Ntpc (national thermal power corporation) sipat boiler haxxo24 i~i
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Ntpc (national thermal power corporation) sipat boiler haxxo24 i~i

on

  • 3,524 views

Ntpc (national thermal power corporation) sipat boiler haxxo24 i~i

Ntpc (national thermal power corporation) sipat boiler haxxo24 i~i

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,524
Views on SlideShare
3,524
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
1,143
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Ntpc (national thermal power corporation) sipat boiler haxxo24 i~i Presentation Transcript

  • 1. POINTS OF DISCUSSION  SUB CRITICAL & SUPER CRITICAL BOILER  SIPAT BOILER DESIGN  BOILER DESIGN PARAMETERS  CHEMICAL TREATMENT SYSTEM  OPERATION  FEED WATER SYSTEM  BOILER CONTROL  BOILER LIGHT UP  START UP CURVES
  • 2.  To Reduce emission for each Kwh of electricity generated : Superior Environmental 1% rise in efficiency reduce the CO2 emission by 2-3%  The Most Economical way to enhance efficiency  To Achieve Fuel cost saving : Economical  Operating Flexibility  Reduces the Boiler size / MW  To Reduce Start-Up Time WHY SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY
  • 3.  Water when heated to sub critical pressure, Temperature increases until it starts boiling  This temperature remain constant till all the water converted to steam  When all liquid converted to steam than again temperature starts rising.  Sub critical boiler typically have a mean ( Boiler Drum) to separate Steam And Water  The mass of this boiler drum, which limits the rate at which the sub critical boiler responds to the load changes  Too great a firing rate will result in high thermal stresses in the boiler drum UNDERSTANDING SUB CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY
  • 4. Role of SG in Rankine Cycle Perform Using Natural resources of energy …….
  • 5.  When Water is heated at constant pressure above the critical pressure, its temperature will never be constant  No distinction between the Liquid and Gas, the mass density of the two phases remain same  No Stage where the water exist as two phases and require separation : No Drum  The actual location of the transition from liquid to steam in a once through super critical boiler is free to move with different condition : Sliding Pressure Operation  For changing boiler loads and pressure, the process is able to optimize the amount of liquid and gas regions for effective heat transfer. UNDERSTANDING SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY
  • 6. Circulation Vs Once Through
  • 7. No Religious Attitude
  • 8. HPT IPTLPT C O N D E N S E R FEED WATER FRS S T O R A G E T A N K SEPARATOR BWRP MS LINE HRH LINE VERTICAL WW ECO I/L ECO JUNCTION HDR ECO HGR O/L HDR FUR LOWER HDR FUR ROOF I/L HDR DIV PANELS SH PLATEN SH FINAL RH FINAL SH LTRH ECONOMISER 290°C, 302 KSC 411°C, 277Ksc 411°C, 275 Ksc 492°C, 260 Ksc 540°C, 255 Ksc 305°C,49Ksc 457°C, 49 Ksc 568°C, 47 Ksc G LPT
  • 9. Boiling process in Tubular Geometries Heat Input HeatInput Water Water Water Steam Steam Partial Steam Generation Complete or Once-through Generation
  • 10. SEPARATOR TANK
  • 11. Separator (F31) Storage Tank (F33) Back pass Roof i/l hdr 1st pass top hdrs 1st pass top hdrs Div. Pan. I/L hdrs (S20) Div. Pan. O/L hdrs (S24) Platen I/L hdr (S28) Platen O/L hdr (S30) RH O/L hdr (R12) RH I/L hdr (R10) SH final I/L hdr (S34) SH final O/L hdr (S36) Back pass Roof o/l hdr (S5) LTRH O/L hdr (R8) Eco. O/L hdr (E7) 2nd pass top hdrs (S11) PENTHOUSE S2 F8 F28 F28 F19
  • 12. SIPAT SUPER CRITICAL BOILER  BOILER DESIGN PARAMETER  DRUM LESS BOILER : START-UP SYSTEM  TYPE OF TUBE  Vertical  Spiral  SPIRAL WATER WALL TUBING  Advantage  Disadvantage over Vertical water wall
  • 13. Vertical Tube Furnace  To provide sufficient flow per tube, constant pressure furnaces employ vertically oriented tubes.  Tubes are appropriately sized and arranged in multiple passes in the lower furnace where the burners are located and the heat input is high.  By passing the flow twice through the lower furnace periphery (two passes), the mass flow per tube can be kept high enough to ensure sufficient cooling.  In addition, the fluid is mixed between passes to reduce the upset fluid temperature.
