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4 formulating the research design2 4 formulating the research design2 Document Transcript

  • Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine.
  •  Be able to identify different types of research design (methodology) & data collection methods (research methods).  Understand the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires as a data collection method;  Be able to design, conduct and administer a questionnaire to answer research questions and to meet objectives.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 2
  •  Case study  Survey  Experiment  Other types:  Action research.  Grounded theory  Ethnography  Archival researchResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 3
  •  Case study:  A type of research strategy that includes either a single case (a case record) or a small number of cases (case series) but each case is discussed in details.  The subject of the cases may be a person, an organization, a situation or a country.  Examples: ▪ Studying a case or a group of cases after Laser eye surgery.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 4
  •  Survey:  Refers to the collection of information from a group of people belonging to a population of interest to make assumptions about that population.  The population of interest can be patients, learners (students), researchers or colleagues.  Can be descriptive or explanatory.  Collect quantitative data that are analyzed quantitatively using descriptive and inferential statistics  Use questionnaire or interview to obtain data.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 5
  •  Experiment:  A research design that attempts to discover a cause-effect relationship between two variables.  Used in exploratory and explanatory research to answer ‘what’ and ‘why’ questions.  Has two main key elements: ▪ Experimental group.(Subjects exposed to the experimental variable in an experiment) ▪ Control group. (Subjects not exposed to the experimental variable in an experiment)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 6
  •  Population: an entire body of people to which the researcher would like to generalize research findings.  Samples: a segment of the population.  Number of individuals (cases) are called sample size.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 7
  •  Independent variable: a variable that brings a bout change in another variable. (i.e. the cause)  Dependent variable: is the outcome of the study that is changed by the independent variable  Intervening variable (Moderating variable): a variable that may come between the independent & dependent variable in an experiment.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 8
  • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 9
  •  Example: Randomized controlled trial (clinical trial)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 10
  •  Cross-section. (Collect data at a particular time)  often employ the survey methodology (Easterby- Smith et al. 2008; Robson 2002)  Longitudinal. (Collect data over time)  study change and development (e.g. incidence). Jan. 2012 Jun. 2012Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 11
  • (Research Methods)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 12
  •  Primary data: data collected specifically for the purpose of the researcher.  Secondary data: Data have already been collected for some purposes other that researcher’s purpose, includes:  Raw data,  Compiled data (published summaries)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 13
  •  Interview  Focus group  Questionnaire  OthersResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 14
  •  An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people (Kahn and Cannell 1957).  Types:  Structured interviews; ▪ Structured: the questions are the same for each participant.  Semi-structured interviews (Qualitative research interview)  Unstructured interview (in-depth interviews)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 15
  • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 16
  • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 17
  •  Focus groups may be called discussion groups or group interviews.  A number of people are asked to come to gether. (6-8 persons/ group, 3-4 groups).  The discussion is led by a moderator or facilitator who:  introduces the topic,  asks specific questions,  controls side discussions  Focus groups may be video or audio-recordedResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 18
  •  A set of questions which can be answered by research participants.  Tend to be used for descriptive or explanatory research  Some packages (e.g. Snap Surveys™, Sphinx Development™ and SurveyMonkey.com™) allow you both to design your questionnaire, collect, enter and analyze the data within the same software.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 19
  • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 20
  •  Open-ended:  Closed ended,  Combination of bothResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 21
  •  Open questions, used widely in in-depth and semi-structured interviews  Useful if you are unsure of the response, such as in exploratory research, when you require a detailed answer. 6. Please list up to three things you like about your study: 1……………………………………………………………… 2……………………………………………………………… 3. …………………………………………………………….Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 22
  •  Provide a number of alternative answers from which the respondent is instructed to choose.  Follow a set format  Used to generate statistics in quantitative research  Type of question is usually quicker and easier to answer, as they require minimal writingResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 23
  • 1. List questions offer the respondent a list of responses, any of which they can choose  The response categories you can use vary widely and include ‘yes/no’, ‘agree/disagree’ and ‘applies/does not apply’ along with ‘don’t know’ or ‘not sure’.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 24
  • 2. Category questions are designed so that each respondent’s answer can fit only one category.  Useful if you need to collect data about behavior or attributesResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 25
  • 3. A ranking question asks the respondent to place things in rank order. Please number each of the factors listed below in order of importance to you in your choice of selection. Number the most important 1, the next 2 and so on. If a factor has no importance at all, please leave blank Factor Importance A [ ] B [ ] C [ ]Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 26
  • 4. Rating questions are often used to collect opinion data.  Rating questions most frequently use the Likert- style rating scale. For the following statement please tick ✓ the box that matches your view most closely. Plagiarism is an intelligent theft Agree Don’t know Disagree   Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 27
  • 5. Quantity questions:  The response to a quantity question is a number, which gives the amount of a characteristic.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 28
  •  They will need to be coded prior to entry if planned to analyze the data.  For quantity questions, actual numbers can be used as codes. For other questions, you will need to design a coding scheme.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 29
  • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 4: Formulating the research design & Data collection methods 30