SYSTEMIC FLUORIDES

2,328
-1

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,328
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
234
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SYSTEMIC FLUORIDES

  1. 1. SYSTEMIC FLUORIDES BY HAWWA THASNEEM IVTH YEAR PART 1
  2. 2. • Provides low concentration of F to teeth over a long period of time • Circulates through the blood stream and is incorporated into developing teeth • After eruption, F contacts teeth directly through salivary secretions • Most of them have topical effect
  3. 3. COMMUNITY WATER FLUORIDATION SALT FLUORIDATION MILK FLOURIDATION FLUORIDE TABLETS/DROPS/ LOZENGES
  4. 4. COMMUNITY WATER FLUORIDATION
  5. 5. • Most common form of systemic fluoride administration • 1ppm • controlled or adjustment of the concentration of F in a communal water supply so as to achieve maximum caries reduction and a clinically insignificant level of fluorosis • 50% to 70% reduction in caries without damage to teeth or other structures • Practicable and effective public health measure
  6. 6. Grand Rapids – Muskegon study Newburgh – Kingston study The Brantford- Sarnia- Stratford fluoridation caries study Evanston – Oak Park study Tiel- Culemborg fluoridation study
  7. 7. • Empiric formula by GALAGAN & VERMILLION ppm F = 0.34/E where E = - 0.038+0.0062x T
  8. 8. METHODOLOGY OF ESTIMATION OF FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN DRINKING WATER
  9. 9. • 500 ml of water collected in a dry polythene container • 2 CC of 6N HCL added • Stored at 4C • Estimated by 1) F electrode coupled with standard pH meter 2) Scot Sanchis method
  10. 10. • Most recent and universally accepted • 2 pH meters used Orion 901 microprocessor ion analyzer and Orion 407 • Specific ion meter • Conc. of F calculated by: a) Typical calibration curve b) by applying electrode potential equation c) Direct ppm reading
  11. 11. • Based on the reaction btw F & the red zirconium alizarin lake • F forms colorless complex ion – liberates alizarin sulphuric acid • F inc – color changes from yellow to red • Comparing the color with the standard
  12. 12. • Lack of centralized water supply system • Require support of health authorities and government
  13. 13. • Fluorospar • NaF • Silico fluorides • NaSiF • Hydroflurosilicic acid • Ammonium silico F
  14. 14. • SATURATOR SYSTEM • DRY FEEDER SYSTEM • SOLUTION FEEDER SYSTEM
  15. 15. • Principle: 4% saturated solution of NaF is produced and injected at the desired concentration at th e water distribution source with the aid of a pump • high hard water level used • Suitable for small towns
  16. 16. • Principle: NaF in the form of powder is introduced into a dissolving basin with the aid of an automatic mechanism to ensure maintanence of the correct supply of F according to the amount of water to be delivered • Handling of F, obstruction of pipes • Medium sized town
  17. 17. • Principle: • Volumetric pump permitting the addition of a given quantity of hydrofluorosilicic acid in proportion to the amount of water treated • Construction using polyvinyl chloride • medium sized and large town
  18. 18. • Maintenance and control • Control at water treatment plants • Control of the quality of analysis • Control of the quality of water in network • Control of the quality of the F used
  19. 19. DEFLUORIDATION • It is the process of removing excess naturally occurring F from drinking water in order to reduce the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis • Based on ion exchange or adsorption • Based on addition of chemicals to water
  20. 20. • Carbion • Defluoron 1 • Defluoron 2
  21. 21. • Was developed by National Environmental Research Institute at Nagpur in 1974 and reported by Bulusu in 1988 • This process comprises of addition in sequence of sodium aluminate, lime and bleaching powder to F water followed by flocculation, sedimentation & filtration • Useful both as domestic and community water supplies
  22. 22. MECHANISM
  23. 23. SALIENT FEATURES • No regeneration of media required • no handling of acids and alkalis • Only readily available chemicals used • Adaptable for domestic use • Simplicity of design, construction, operation • Highly efficient • Little wastage of water • Minimum mechanical and electrical equipment
  24. 24. INDICATIONS Absence of acceptable low F source within transportable distance Desalination necessary when total solids exceed 1500mg/L  Raw water F ranging from 1.5mg to 20mg F /l
  25. 25. SALT FLUORIDATION • It is the controlled addition of F, usually Na or K F, during the manufacture of salt for human consumption • Alternative method of prevention caries on a large scale • Introduced by Wespi in 1948, Switzerland
  26. 26. • IDEAL: 200, 250 and 350 mg of F per kg of salt • PRODUCTION: batch processing continous processing
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES • Does not require community water supply • Permits individuals to accept or reject • Non F salt can be made available
  28. 28. LIMITATIONS • large variation in salt intake • Amount of intake decreased • Difficult when water sources are fluoridated • Requires modern technology • hypertension
  29. 29. MILK FLUORIDATION
  30. 30. • Addition of measured quantity of fluoride to bottled or packaged milk to be drunk by children • Started by Ziegler, in 1953
  31. 31. • Dental health status • Other fluoride source • Urine analysis • Milk distribution • Fluoridating the milk
  32. 32. • May be prescribed to induvidual persons, or may be part of school or home based public health programme • Prescribed by pediatrician or the dentist
  33. 33. • NaF • Acidulated phosphate F • KF • CaF • 0.25mg, 0.5mg, 1.0mg • Drops • Tablets and lozenges
  34. 34. indications • No central water supply • As interim measure • Water or salt F schemes not implemented • nomads
  35. 35. TOXICITY OF FLUORIDES
  36. 36. • Double edged sword • Inadequate ….. Caries • Excessive…… dental & skeletal fluorosis • industrial accidents • Acute • Chronic
  37. 37. • Results from rapid excessive ingestion of F at one time • Severity depends on the amount of F ingested, wieght and age of the individual • Most frequent is Nausea
  38. 38. ABDOMINAL CRAMPS VOMITING INCREASED SALIVATION
  39. 39. • Results from long term ingestion of small amount of F • Dental F > 2 times optimal • Skeletal F 10- 25 mg/day
  40. 40. DENTAL FLUOROSIS • Is caused by excessive intake of F during tooth development • 2/3times- White flecks or chalky opaque areas • 4times- brown pitted corroded appearance • Mottled enamel • Hypoplastic areas
  41. 41. • Occurs from ingestion of F for long periods of time • First in Madras • Water F levels over 8 ppm
  42. 42. Symptoms JOINT PAIN KNOCK KNEE CARDIAC PROBLEMS PREGNANT MOTHER AND FOETUS
  43. 43. BIBLIOGRAPHY Essentials of preventive & community dentistry - Soben Peter
  44. 44. THANK YOU
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×