  • 14. Spiral Tube Furnace  The spiral design, on the other hand, utilizes fewer tubes to obtain the desired flow per tube by wrapping them around the furnace to create the enclosure.  This also has the benefit of passing all tubes through all heat zones to maintain a nearly even fluid temperature at the outlet of the lower portion of the furnace.  Because the tubes are “wrapped” around the furnace to form the enclosure, fabrication and erection are considerably more complicated and costly.
  • 15. SPIRAL WATER WALL ADVANTAGE  Benefits from averaging of heat absorption variation : Less tube leakages  Simplified inlet header arrangement  Use of smooth bore tubing  No individual tube orifice  Reduced Number of evaporator wall tubes & Ensures minimum water flow  Minimizes Peak Tube Metal Temperature  Minimizes Tube to Tube Metal Temperature difference DISADVANTAGE  Complex wind-box opening  Complex water wall support system  tube leakage identification : a tough task  More the water wall pressure drop : increases Boiler Feed Pump Power  Adherence of Ash on the shelf of tube fin
  • 16. BOILER OPERATING PARAMETER FD FAN 2 No‟S ( AXIAL ) 11 kv / 1950 KW 228 mmwc 1732 T / Hr PA FAN 2 No‟s ( AXIAL) 11 KV / 3920 KW 884 mmwc 947 T / Hr ID FAN 2 No‟s ( AXIAL) 11 KV / 5820 KW 3020 T / Hr TOTAL AIR 2535 T / Hr SH OUT LET PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE / FLOW 256 Ksc / 540 C 2225 T / Hr RH OUTLET PRESSURE/ TEMPERATURE / FLOW 46 Ksc / 568 C 1742 T / Hr SEPARATOR OUT LET PRESSURE/ TEMPERATURE 277 Ksc / 412 C ECONOMISER INLET 304 Ksc / 270 C MILL OPERATION 7 / 10 COAL REQUIREMENT 471 T / Hr SH / RH SPRAY 89 / 0.0 T / Hr BOILER EFFICIENCY 87 %
  • 17. 1. High erosion potential for pulverizer and backpass tube is expected due to high ash content. 2. Combustibility Index is relatively low but combustion characteristic is good owing to high volatile content. Parameter Unit Design Coal Worst Coal Best Coal Young Hung #1,2(800MW) Tangjin #5,6(500MW) High Heating Value kcal/kg 3,300 3,000 3,750 6,020 6,080 Total Moisture % 12.0 15.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 Volatile Matter % 21.0 20.0 24.0 23.20 26.53 Fixed Carbon % 24.0 20.0 29.0 52.89 49.26 Proximate Analysis Ash % 43.0 45.0 36.0 13.92 14.21 Fuel Ratio (FC/VM) - 1.14 1.00 1.21 2.28 1.86 Combustibility Index - 2,067 2,353 2,476 2,781 3,492 Carbon % 39.53 31.35 40.24 63.03 62.15 Hydrogen % 2.43 2.30 2.68 3.60 3.87 Nitrogen % 0.69 0.60 0.83 1.53 1.29 Oxygen % 6.64 5.35 8.65 7.20 7.80 Sulfur % 0.45 0.40 0.60 0.72 0.68 Ash % 43.00 45.00 36.00 13.92 14.21 Ultimate Analysis Moisture % 12.00 15.00 11.00 10.00 10.00 Grindability HGI 50 47 52 45 48 ASTM Coal Classification - Hi–Vol. „C‟ Bituminous Hi–Vol. „C‟ Bituminous Hi–Vol. „C‟ Bituminous Midium Vol. Bituminous Hi–Vol. „C‟ Bituminous Coal Analysis
