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    2 formulating & clarifying research topic2 2 formulating & clarifying research topic2 Presentation Transcript

    • Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine.
    •  Generate ideas that will help in the choice of a suitable research topic;  Identify the quality of a good research topic;  Turn research ideas into a research question, aims (s) & objectives.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 2
    •  Independent part of the research (Done by students only)  Choose something to maintain the interest.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 3
    • Research Research Research Research idea Question Aim (s) ObjectivesResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 4
    •  Interested to the researcher.  Capability to undertake the research. (Access to the data)  Feasible.  The topic can be linked to the theory.  Clearly defining & relating research questions and objectives.  Consider your career goals.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 5
    • RATIONAL THINKING CREATIVE THINKING  Examining your own  Keeping a notebook of strengths and interests ideas  Looking at past project  Exploring personal titles preferences using past  Discussion projects  Searching the literature  Relevance trees  Scanning the media.  BrainstormingResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 6
    •  Examining your own strengths and interests:  a topic in which you are likely to do well  have some academic knowledge  Think about your future.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 7
    •  Looking at past project titles  Thesis and dissertations.  How to read? Scan!  Noted down any title which grab your attention  Think of new ideas!Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 8
    •  Discussion:  Colleagues, friends and university tutors are all good sources of possible project ideas  “ideas can be obtained by talking to practitioners and professional groups” (Gill and Johnson 2002).  Record any idea during discussion.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 9
    •  Searching the literature:  Sharp et al. (2002) discuss types of literature that are of particular use for generating research ideas: ▪ articles in academic and professional journals; ▪ reports; ▪ books.  Of particular use are academic review articles.  Searching for publications is only possible when you have at least some idea of the area in which you wish to undertake your research.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 10
    •  Scanning the media.  Stories which occur everyday in the newspapers in both traditional print and online versions, may provide ideas which relate directly to the item.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 11
    •  Keeping a notebook of ideas  noting down any interesting research ideas as you think of them and, of equal importance.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 12
    •  Exploring personal preferences using past projects  Past project reports from your university  Raimond (1993) suggests that you: ▪ Select six projects that you like. For each of these six projects, note down your first thoughts in response to three questions: ▪ What appeals to you about the project? ▪ What is good about the project? ▪ Why is the project good? ▪ Select three projects that you do not like. For each of these three projects, note down your first thoughts in response to three: ▪ What do you dislike about the project? ▪ What is bad about the project? ▪ Why is the project bad?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 13
    •  Relevance trees:  use of relevance trees is similar to that of mind mapping (Buzan 2006).  Example: ▪ Community Medicine ▪ Research Methods  Study types;Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 14
    •  Brainstorming  a problem-solving technique on many business and management courses, can also be used to generate and refine research ideas.  It is best undertaken with a group of people.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 15
    •  Brainstorming  To brainstorm, Moody (1988) suggests that you: ▪ Define your problem ▪ Ask for suggestions ▪ Record all suggestions, observing the following rules: ▪ No suggestion should be criticized or evaluated in any way before all ideas have been considered ▪ All suggestions, however wild, should be recorded and considered ▪ As many suggestions as possible should be recorded ▪ Review all the suggestions and explore what is meant by each. ▪ Analyze the list of suggestions and decide which applied to you most as research ideas and why?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 16
    •  Capability: is it feasible?  Appropriateness: is it worthwhile?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 17
    •  Capability: is it feasible?  Is the topic something you are really interested in?  Do you have, or can you develop the necessary research skills?  Is it achievable within the available time?  Is it achievable within the financial resources?  Can you access to the data?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 18
    •  Appropriateness: is it worthwhile?  Is the topic meet the standards set by the institution? (HMU)  Is the research topic contain issues that have a clear link to theory?  Able to state your research question and objectives clearly?  Will the proposed research be able to provide a clear understanding of the topic?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 19
    •  “Role of exercise ECG test in coronary artery disease”.  “Role of exercise ECG test in determining the extent of coronary artery disease in comparison to coronary angiography”.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 20
    •  Writing research questions (RQ):  A research question: ▪ state the purpose of your research project ▪ guides you through the process of research.  Reflects the aim (objectives)/ or the purpose of the study.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 21
    • RESEARCH IDEA RESEARCH QUESTIONS  Health Education &  How does the use of Internet. health/ medical websites affect education of people?  How the informed consent  Ethics & Surgery is taken from preoperative women undergo Caesarian section?  Motivation & Use of drugs  What are the factors determine the use of drugs made by (X) company?Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 22
    •  Research aims;  Aim is to try to achieve something. (Oxford Dictionary)  Use your research question as a base from which you write a set of research aim.  Aims are more generally acceptable to the research community as evidence of the researcher’s purpose and direction.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 23
    •  Research objectives:  The aim is the overall driving force of the research and the objectives are the means by which you intend to achieve the aims.  Maylor and Blackmon (2005) recommend that personal objectives may be added to the list of research objectives. (E.g. Stat. software)  Objectives should be SMART: ▪ S (Specific) ▪ M (Measurable) ▪ A (Achievable) ▪ R (Realistic) ▪ T (Timely)Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 24
    • RESEARCH QUESTION RESEARCH AIM RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  How does the use  To determine the  To measure the effectiveness of the use proportion of doctors of health/ medical have internet access at of health/ medical websites affect home &/ or office. websites on doctors’ education of health education levels doctors? in--from the period between-- & --.  To measure the  How the informed  To describe the frequency of women consent is taken process of who give informed from preoperative preoperative informed consent . consent among  To know the women undergo demographic profile of women undergo CS in Caesarian section? women undergo CS. – from– to --.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 25
    •  The process of formulating and clarifying your research topic is the most important part of your research topic.  Generating and refining research ideas makes use of a variety of techniques  Clear research questions, based on the relevant literature, will act as a focus for the research that follows.Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 26
    •  Identify a research idea in your field of interest, turn it into a research question, a research aim (s) and objectives.  Write down in a an MS word in English language.  Send your assignment within 2 weeks, from (11/12/2012 -25/12/2012) to the following email address: sherzad.ali@med.hmu.edu.iqResearch Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 27
    • Research Methods-Sherzad Ali Ismael- MODULE 2: Formulating & clarifying research topic 28