DECLARATION BY STUDENT
I hereby declare that work entitled “Summer training project report”,
Submitted towards completion of vocational training after second year
of B.Tech (MECHANICAL) at PDPM-IIITDM JABALPUR
comprises of my original work
pursued under the supervision of guides at NTPC Sipat.
The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any
other Institute or University for the fulfillment of any other curriculum.
Harshit Kumar Gupta
MECH ENGG.(4TH SEM)
This is to certify that Mr. Harshit Kumar Gupta Of PDPM
IIITDM JABALPUR has undergone vocational
training from 21-05-2012 to 18-06-2012 at NATIONAL
THERMAL POWER CORPORATION SIPAT (C.G.) in the
COAL HANDLING PLANT and has made the project
under my guidance.
Under the guidance of :-
“It is not possible to prepare a project report without the assistance and encouragement of other people.This
one is certainly no exception”
On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere and heartfelt obligation towards all the personages
who have helped me in this endeavor. Without there active guidance, help, cooperation and encouragement, I would
not have made head way in the project. First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my project
Guide Mr. M.C.Mitra.
I was privileged to experience a sustained enthusiastic and involved interest from his side .
I would also like to thank Mr. D.S.Patil, Mr. Sameer Ekka, Mr. A.K.Singh, who instead of their busy schedule, always
guided me in right direction to head and also helped me in understanding Coal Handling Plant.
Last but not the least, I would like to thank Mr. Pravin Patel, for the allotment in the C.H.P. Batch of Vocational
I would like to thank Employee Development Center for organizing and permitting the Vocational Training Program for
Harshit Kumar Gupta
660MW X 3 , 500MW X 2
“Salient features of NTPC Sipat”
For the first time in the history of India, a thermal plant using Super Critical technology
is constructed. In addition to this a 765KV transmission system is used for the first
time in the country.
• The ultimate capacity of the plant was originally conceived as 3000MW. Thereafter,
Sipat project was reconfigured as follows:
• Thus the implementation of the project started in June 2007. It was to be completed
in two stages.
• Stage 1: 3*660 MW
• Stage 2: 2*500 MW
• The estimated cost for stage 1 was 7860.20 crores and for the stage 2 were 3785.18
crores. The coal source of this project is DIPKA Expansion project of SECL in Korba
(CG). Total coal linkage in the system is 15.04 million ton/year. The coal
transportation is carried on by MERRY GO ROUND system between the two projects.
This is to avoid transportation discrepancies and for the smooth functioning of the
• The water requirement for the plant is fulfilled from Hasdeo RBC, through 26 km
pipeline from Hardi Vishal.
• The beneficiary states are Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, goa,
Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli.|~|
A THERMAL POWER PLANT
MAINLY CONSISTS OF….
• 1.COAL HANDLING UNIT.
• 2.BOILER or STEAM GENERATOR UNIT.
• 3.TURBINE & ELECTRIC GENERATOR UNIT
• 4.CONDENSATION AND COOLING WATER
• 5. ASH HANDLING PLANT
CHP MAINLY CONSISTS…
• TRACK HOOPER
• PADDLE FEEDER
• CONVEYER BELT
• MAGNETIC SEPRATOR
• CRUSHER HOUSE
• TRANSFER POINTS
• STOCKYARD/COAL PILES
• The function of a CHP is to receive, process, store &
feed the Coal bunkers consistently over the entire
life of the Power plant.
• Coal is received from mines in the form of lumps, the
sizes varying from 100mm to 350mm,BOBR meaning
Bogie Open Bottom Rapid discharge unloaded in
TRACK HOOPERS .
(Here it comes mainly from DEEPIKA
• Then this raw coal is scooped onto the
conveyer by use of PADDLE FEEDER
• Now this conveyer belt moves forward and carries that
raw coal to CRUSHER HOUSE.
• In between there are equipment likes METAL
DETECTORS, SUSPENDED MAGNETS which
separates coal from METALS which is not desirable in
the production and Non-ferrous materials like stones,
shells, wood etc. are removed MANUALLY
• These belts are very strong and have steel cords inside.