  • 18. 1. Lower slagging potential is expected due to low ash fusion temp. and low basic / acid ratio. 2. Lower fouling potential is expected due to low Na2O and CaO content. Parameter Unit Design Coal Worst Coal Best Coal Young Hung #1,2(800MW) Tangjin #5,6(500MW) SiO2 % 61.85 62.40 61.20 57.40 57.40 Al2O3 % 27.36 27.31 27.32 29.20 29.20 Fe2O3 % 5.18 4.96 5.40 4.40 4.40 CaO % 1.47 1.42 1.52 2.70 2.70 MgO % 1.00 1.03 0.97 0.90 0.90 Na2O % 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.30 0.30 K2O % 0.63 0.32 1.22 0.70 0.70 TiO2 % 1.84 1.88 1.80 1.30 1.30 P2O5 % 0.54 0.55 0.44 - - SO3 % 0.05 0.05 0.05 - - Ash Analysis Others % - - - 3.10 3.10 Initial Deformation o C 1150 1100 1250 1200 1200 Softening o C - - - Hemispheric o C 1400 1280 1400 Ash Fusion Temp. (o C) (Reducing Atmos.) Flow o C 1400 1280 1400 Ash Content kg/Gcal 130.3 150.0 96.0 23.12 23.37 Basic / Acid B/A 0.09 0.09 0.10 1.63 1.63 Ash Analysis
  • 19. AIR AND FLUE GAS SYSTEM AIR PATH : Similar as 500 MW Unit FLUE GAS PATH: No Of ESP Passes : 6 Pass No Of Fields / Pass : 18 No Of Hopper / Pass : 36 Flue Gas Flow / Pass : 1058 T/ Hr 1-7 fields  70 KV. 8&9 field  90 KV
  • 20. RHS WIND BOX BACK PASS FURNACE M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M PAPH # A SAPH # A PAPH # B SAPH # B M AIR MOTOR M AIR MOTOR M AIR MOTOR M AIR MOTOR M HOT PRIMARY AIR DUCT HOT PRIMARY AIR DUCT TO PULVERISER SYSTEM TO PULVERISER SYSTEM M M M M M MM DIVISIONALPANEL PLATENCOILS FINALREHEATER FINALSUPERHEATER LTRH ECONOMISER LHS WIND BOX PA FAN # A FD FAN # A FD FAN # B PA FAN # B AIR PATH
  • 21. FUEL OIL SYSTEM Type Of Oil : LDO / HFO Boiler Load Attainable With All Oil Burner In Service : 30 % Oil Consumption / Burner : 2123 Kg / Hr Capacity Of HFO / Coal : 42.1 % Capacity Of LDO / Coal : 52.5 % HFO Temperature : 192 C All Data Are At 30 % BMCR
  • 22. DESIGN BASIS FOR SAFETY VALVES : 1. Minimum Discharge Capacities. Safety valves on Separator and SH Combined capacity 105%BMCR (excluding power operated impulse safety valve) Safety valves on RH system Combined capacity 105% of Reheat flow at BMCR (excluding power operated impulse safety valve) Power operated impulse safety valve 40%BMCR at super-heater outlet 60% of Reheat flow at BMCR at RH outlet 2. Blow down 4% (max.)b
  • 23. BOILER FILL WATER REQUIREMENT Main Feed Water Pipe ( FW Shut Off Valve to ECO I/L HDR) 28.8 m3 Economizer 253.2 m3 Furnace ( Eco Check Valve to Separator Link) 41.5 m3 Separators & Link 13.8 m3
  • 24. 39 OXYGENATED TREATMENT OF FEED WATER Dosing of oxygen(O2) or Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in to feed water system. Concentration in the range of 50 to 300 µg/L. Formation of a thin, tightly adherent ferric oxide (FeOOH) hydrate layer. This layer is much more dense and tight than that of Magnetite layer. “WATER CHEMISTRY CONTROL MAINTAINS PLANT HEALTH.”
