17. 17. Pacific Strategy • Douglas MacArthur • Chester Nimitz • Iwo Jima • Okinawa • Strategic bombing • Blockade • “Unconditional surrender“ • Japan’s 3rd party peace “feelers”(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  18. 18. A New President • Roosevelt’s death • Harry S Truman – “A little man from Missouri”(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  19. 19. Atomic Power and Japanese Surrender • Manhattan Project – Albert Einstein – Los Alamos, New Mexico • Bomb decision – Save lives compared to invasion – End war before Soviets enter • Hiroshima (1945) • Nagasaki (1945) • V-J Day(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  20. 20. The War at Home: The Economy • Success for U.S. military efforts depended on mobilization back home in America • Great Depression finally came to a close • The war transformed America’s political economy – Government, businesses, financial institutions, and labor force(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  21. 21. Government’s Role in the Economy • War Production Board • War Labor Board • War Manpower Commission • Office of Price Administration • Office of Scientific Research and Development (R & D)(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  22. 22. Business and Finance • Increased government war spending • War bonds • Rationing and shared sacrifice • Social programs withered as big businesses flourished under government subsidies – Cost plus contracts • Anti-trust suits and legal challenges fell by the wayside(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  23. 23. The Workforce • Labor shortage gives opportunities to minorities and women • Bracero program • Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) • African-Americans move North • Wages of workers and farm income increases(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  24. 24. Labor Unions • Unions discriminate against minorities and women • Racial conflict in the worklpace • Smith-Connally Act (1943)(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  25. 25. Assessing Economic Change • Workplace became more inclusive • Jobs seemed plentiful and personal savings grew • Big business, big government, big labor expanded during war years – Science and technology: linked mutual interests among these 3 sectors(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  26. 26. The War at Home: Social Issues • By war’s end: 16 million Americans had served • Many people left their traditional homes • Sacrifices on the home front(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  27. 27. Wartime Propaganda • War to preserve the “American way of life” • Norman Rockwell – Four Freedoms • Frank Capra – Why We Fight • “Freedom” advertising • Office of War Information (OWI)(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  28. 28. Gender Equality • WASPS (Womens Airforce Service Pilots) • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) considered • “Pin up” mentality(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  29. 29. Racial Equality • Fighting Fascism challenges segregation • "Double V" campaign • A. Philip Randolph • Military segregation and discrimination(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  30. 30. Racial Tensions • Racial discrimination in housing • “Zoot suit" incidents • Native-Americans and the war • Committee (later, Congress) on Racial Equality (CORE) • Executive Order 9066: Japanese internment • “Melting pot” • Population movements erode regional distinctions(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  31. 31. Shaping the Peace • Harry S Truman (1945-1953) • Builds on Roosevelt’s legacy • United Nations • New international economic institutions created • Important global political issues settled(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  32. 32. International Organizations • United Nations (UN) – General Assembly – Security Council – Economic and Social Council – Eleanor Roosevelt • Bretton Woods Conference – International Monetary Fund (IMF) – World Bank • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)© 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved. (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  33. 33. Spheres of Interest and Postwar Settlements • Stalin and Churchill’s agreement • Teheran Conference (1943) • Yalta Conference (1945) – Germany – Berlin – Poland • U.S. and the question of colonies – Support Britain and France retaking control – Philippine independence • Latin America • Question of a Jewish homeland(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
  34. 34. Conclusion • Wartime mobilization led to the end of the Great Depression and shifted the New Deal away from social reforms and toward international issues • U.S. most preeminent power • 1940s: debates over nature of liberty and equality • Questions of post-war policies(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

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