• There are Normal conveyor Idlers , they are the
supporting rollers for the conveyor belt on which the coal
laden conveyor belt glides |~|
• Here coal received from track hoopers is fed to
VGF(Vibrating Gizzle Feeder) which allows 20(+) size
coal to go to crusher and not allow 20(-) coal to go to
crusher where there size is reduced to 20(-)
-Here we use Roller hammer type crusher .
- And there are 4 COUPLING motors located
over springs for rotating the rollers.
-Then all 20(-) coal is sent either to STOCK
YARD or to COAL BUNKERS
via appropriate TRANSFER POINTS
through CONVEYER BELT.
STACKER!!!! AND STOCK
• Coal stocks are made to meet needs in future
• Stacking/ reclaiming of coal is done by bucket wheel
type stacker-cum-reclaimer moving on rails.
• The stacker-cum- reclaimer can stack coal on either
sides of the yard conveyer
• During stacking mode coal is fed from conveyors on
boom conveyor and while in reclaim mode,
boom conveyor discharges coal on the yard conveyor for
feeding coal to bunkers through conveyors and transfer
• Note always water sprinklers are used to avoid fire in
OPERATION OF STACKER…
• Luffing : This is vertical movement ,powered
generally by 2 hydraulic cylinders
• Traveling : The stacker moves on a rail track
enabling it to move around the stockyard as
• Slewing: This is rotation of the stacker around its
central axis to align or place the stockpile where
required. This utilizes sun and planet gear type
IT MAINLY CONSISTS THESE
• Fuel Preparation System
• Air & Flue Gas System
• Water & Steam System
• Fuel Firing System
• Deareation & Feed Pumping System
FUEL PREPRATION SYSTEM
• TRIPPERS: This is mechanism for dropping coals from
conveyer to BUNKERS .These only allows calculated
amount of coal to be dropped in all bunkers
• COAL BUNKERS which stores coal mixture (20%
imported+ 80% Indian) and feeds this coal to
• BOWL MILLS/PULVERISER where 20(-) coal is further
crushed to powder form having 200 meshes in 1 sq inch
There is SEAL AIR FAN for sealing of mill from dust.
• PA FANS are used firstly to reduce moisture content,
secondly to heat it and lastly to transport powdered coal
to different corners of BOILER via 4 different pipes
.There are both COLD AIR DUT AND HOT AIR DUCT
TO MAINTAIN TEMP
AIR AND FLUE GAS SYSTEM
MAINLY CONSISTS ….
• FD fans provides sufficient air for combustion by taking
air from atmosphere and then heated by air
• ID fans induces negative pressure in BOILER by
drawing out combustible gases
• Flue gases generated by combustion contains quite imp
amount of heat which we utilise by sending it to
ECONOMISER and APH (to pre heat air) then cooled
flue gas is sent to ESP
• ESP (Electro Static Precipitator) where by corona
effect(cyclone separator) particles get precipitated over
electrode and flue gas escapes to atmosphere via
CHIMNEYS. Precipitate is sent to ASP(Ash Slurry
WATER AND STEAM SYSTEM
MAINLY CONSISTS ….
• Boiler Feed Water Pump(BFW PUMP)-which pumps
boiler feed water to ECONOMISER pressure.
• ECONOMISER –preheats BFW(all the sensible heating
of BFW is done here only)
• ****Then it goes to BOILER DRUM where saturated
steam get separated from mixed state steam by virtue of
cyclone steam separators and moisture content is again
circulated after mixing with BFW
• NOTE-* implies that this unit i.e BOILER DRUM is not
found in SUPER CRITICAL BOILERS(as there is no
region inside dome according to MODIFIED RANKINE
CYCLE . So here water is always circulated only once )
• Then separated saturated steam is taken out from boiler
drum through series of nozzles and fed to series of
• Firstly through DIV PANEL SH-which heats saturated
steam by about 40 degree by mode of convection
• Then this passes through PLATEN SH-which raises
temp further by next 70 degrees by mode of radiation
then it goes to FINAL SH via ATTEMPRATOR which
lowers the temp by spraying a fine stream of water(it is
done to control the temp )
• FINAL SH where remaining temp inc is picked up after
which it goes to HP turbine and get expanded
** All the superheaters used are basically CLOSED
• Sole purpose of reheating is to devoid wet steam from
condenser which may result in EROSION OF BLADES
• After steam get expanded in HP turbine(upto IP say 345
degree and 45 bar) outlet steam is passed to
REHEATERS (after passing via another
ATTEMPRATOR) which heats up that steam
• LT REHEATER and HT REHEATER:where temp is
raised upto temp of inlet of HP turbine
FIRING SYSTEM MAINLY
• Powdered coal is transported by PA fans to
corners of BOILER by 4 diff pipes(having same
pressure) and is blown TANGENTIALLY(to
imaginary circle called FIRE-BALL) in furnace
from all corners leading to formation of fireball.