  • 25. 40 All Volatile Treatment Oxygenated Water Treatment
  • 26. 41 DOSING POINTS
  • 27. 42 “AVT” Dosing Auto Control
  • 28. 43 “OWT” Dosing Auto Control
  • 29. BACK PASS ECO I/L HDR BACK PASS ECO O/L HDR FUR ROOF I/L HDR 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 BRP TO DRAIN HDR FROM FEED WATER BLR FILL PUMP N2 FILL LINE VENT HDR DRAIN HDR DRAIN HDR VENT HDR VENT HDR N2 FILL LINE SAMPLE COOLER SAMPLE COOLER N2 FILL LINE VENT HDR VENT HDR ECO MIXING LINKECO JUNCTION HDR FUR BOTTOM RING HDR FUR INTERMITTENT HDR FUR WW HDR SEPRATOR #1 SEPRATOR #2 STORAGE TANK MIXING PIECE FLASH TANK WR ZR WATER LINE N2 FILLING LINE VENT LINE DRAIN LINE SAMPLE COOLER LINE WATER CIRCULATION SYSTEM U # 1
  • 30. MODES OF OPERATION 1. BOILER FILLING 2. CLEAN UP CYCLE 3. WET MODE OPERATION (LOAD < 30 % ) 4. DRY MODE OPERATION (LOAD > 30 %) 5. DRY TO WET MODE OPERATION ( WHEN START UP SYSTEM NOT AVAILABLE) FEED WATER SYSTEM
  • 31.  If the water system of the boiler is empty (economizer, furnace walls, separators), then the system is filled with approximately 10% TMCR ( 223 T/Hr) feed water flow.  When the level in the separator reaches set-point, the WR valve will begin to open.  When the WR valve reaches >30% open for approximately one minute, then increase feed water flow set-point to 30% TMCR ( approx 660 T/Hr).  As the flow increases, WR valve will reach full open and ZR valve will begin to open.  The water system is considered full when:  The separator water level remains stable for two(2) minutes and  The WR valve is fully opened and ZR valve is >15% open for two(2) minutes After completion of Filling, the feed water flow is again adjusted to 10 % TMCR for Clean up cycle operation BOILER FILLING LOGIC
  • 32.  The boiler circulating pump is started following the start of a feed water pump and the final clean-up cycle.  This pump circulates feed water from the evaporator outlet back to the economizer inlet.  Located at the outlet of this pump is the UG valve which controls economizer inlet flow during the start-up phase of operation.  Demand for this recirculation, control valve is established based on measured economizer inlet flow compared to a minimum boiler flow set point. BOILER INITIAL WATER LEVEL CONTROL (UG VALVE)
  • 33. Boiler Clean-up When the feedwater quality at the outlet of deaerator and separator is not within the specified limits, a feedwater clean-up recirculation via the boiler is necessary. During this time, constant feedwater flow of 10% TMCR ( 223 T/Hr) or more is maintained. Water flows through the economizer and evaporator, and discharges the boiler through the WR valve to the flash tank and via connecting pipe to the condenser. From the condenser, the water flows through the condensate polishing plant, which is in service to remove impurities ( Like Iron & its Oxide, Silica, Sodium and its salts ), then returns to the feed water tank. The recirculation is continued until the water quality is within the specified limits.
  • 34. FEED WATER QUALITY PARAMETER FOR START UP
  • 35. MODE OF OPERATION WET MODE :  Initial Operation Of Boiler Light Up. When Economizer Flow is maintained by BCP.  Boiler Will Operate till 30 % TMCR on Wet Mode. DRY MODE :  At 30 % TMCR Separator water level will become disappear and Boiler Operation mode will change to Dry  BCP Will shut at this load  Warm Up system for Boiler Start Up System will get armed  Boiler will turn to once through Boiler  ECO Water flow will be controlled by Feed Water Pump in service
  • 36. 1. Flow Control Valve ( 30 % Control Valve )  Ensures minimum pressure fluctuation in Feed Water Header  It measures Flow at BFP Booster Pump Discharge and compare it with a calculated flow from its downstream pressure via a function and maintains the difference “ 0 “ 2. 100 % Flow Valve To Boiler  Remains Closed 3. BFP Recirculation Valve  It Measures Flow at BFP Booster Pump Discharge  Ensures minimum Flow through BFP Booster Pump  Closes when Flow through BFP Booster Pump discharge > 2.1 Cum  Open When Flow through BFP Booster Pump Discharge < 1.05 Cum ( Minimum Flow will be determined by BFP Speed via BFP Set limitation Curve) 4. BFP Scoop  It measures value from Storage tank level Transmitter  Maintain Separator Storage Tank Level SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ( WET MODE OPERATION)
  • 37. 5. UG Valve  Maintain Minimum Economizer Inlet Flow ( 30 % TMCR = Approx 660 T/Hr)  Maintain DP across the BRP ( Approx 4.0 Ksc)  It Measures Flow Value from Economizer Inlet Flow Transmitter 6. WR / ZR Valve  Maintains Separator Storage Tank Level  It Measures value from the Storage tank Level 7. Storage Tank Level  3 No‟s Level Transmitter has been provided for Storage tank level measurement  1 No HH Level Transmitter has been provided  At 17.9 Mtr level it will trip all FW Pumps also MFT will act  1 No LL Level Transmitter has been provided  At 1.1 Mtr level MFT will Act
  • 38. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ( DRY MODE OPERATION) 1. Following System will be isolated during Dry Mode Operation  FCV ( 30 % )  Start Up System Of Boiler  WR / ZR Valve  Storage Tank  BRP  BRP Recirculation System  BFP Recirculation Valve 2. Following System will be in service  UG Valve ( Full Open)  100 % FW Valve ( Full Open)  Platen / Final Super-heater spray control  Start Up System Warming Lines  Separator Storage Tank Wet Leg Level Control
  • 39. SYSTEM OPERATION ( DRY MODE OPERATION) 1. START UP SYSTEM  In Dry Mode Start Up System Of Boiler will become isolated  Warming System for Boiler Start Up system will be charged  Separator Storage Tank level will be monitored by Separator storage tank wet leg level control valve ( 3 Mtr) 2. TRANSITION PHASE :- Changeover of FW Control valve (30 % to 100 % Control )  100 % FW Flow valve will wide open  During the transition phase system pressure fluctuates  The system pressure fluctuation will be controlled by 30 % FW Valve. After stabilization of system 30 % CV Will become Full Close 3. FEED WATER CONTROL  It will be controlled in three steps  Feed Water demand to maintain Unit Load  Maintain Separator O/L Temperature  Maintain acceptable Platen Spray Control Range
  • 40. FEED WATER DEMAND ( DRY MODE OPERATION) 1. FINAL SUPER HEATER SPRAY CONTROL  Maintain the Final Steam Outlet Temperature ( 540 C) 2. PLATEN SUPER HEATER SPRAY CONTROL  Primary purpose is to keep the final super heaer spray control valve in the desired operating range  Measures the final spray control station differential temperature  It Compares this difference with Load dependent differential temperature setpoint  Output of this is the required temperature entering the Platen Super Heater Section (Approx 450 C) 3. FEED WATER DEMAND 1. FEED FORWARD DEMAND  It is established by Boiler Master Demand.  This Demand goes through Boiler Transfer Function where it is matched with the actual Evaporator Heat Transfer to minimize the temperature fluctuations 2. FEED BACK DEMAND  Work With two controller in cascade mode
  • 41. 2. FEED BACK DEMAND  Work With two controller in cascade mode  FIRST CONTROLLER  One Controller acts on Load dependent average platen spray differential temperature  Its Output represents the desired heat transfer / steam generation to maintain the desired steam parameters and Flue gas parameters entering the Platen section  SECOND CONTROLLER  Second Controller acts on the load dependent Separator Outlet Temperature adjusted by Platen spray differential temperature  This controller adjust the feed water in response to firing disturbances to achieve the separator O/L Temperature THE RESULTING DEMAND FROM THE COMBINED FEEDFORWARD AND FEEDBACK DEMANDSIGNAL DETERMINED THE SETPOINT TO THE FEED WATER MASTER CONTROL SETPOINT FEED WATER DEMAND ( DRY MODE OPERATION)
  • 42. DRY TO WET MODE OPERATION ( START UP SYSTEM NOT AVAILABLE) 1. The combined Feed Forward and Feed back demand ( as calculated in dry mode operation) will be compared with minimum Economizer Flow This ensures the minimum flow through Economizer during the period when start up system is unavailable 2. Output of the first controller is subjected to the second controller which monitors the Separator Storage tank level ( Since the system is in Wet Mode now) 3. The output of the second controller is the set point of Feed water master controller. 4. The Feed back to this controller is the minimum value measured before the start up system and Economizer inlet.