• Extra oxygen required for combustion is
provided by SECONDRY AIR
• Initially during LIGHTING UP of boiler we
first ignite coal by HFO and HLT and stop
them after initialization
• BURNER TILT MECHANISM:
DEAERATION AND FEED
PUMPING SYSTEM MAINLY
• DEAERATOR :whose main purpose is to remove air and
other gases from BFW (is mainly done otherwise they
may corrode different metals used in plant) and also to
preheat BFW . It is worth noticing that it is the only used
CLOSED TYPE HEATERS others are OPEN HEATER
• FEED PUMP: It mainly pumps BFW coming out of
deaerator to ECONOMISER pressure.
• Sole purpose of turbine is to produce work by expanding
steam from very high pressure to low condenser
• We mainly use three types of turbine here viz. 1 HP
turbine, 1 IP turbine and 2 LP turbine
• We are using different pressure turbines for reheating
purpose so that we can enhance overall efficiency of the
plant (or so that we can overcome problem of wet
• First superheated steam is allowed to expand in HPT to
some IP and then send back to boiler for reheating
• Then this reheated steam is sent to IP turbine for
expanding where after it get expanded to some lower
pressure a BLEND steam is taken out and sent to FEED
WATER HEATER (FWH) for heating feed water (for
• Shaft rotated at very high RPM by TURBINE is then
coupled to generator which converts rotating energy of
shafts into electrical energy.
• During this process there is large amount of heat
generation for which we require a special type of cooling
• Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used
because it has the highest known heat transfer
coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which
reduces wind-age losses
• This system requires special handling during start-up,
with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide
before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly
flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.
MAINLY CONSIST OF…
• CONDENSER: which is a shell type heat exchanger in
which exhaust steam is cooled by running cooling water
(circulated through tubes) and inturn CW gets heated
and is send to COOLING TOWER for getting cooled
• Then this cooled water is extracted by CEP(Condensate
extraction pump) and heated by LPH and then to BFP
and then to HPH and then to ECONOMISER
COOLING WATER UNIT
MAINLY CONSIST OF…..
• During cooling of steam CW gets heated and
this is send to COOLING TOWERS for getting
• Here hot CW is fed onto top of COOLING
TOWER and allowed to fall down
• Also perpendicular to direction of falling air is
allowed to blow which cools the water and gets
out from top of the tower
• Also since always some of the water losts in the
whole process either due to leakage or due to
evaporation so we supply extra water from
MAKE UP WATER PUMP
ASH HANDLING PLANT ….
• Wherever coal is burned it is necessary to have an
efficient ash handling system, especially in a coal-fired
power station environment where large quantities of
pulverized fuel ash (PFA) are created
• The various systems involved in the ash handling system
-Bottom ash handling system
-Fly ash handling system (both wet & dry)
-Slurry handling system from slurry pump house to ash dyke
-Ash water system
-Ash water recirculation system
• Basically, two types of ash are generated:
-Fly ash (approx 80%)
-Bottom ash (approx 20%)
• Ash collected in hoppers is grinded by grinders and
mixed with water and then sent to ash slurry house by
using jet pumps.
• Where it is collected in ASH PIT, from where it is
pumped to ASH POND.
• Here there is also an auxiliary pump which is used for
FLUSHING OFF blockages. |~|
• FLOW DIAGRAM OF AHP