  • 43. BLR PATH ( WHEN WET MODE) Separator - Backpass Wall & Extended Wall - SH Division - Platen SH - Final SH - HP By-pass - Cold R/H Line - Primary R/H (Lower Temp R/H) - Final R/H - LP By- pass - Condenser BLR Path (When Dry Mode) Primary Eco - Secondary Eco - Ring HDR - Spiral W/W - W/W Intermediate HDR - Vertical W/W - Separator - Backpass Wall & Extended Wall - SH Division - Platen SH - Final SH - HP TBN - Cold R/H Line - Primary R/H (Lower Temp R/H)- Final R/H - IP and LP TBN - Condenser WATER & STEAM PATH
  • 44. Wet Mode and Dry Mode of Operation
  • 45. 406 451 440 486 480 540 DSH1 DSH2 15% 3% PLATEN SH FINAL SHDIV SH
  • 46. Constant Pressure Control  Above 90% TMCR The MS Pressure remains constant at rated pressure  The Load is controlled by throttling the steam flow  Below 30% TMCR the MS Pressure remains constant at minimum Pressure Sliding Pressure Control  Boiler Operate at Sliding pressure between 30% and 90% TMCR  The Steam Pressure And Flow rate is controlled by the load directly BOILER LOAD CONDITION
  • 47.  Valve throttling losses occur because the boiler operates at constant pressure while the turbine doesn't.  The most obvious way to avoid throttling losses therefore is to stop operating the boiler at constant pressure!  Instead, try to match the stop valve pressure to that existing inside the turbine at any given load.  Since the turbine internal pressure varies linearly with load, this means that the boiler pressure must vary with load similarly.  This is called .sliding pressure operation..  If the boiler pressure is matched to the pressure inside the turbine, then there are no valve throttling losses to worry about!  While sliding pressure is beneficial for the turbine, it can cause difficulties for the boiler. ADVERSE AFFECT  As the pressure falls, the boiling temperature (boiling point) changes. The boiler is divided into zones in which the fluid is expected to be entirely water, mixed steam / water or dry steam. A change in the boiling point can change the conditions in each zone.  The heat transfer coefficient in each zone depends upon the pressure. As the pressure falls, the heat transfer coefficient reduces. This means that the steam may not reach the correct temperature. Also, if heat is not carried away by the steam, the boiler tubes will run hotter and may suffer damage. CONSTANT PRESSURE VS SLIDING PRESSURE
  • 48. CHALLANGES  The heat transfer coefficient also depends upon the velocity of the steam in the boiler tubes.  Any change in pressure causes a change in steam density and so alters the steam velocities and heat transfer rate in each zone.  Pressure and temperature cause the boiler tubes to expand. If conditions change, the tubes will move. The tube supports must be capable of accommodating this movement.  The expansion movements must not lead to adverse stresses.  The ability to use sliding pressure operation is determined by the boiler Boilers can be designed to accommodate sliding pressure.  When it is used, coal fired boilers in the 500 to 1000 MW class normally restrict sliding pressure to a limited load range, typically 70% to 100% load, to minimize the design challenge. Below this range, the boiler is operated at a fixed pressure.  This achieves an acceptable result because large units are normally operated at high load for economic reasons.  In contrast, when sliding pressure is used in combined cycle plant, the steam pressure is varied over a wider load range, typically 50% to 100% load or more
  • 49.  As stated, in coal-fired plant, sliding pressure is normally restricted to a limited load range to reduce design difficulties.  In this range, the boiler pressure is held at a value 5% to 10% above the turbine internal pressure. Consequently, the governor valves throttle slightly.  The offset is provided so that the unit can respond quickly to a sudden increase in load demand simply by pulling the valves wide open.  This produces a faster load response than raising the boiler firing rate alone.The step in load which can be achieved equals the specified margin ie 5% to 10%.  The throttling margin is agreed during the tendering phase and then fixed.  A margin of 5% to 10% is usually satisfactory because most customers rely upon gas turbines, hydroelectric or pumped storage units to meet large peak loads.  The throttling margin means that the full potential gain of sliding pressure is not achieved.  Nevertheless, most of the throttling losses which would otherwise occur are recovered.
  • 50. ADVANTAGES  Temperature changes occur in the boiler and in the turbine during load changes. These can cause thermal stresses in thick walled components.  These are especially high in the turbine during constant-pressure operation. They therefore limit the maximum load transient for the unit.  By contrast, in sliding pressure operation, the temperature changes are in the evaporator section. However, the resulting thermal stresses are not limiting in the Once through boiler due to its thermo elastic design. In fixed pressure operation , temperature change in the turbine when load changes, while in sliding-pressure operation ,they change in the boiler
  • 51.  The enthalpy increase in the boiler for preheating, evaporation and superheating changes with pressure.  However, pressure is proportional to output in sliding pressure operation  In a uniformly heated tube, the transitions from preheat to evaporation and from evaporation to superheat shift automatically with load such that the main steam temperature always remains constant.
  • 52.  At loads over 25% of rated load, the water fed by a feed-water pump flows through the high pressure feed-water heater, economizer ,furnace water wall, steam-water separator, rear-wall tubes at the ceiling, and super heaters, The super heaters steam produced is supplied to the turbine.  At rated and relatively high loads the boiler is operated as a purely once through type. At partial loads, however, the boiler is operated by sliding the pressure as a function of load. 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 25 50 75 100 Turbine load (%) TurbineinletpressureMpa 24.1 Mpa 9.0 Mpa Sliding Pressure
  • 53. +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 20 40 60 80 100EfficiencyChange% Boiler Load % Variable Pressure CONSTANT PRESSURE Vs VARIABLE PRESSURE BOILER CHARACTERSTIC
  • 54. Benefits Of Sliding Pressure Operation ( S.P.O)  Able to maintain constant first stage turbine temperature  Reducing the thermal stresses on the component : Low Maintenance & Higher Availability  No additional pressure loss between boiler and turbine.  low Boiler Pr. at low loads. WHY NOT S.P.O. IN NATURAL/CONTROL CIRCULATION BOILERS  Circulation Problem : instabilities in circulation system due to steam formation in down comers.  Drum Level Control : water surface in drum disturbed.  Drum : (most critical thick walled component) under highest thermal stresses
  • 55. The Basis of Boiler Start-up Mode Mode Basis Restart Hot Warm Cold Stopped time 2Hr Within 6~12Hr 56Hr Within 96Hr Above SH Outlet Temp 465℃ above 300℃ above 100℃ above 100℃ below Separator Tank pr 120~200㎏/㎠ 30~120㎏/㎠ 30㎏/㎠ below 0㎏/㎠ Starting Time Startup Mode Light off →TBN Rolling(minutes) Light off → Full Load(minutes) Cold 120 420 Except Rotor and Chest Warming Time Warm 90 180 " Hot - - ․ Restart 30 90 ․ STARTING TIME
  • 56. PURGE CONDITIONS  No Boiler Trip Condition Exists  All System Power Supply Available  Unit Air Flow > 30 % BMCR  Nozzle Tilt Horizontal and Air Flow < 40 %  Both PA Fans Off  The Following Condition Exist At Oil Firing System  The HOTV / LOTV Should Be Closed  All Oil Nozzle Valve Closed  The Following Condition Exists at Coal Firing System  All Pulverisers are Off  All Feeders are Off  All Hot Air Gates Of Pulverisers are closed  All Flame Scanner on all elevation shows no Flame  Aux Air Damper At All Elevation should be modulating After Purging Boiler Light Up activites are same as in 500 MW plant
  • 57. MFT CONDITIONS  Both ID Fans Off  Both FD Fans Off  Unit Air Flow < 30 % TMCR  All Feed Water Pumps Are Off For More Than 40 Sec  2 / 3 Pressure Transmitter indicate the furnace pressure High / Low for more than 8 sec ( 150 mmwc / -180 mmwc))  2 / 3 Pressure Transmitter indicate the furnace pressure High – High / Low - Low ( 250 mmwc / - 250 mmwc)  Loss Of Re-heater Protection  EPB Pressed  All SAPH Off  Economizer Inlet Flow Low For More Than 10 Sec (223 T/Hr)  Furnace Vertical Wall Temperature High For more than 3 Sec (479 C)  SH Pressure High On Both Side (314 KSc)  SH Temperature High For More Than 20 Sec ( 590 C)  RH O/L Temperature High For More Than 20 Sec ( 590 C)  Separator Level Low-Low During Wet Mode ( 1.1 M)  Separator Level High-High During Wet Mode ( 17.7 M)
  • 58.  MFT Relay Tripped  Loss Of Fuel Trip : It Arms when any oil burner proven. it occurs when all of the following satisfied  All Feeders Are Off  HOTV Not Open or all HONV Closed  LOTV Not Open or all LONV Closed  Unit Flame Failure Trip : It Arms when any Feeder Proves it occurs when all 11 scanner elevation indicates flame failure as listed below ( Example is for only elevation A)  Feeder A & Feeder B is Off with in 2 Sec Time Delay  following condition satisfied  Any oil valve not closed on AB Elevation  3 /4 valves not proven on AB Elevation  Less Than 2 / 4 Scanner Shows Flame  Both Of The Following Condition Satisfied  Less Than 2 / 4 Scanner Flame Shows Flame  2 / 4 Oil Valves not open at AB Elevation
  • 59. Boiler Light Up Steps  Start the Secondary Air Preheater  Start one ID fan, then the corresponding FD fan and adjust air flow to a min. of 30% TMCR  Start the scanner air fan.  Adjust fan and SADC to permit a purge air flow of atleast 30% of TMCR and furnace draft of approx. -12.7 mmWC.  When fans are started, SADC should modulate the aux. air dampers to maintain WB to furnace DP at 102 mmWC(g).  Check that all other purge permissives are satisfied.  Place FTPs in service.  Check The MFT Conditions  For First Time Boiler Light Up do the Oil Leak Test  Initiate a furnace purge.
  • 60. SYSTEM / EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR BOILER LIGHT UP FURNACE READINESS  PRESSURE PARTS  SCANNER AIR FAN  BOTTOM ASH HOPPER READINESS  FUEL FIRING SYSTEM  START UP SYSTEM SEC AIR PATH READINESS  FD FAN  SAPH  WIND BOX / SADC FLUE GAS SYSTEM  ESP PASS A , B  ID FAN
  • 61. SYSTEM / EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR BOILER LIGHT UP CONDENSATE SYSTEM  CONDENSER  CEP  CPU FEED WATER SYSTEM  D/A  MDBFP # A VACCUME SYSTEM SEAL STEAM SYSTEM TURBINE ON BARRING
  • 62. Evaporator – heat absorption
  • 63. Reduced number of evaporator wall tubes.  Ensures minimum water wall flow.
  • 64. SPIRAL WALL ARRAMGEMENT AT BURNER BLOCK AREA :
  • 65. Support System for Evaporator Wall • Spiral wall  Horizontal and vertical buck stay with tension strip • Vertical wall  Horizontal buck stay